1.1 Research background
对于人类来说，有两种形式的语言交流了口头和非口头语言。口头语言是指非口头语言的口语和书面语言形式的同时不涉及任何文字。语言都贡献了很多人类沟通。据伯德惠斯特尔（1970），口头语言非口头语言表达60％以上的信息在我们的日常沟通，而30-35％的信息传输。非口头语言的研究已经证明了它的重要性在人际交往，尤其是在跨文化的互动和具体的论述。沉默，作为一个独特的非语言的沟通方式，有很长一段时间抓住人们的注意力和灵感在中文和英文两种语言的关注。中国人民以及其他国家，开发了一些经常使用的成语和谚语来表示的重要性和作用的沉默。中文和英文的语言共享一个类似的谚语：“沉默是金”。在英语中，人们强调沉默的价值的谚语，如“没有智慧就像是沉默。”和“沉默也很少伤害。”For human beings, there are two forms of languages available to communicatethrough ―verbal and non-verbal languages. The verbal language refers to the spoken andwritten forms of languages while non-verbal language does not involve any word. Bothof the languages contribute a lot to human communication. According to Birdwhistell(1970), verbal language transmits 30-35% information in our daily communication whilenon-verbal language conveys over 60% information. Researches on the non-verballanguage have proved its importance in human communication, especially ininter-cultural interaction and specific discourses.Silence, as a unique way of non-verbal communication, has for a long time caughtpeople's attention and inspired concerns in both Chinese and English languages. Chinesepeople, as well as other nations, have developed some quite frequently used idioms andproverbs to indicate the importance and functions of silence. Chinese and Englishlanguages share a similar proverb: "Silence is golden." In English language, peopleemphasize the value of silence by using the proverbs like "No wisdom is like silence."and "Silence does seldom harm." 中国人持有的信念，“你越说，你犯的错误越多”，“舌头刎”，在日常的谈话，沉默是值得重视和关注，就像语音。由于沃斯基指出，在1993年，在通信沉默的研究应该被视为同样有效和互补讲话。作为高盛Eister节目的统计，约5％-65％的通话时间（平均高达40％-50％）是被占领的沉默（高盛Eister的，1968年）。沉默最初的语言框架内讨论，在1959年时，霍尔的无声的语言发表。在这本书中，霍尔指出，沉默是一个非言语的线索提供给定组的文化信念和行为。从那时起，一直沉默的研究主要是从相互关联的角度，心理学，语用学，社会文化等。Chinese people hold the belief that "The more youspeak, the more mistakes you make.", and "The tongue cut the throat,"In daily conversations, silence deserves attention and concern just as speech does.As Jaworski points out in 1993 that in the research of communication silence should betreated as equally valid and complementary as speech. As the statistics of Goldman-Eistershow, about 5%-65% of conversation time (averagely as much as 40%-50%) is occupiedby silence (Goldman-Eister, 1968). Silence was initially discussed within the linguisticframework in 1959 when Hall's The Silent Language was published. In the book, Hallpoints out that silence is a provision of non-verbal clues to the cultural beliefs andbehaviors of a given group. Since then, silence has been studied mainly from interrelatedperspectives of psychology, pragmatics, socio-culture and so on.
Silence exists not only in social communication, but also in EFL classroom.According to Harmer, a successful foreign language classroom is based on elements ofengaging, studying and activating, which means classroom teaching can't go withouteffective interaction between the teacher and students, and among students in activitieslike group discussion, debates and the basic pattern of asking and answering questions.However, in English classroom of Chinese higher vocational colleges, many studentsoften respond to teachers' initiations or questions with silence so as to avoid direct communication and participation.Silence can be interpreted to be either positive or negative. If something positiveunderlies in silence, it is positive. For example, silence may be a symbol of beingrespectful, or rapport between close friends who don't need to make utterances beforethey understand each other perfectly. Or silence can be negative when it hides negativeintentions like anger, disdain and so on. Thus student's silence in classroom should beanalyzed carefully in that il conveys multiple meanings.
1.2 Research purpose
The turn-silence in English classroom of higher vocational colleges is the focus ofthis thesis. With the guidance of Sack's turn-taking theory, the phenomenon and causes ofstudent's turn-silence is scheduled to be discussed. The author will make some furthersuggestions in hope of being references for teachers in practical teaching procedure.
1.3 Thesis layout
The thesis covers five sections.Section one of the thesis is an overview of the research background, followed by themajor objective and the significance of the research. The research background covers theimportance, definition and existence of students' silence in EFL classroom. The majorobjective and the significance of the research combine the current situation of highervocational college English classroom and the reformation in English education in recentyears.Section two comes up with a review on relevant literature. As turn-silence is anessential concept in conversation analysis, an introduction to conversation analysiscovers the first part of the review. The thesis then deals with turn-taking system and itsrule. Adjacency pair and turn-silence are the important concepts of the thesis and deservemuch discussion.Section three presents the research design of the study, including research purposes,participants and instruments. With 84 students of Accounting and Hotel Managementmajors participating, the research employs 3 instruments including classroom observation,tape-recording and questionnaires.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Conversation analysis
In social communications, individuals are involved in interaction with each other bytalking. In recent decades, conversation has drawn wide attention from researchers inphilosophy, linguistics and other fields.Developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s by the sociologist Harvey Sacks andhis associates Emanuel Schegloff and Gail Jefferson, conversation analysis (CA) is anapproach to the study of social interactions in situations of everyday life, embracing bothverbal and non-verbal conducts. People exchange information and express ideas throughconversations, which is actually a social use of language among people. CA aims atrevealing the organizational characteristics of naturally occurring talk by a review ontape-recordings and transcriptions which are based on these recordings. Datatranscriptions can present the recorded materials in written form, and provide theresearcher with details of interactions that may miss average listeners.The normal pattern of conversations is people talking to each other about a certaintopic.
Thus conversation usually consists of one speaker and an addressee, andsometimes one speaker and more than one addressee. For example, conversation occursbetween a teacher and students, a lecturer and audience, etc. The two parties (the speakerand the addressee or addressees) are not encouraged to speak at the same time. Instead,they speak in turn. One turn ends and the next turn begins. In the process of releasing andreceiving turns, a conversation goes on. Thus a turn is the fundamental element of talk,and turn-taking is the fundamental form of organization of conversation. The next partwill be an intensive introduction of turn-taking system.
3. Research Design........... 26-32
3.1 Objectives.......... 26-28
3.2 Participants.......... 28
3.3 Instruments ..........28-30
3.3.1 Observation ..........29
3.3.2 Tape recording.......... 29
3.3.3 Questionnaires ..........29-30
3.4 Data collection and analysis procedures.......... 30-32
4. Results and Discussions.......... 32-51
4.1 Students' turn-silence in English classroom..........32-33
4.2 Major causes of students' turn-silence.......... 33-44
4.2.1 Teachers' factors ..........34-40
4.2.2 Students' factors..........40-42
4.2.3 Socio-cultural factors..........42-44
4.3 Implications of the study.......... 44-51
4.3.1 Improving the art of questioning..........44-45
4.3.2 Increasing the amount of personal..........45
4.3.3 Giving positive feedback to students.......... 45-46
5. Conclusion.......... 51-53
5.1 Summary of major findings ..........51-52
5.2 Limitations and future research plan.......... 52-53
As is stated in the thesis, effective interaction between the teachers and students arethe key to successful EFL class. The researcher first confirms that turn-silence is acommon phenomenon in English classroom by observing on the ground and recordingthe classes. Students' turn-silence has long been regarded as a negative element whichconstantly interrupts teachers' teaching arrangement and holds back fluent teachingprocess. However, through classroom observation and analysis of the questionnaires, theauthor then finds turn-silence implies defects in teaching design and negative psychologyof students. The thesis thus presents the meanings of students' turn-silence in Englishclassroom and its complex causes attributed to both teachers and students, andsocio-cultural factors, such as the depressive classroom environment, low Englishproficiency of higher vocational college students and face concept and so on, then makessome suggestions mainly for teachers to improve their teaching methods and attitudes.
As the counter-measures, six suggestions are made in the thesis: improving the artof questioning; increasing the amounts of personal solicitation; giving positive feedbackto students; creating a more relaxing learning atmosphere; adopting the cooperativelearning method and building students' correct attitudes towards making mistakes. Firstof all, teachers may choose different ways of questioning so that students may find thechance to break their silence and practice their expression. When questions are raised,personal solicitation will urge the students to think actively and quickly because no onewould like to lose face by showing his ignorance. When the students take the turns,teachers should offer proper feedback. It does not necessarily have to be praise butshould protect students' confidence as well as help them know what mistakes should beavoided. A relaxing learning atmosphere helps ease students' anxiety when they areconfronted with chances of losing face. If they feel at ease, mistakes no longer seem thatterrible. Surrounded by friendly classmates and teachers, they may not be so anxious. Inorder to create a relaxing classroom atmosphere, teachers should be more approachableand considerate. Besides, the adoption of some interesting teaching methods can behelpful. Last but not the least, students have to be aware that mistakes are unavoidable.Once they no longer feel so afraid of making mistakes, they will be courageous enoughto break the ice. Thus the phenomenon of students' turn-silence in English classroom canbe reduced and the classroom interaction can be fluent and effective.
1Arnold, J. & H. D. Brown. Introduction: Affect www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ in language learning [M].Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. 1999.
2Brock, C. The Effects of Referential Questions on ESL Classroom Interaction [J].TESOLQuarterly, 1986, Vol. 20:47-59.
3Bruneau, T. J. Communicative silences: forms and functions [J] Journal ofcommunication. 1973 (23).C
4oulthard, ML & J. M. Sinclaire. Towards an analysis of discourse: The English used byteachers and pupils [M].Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1975.
5Edmondson, W. Spoken discourse: A model for analysis [M]. London: Longman. 1981.
6Ferris, D. & Tagg, T. Academic Listening/speaking Tasks for ESL students: Problems,Suggestions, and Implications [J]. TESOL Quarterly, 1996, Vol.30.
7Flowerdew. J. & L. Miller. On the Notion of Culture in Second Language Lectures[J].TESOL Quarterly, 1995. Vol.29: 345.
8Frederickson, E. Muted colors: Gender and classroom silence [J]. Language arts, 2000.Vol.77: 301-308.
9Goldman-Eisler, F. Psycholinguistics: Experiments in spontaneous speech [M].London,New York: Academic Press. 1968
10Hakansson, G & I. Lindberg. What's the question? Investigating second languageclassrooms [A]. In G. Kasper (ed.), 1988.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Leading to the Present Study
当然，基于这样的认识，应该是日常沟通清晰，精确，尽可能明确的。鹧鸪和舒德森认为相反，其他学者看到了硬币的另一面。例如，陈科坪指出，模糊语言通常发生在消息中（伍铁平91 qtd.）。也就是说，模糊语言的功能之一。其实，语用学的研究也揭示在这个问题上，通过从务实的角度探讨缓和。缓和，麻雀虽小，自然语言的设备，在日常沟通中出现非常频繁和广泛。当我们与他人沟通，我们都知道，不同的社会背景和缓和往往根据具体情况量身定做。作为一个非常特殊的语言现象，缓和举行务实的调查作为一个非常有趣的话题。正如格赖斯提出，当我们与他人沟通，我们通常遵守合作原则，辖四个附属格言：质量格言，箴言，数量关系的格言和礼仪格言（何自然49-51 qtd.）。Naturally, based on thisunderstanding, daily communication should be as clear, precise and unambiguous as possible.Contrary to what Partridge and Schudson believed, other scholars saw the other side of thecoin. For instance, Chen Keping pointed out that vague language commonly occurred inmessages (qtd. in 伍铁平 91). That is to say, vagueness is one of the features of language.Actually, researches on pragmatics also have shed light on this issue via probing intomitigators from a pragmatic perspective.Mitigators, as small but natural linguistic devices, occur very frequently and widely in dailycommunication. When we communicate with others, we are aware of different social contextand then mitigators are often tailored according to specific situations. As a very speciallanguage phenomenon, mitigator is held as a very interesting topic for pragmaticinvestigation. Just as Grice proposed that when we communicate with others, we usuallycomply with Cooperative Principle which governs four subsidiary maxims: Quantity maxim,Quality maxim, Relation maxim and Manner maxim (qtd. in 何自然 49-51). 然而，使用在同一时间的缓和违反这四个准则。对于违反数量格言，话语缓和提供了冗余信息。在质量格言，缓和修改信息通常表示说话人的主观因素或失实扬声器的言外点。缓和关系格言通过提供语义无关的信息互动沟通的命题进展，违反。关于礼仪格言，话语与缓和冗长。这样的违反格赖斯格言的贡献缓和峨山耐人寻味的语用学的研究课题，重大的学术价值。However, theuse of mitigators breaches these four maxims at the same time. For the violation of Quantitymaxim, utterance with mitigators provides redundant information. In terms of Quality maxim, the information modified by mitigators usually represents the speaker’s epistemic uncertaintyor untrue of the speaker’s illocutionary point. Mitigators breach Relation maxim by providingsemantically irrelevant information to the propositional progression in the interactionalcommunication. Concerning Manner maxim, utterance with mitigators is verbose. Suchviolations of the Gricean maxims contribute to the significant academic value of mitigators asan intriguing research topic in pragmatics.
In this study, these maxims-breaching mitigators will be discussed in detail with regard tohow they are acquired by Chinese EFL learners. According to Caffi, if saying is doing it mustbe in an effective way (881). In conversations, this is realized by our mitigating modificationof language according to different situations in order to keep the communication harmoniousand smooth. They seem to be redundant at first sight. However, they are indispensable innature. As Saville-Troike claimed, the ability to successfully comprehend and producemitigated face-threatening speech acts in a given language is considered a major componentof communicative competence (363).Mitigator has been taken as a focal point of research in pragmatics since 1980. The notion ofmitigator proposed by Fraser is a cover-term for a set of strategies that speakers use toattenuate the face-threatening force of their speech acts. It is assumed that vulnerability,which may be existential and /or associated with a certain activity, is what causes thephenomenon of mitigation (Martinovski 2066). In the process of mitigation, some linguisticdevices which can be defined as mitigators are employed to achieve the mitigating effect. Previous studies on mitigators have explored the concept of mitigation theoretically, andmany of studies have focused on grammatical structures or lexical items in utterances, as wellas their effects on the interaction and interlocutors. In fact, there are an increasing number ofstudies which indentify the linguistic devices used as mitigators, such as hedges, bushes,shields, approximators etc. Although mitigator is a kind of micro-linguistic structure, thecommunicative effect produced by them can not be ignored. According to Caffi, “mitigationrooted in metapragmatic awareness, by which people try to make their saying-doing moreeffective.” (881)
1.2 Objectives of the Present Study
Micro-linguistic structure like mitigators has always been the focus of pragmatics. Thereview of the latest two international pragmatics conferences also shows that the researchfocuses on micro-language structure including mitigators. In the 10thInternational PragmaticsConference (8-13 July, 2007, Goteborg University Sweden), pragmatic markers and discoursemarkers like pragmatic particles and small words are discussed heatedly with rewardingfindings. The 11thInternational Pragmatic Conference (12-17 July, 2009, MelbourneUniversity, Australia) focuses on diversity in cultural, context and linguistic structure wheremicro-linguistic structure has been explored in terms of emergent discourse, conversational grammar, lexical and structural indication of illocutionary force, as well as the structuralchange in the context of cross-cultural interaction. All these indicate that the research onmitigator as a micro-linguistic device is very emergent, especially to conduct the researchconcerning the language learners’ pragmatic competence in a certain situation from theperspective of pragmatics (Kasper and Rose 58).
Chapter 2 Theoretical Background
This chapter is organized into three sections. In the first section, some terms will be definedand explained as terminological issues. In the next section, pragmatic studies of mitigator willbe briefly reviewed. In the third section, a very brief summary will be made to point out thedirection the present study takes in terms of the limitations and achievements of the previousstudies on mitigators.
2.1 Terminological Issues
In this section, some key terms closely related to the present study will be defined andexplained, such as mitigation and mitigators.
The notion of mitigation was first introduced into pragmatics by Fraser in 1980.Etymologically, the term “mitigation” refers back to Latin where “mitigare” means “to makemild or gentle” (Martinovski 2066). Mitigation has been generally described as the linguisticcommunicative strategy of softening an utterance, reducing the impact of an utterance, orlimiting the face loss associated with a message (Czerwionka 2). Danet described mitigationas the use of “rhetorical devices” whose main function is to soften the impact of someunpleasant aspect of an utterance on the speaker or the hearer” (525). In the broad sense, it isa synonym of weakening, downgrading, downtoning; in the narrow sense, it is linked toBrown and Levinson’s notion of “face-threatening act” (Caffi 884). Although mitigation has captured the attention of researchers from various fields ever since the early 1970, itsdefinition is an issue on which no agreement has been reached. There are severalinterpretations about mitigation. Fraser used the term mitigation to refer to the reduction of anunwelcome effect of the speaker’s utterance on the hearer.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology.......... 26-35
3.1 Research Questions.......... 26-27
3.2 Research Subjects.......... 27-28
3.3 Research Instruments.......... 28-32
3.4 Data Collection Procedures..........32-33
3.5 Data Analysis Procedures..........33-35
Chapter 4 Research Findings and Discussion ..........35-74
4.1 Mitigators Used by Chinese EFL Learners.......... 35-58
4.1.1 Locutionary Mitigators ..........35-44
4.1.2 Illocutionary Mitigators ..........44-56
4.1.3 Perlocutionary Mitigators ..........56-57
4.1.4 Testing for Significant Difference..........57-58
4.2 Co-occurrence of Mitigators and Face Threatening..........58-69
4.2.1 EFL Learners’ Use of Mitigators ..........59-62
4.2.2 EFL Learners’ Use of Mitigators..........62-63
4.2.3 EFL Learners’ Use of Mitigators..........63-65
4.2.4EFL Learners’ Use of Mitigators.......... 65-67
4.2.5 Testing of Significant Difference ..........67-69
4.3 Comparison of Mitigators in Request Used.......... 69-74
The present study is an empirical research on the acquisition of mitigators by Chinese EFLlearners. Through detailed investigation and analysis, the major findings of the present studyare as follows:With regard to the first research question, it has been found that the most frequently usedmitigators by Chinese EFL learners is the locutionary mitigators, followed by illocutionaryand perlocutionary mitigators. That is to say, the general picture of macro pragmatic patternof mitigators is that the locutioanry mitigators are in the dominant position and illocutionaryand perlocutionary mitigators as auxiliary. The result of the significant difference test leads tothe conclusion that it is significantly different between different types of mitigators.In terms of the matching picture of co-occurrence between mitigators and FTAs, it has beenfound that different mitigating choice relates to different types of FTAs. When performingassertives, Chinese EFL learners prefer using locutionary mitigators, yet the others are in thesecond consideration. However, mitigators enjoyed the least use are in expressives. In otherwords, the choice of mitigators depends on different pragmatic situations and theface-threatening degree.
Last but not least, compared with native speaker, it has been found the imbalanced use ofmitigators in terms of requesting situation. Through the comparison, we could draw the conclusion that the acquisition of mitigators by Chinese EFL learners is influenced byChinese way of thinking, and this is manifested by either the overuse or the underuse ofmitigators by Chinese EFL learners. .Although the current study took a lot of time and energy for the aim of systemicity, there arestill some limitations worth mentioning. In terms of implementation of the experiment, onelimitation that should be improved is the limited number of the research subjects. Due to thelack of time and manpower, the participants involved in this research cover only a small partof the second language learner in China. Concerning universality, more EFL Learners shouldbe examined to test the research findings of this study. The next limitation lies in the types ofspeech acts involved. Due to the limited length of the thesis, it is impossible to present allkinds of speech acts. The choice of different types of speech acts depends on the researchpurpose, thus some of the others may be left out to meet research goals. Given the limitationsof the current study, it is advisable for further studies to overcome these limitations for aclearer picture of mitigators used by Chinese EFL learners.
1Ariel, Mira. “Referring and Accessibility.” Journal www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ of Linguistics 24 (1988): 65-87.
2Bach, K., and Harnish R.M. Linguistic communication and Speech Acts. Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 1979
3Barron, A. Acquisition in Interlanguage Pragmatics: Learning How to Do Things with Wordsin a Study Abroad Context. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 2003.
4Bella, Spyridoula. “Mitigation and Politeness in Greed Invitation Refusals: Effects of Lengthof Residence in the Target Community and Intensity of Interaction on Non-NativeSpeakers’ Performance.” Journal of Pragmatics 43 (2011): 1718-40.
5Beebe, L. M., and M. C. Cummings. “Natural Speech Data versus Written QuestionnaireData: How Data Collection Method Affects Speech Acts Performance.” Speech ActsAcross Culture. Eds. Gass, S. M., and J. Neu. Berlin: Mouto de Gruyter, 1996.
6Blum-Kulka, S., and J. House. “Cross-cultural and Situational Variations in RequestingBehavior.” Blum-Kulka et al. 1989. 123-54.---.
7Cross-cultural Pragmatics: Requests and Apologies. Norwood, New Jersey: Ablex,1989.
8Brown, P. and S. Levinson. “Universals in Language Usage: Politeness Phenomena.”Questions and Politeness: Strategies in Social Interaction. Ed. Goody, E. N. CUP:Cambridge, 1978.
9Caffi, Claudia. “On Mitigation.” Journal of Pragmatics 31 (1999): 881-909.
10Crystal, D. A Dictionary of Linguistics and phonetics. 5thed. Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.
1.1 Research Background
在任何教学和学习过程中，材料被视为一种重要的资源，以满足已根据学习者的需要（干了Cunnings，2002：7）设置的目标和宗旨。努南（1991：208）提出了“材料，无论是商业开发或教师制作课程的一个重要元素，它往往是最有形可见的方面。”材料评估的目的是试图测量材料的价值。材料评估的一个重要方面是，以测试材料的有效性，即会见格林评估的材料是否已经被行政机关决定，以及看材料是否可以帮助学习者实现自己的学习目标，学习目标可以实现。这种类型的评估可以帮助教师识别材料之秩序，教师可以充分利用强大的点，加强薄弱环节，通过适应特定的长处和短处。在其他方面，它也是必要，教师评估材料，选择最合适的材料，以满足其特定的教学环境。在这种情况下，“评估是一种判断健身的东西，无论任何特定目的”（哈钦森水域，2002）。此外，“即使老师不会评估采用的材料，他们很可能会对评估作为一个有用的过程中自己的权利，给材料的组织原则和洞察，帮助他们保持在该领域的发展“（麦克多诺和肖，2002）。In any teaching and learning process, materials are regarded as an importantresource to fulfill objectives and aims which have been set according to learner need(Cunningswoth, 2002: 7). Nunan (1991: 208) presents “Materials, whethercommercially developed or teacher-produced, are an important element within thecurriculum, and are often the most tangible and visible aspect of it.”The aim of material evaluation refers to the attempts to measure materials’ value.One important aspect of material evaluation is to test effectiveness of material, i.e. tosee whether the material evaluated can achieve the learning objectives that havealready been determined by administrative authority as well as to see whether thematerial can help learners to achieve their own learning objectives. The evaluation ofthis type can help teachers to identify particular strengths and weaknesses of materialsin order that the teachers can make full use of strong points and strengthen weakerareas through adaption. In other aspects, it is also necessary for teachers to evaluatematerials for choosing most appropriate materials to meet their specific teachingcontexts. In that case, “evaluation is a matter of judging the fitness of something for aparticular purpose” (Hutchinson & Waters, 2002). In addition, “even though teacherswill not evaluate to adopt materials, they may well be interested in evaluation as auseful process in its own right, giving insight into the organizational principles of thematerials and helping them to keep up with developments in the field”(McDonough &Shaw, 2002).
随着教育事业的发展，英语材料的作用是传统不同其外。如今，越来越多的人认为现代英语学习者的交际反应的刺激和触发他们的学习材料。这种材料集中于学习的过程，而不是结果。与此同时，教师和学生的角色也发生了很大变化。他们是真正的沟通和合作伙伴共享者的目标语言。角色的这种变化是材料中的任务设计的变化的结果。已经有现代材料的任务设计的转变，从单纯的“语言练习”，“交际任务”。在学习的过程中，任务设计，现代外语教学强调语言使用不使用量，示范而不是指令，活动不行使的语法或词汇，互动功课。在很大程度上，英语材料的选择和评价的质量依赖于材料中包含的任务。With the development of education, the role of EFL materials is different fromthe traditional one. Nowadays, more and more people regard modern EFL materials asa stimulus for learners’ communicative reaction and a trigger for their learning. Thiskind of materials focuses on the learning process instead of the result. At the sametime, the roles of teachers and learners have also changed a lot. They are the partnersin real communication and the sharers of the target language. This change of roles isthe result of the change of task design in the materials. There has been a shift in thetask design of modern materials from the mere “language exercise” to the“communicative task”. In the learning process, the task design of modern FLT placesemphasis on the language use not usage, on demonstration not instruction, on activitynot exercise of grammar or vocabulary, and on interaction not homework. To a large extent, the selection and evaluation of EFL materials depend on the quality of taskscontained in the materials.
1.2 Research Significance
On June 18th, 1999, Ministry of Educational of the People’s Republic of Chinamade a decision to develop higher vocational education vigorously and marked it asone of the focal points of Chinese educational reformation. Following this, theCurriculum Requirements of Higher Vocational College English was issued byEducational Ministry in the year of 2000, in which learners’ real language ability wasthe aim and the practicability and pertinence of the teaching content were highlighted.A variety of course books are compiled and published in the market which are claimedto be in the line with Requirements. New Practical English published by Highereducation Press is one set of the course books used by a lot of higher vocationalcolleges. Since the course books are widely used, are the course books qualified? Canthe course books meet the learning needs of learners? After collecting and reading lotsof published research theses and report on the materials of NPE, the author finds thatonly several articles and theses refers to NEP research. These researches can bedivided into 3 categories: 1.focusing on the features and shortcomings of NPE (forexample, Zhang Yugang and Jia Yongjuan (张玉刚, 2011), analyzed the features ofNPE and gave suggestions on how to revise; Liu Min (刘敏, 2010)has written thefeatures and appliance of NPE; Xiang Qianjin ( 向前进 , 2005) has written thecompiling features and appliance of NPE); 2.focusing on teaching methods (forexample, Zang Qingbing (臧庆斌, 2009) has written strategies on implementation ofNPE; Liu Hui (刘慧, 2009) has written curriculum design and teaching methods onNPE); 3.focusing on textbooks evaluation(for example, Tian Xiaoyan (田晓艳, 2011),evaluated New Practical English 1 from the perspective of the compiler; YangQiaofeng (杨巧凤, 2010) evaluated New Practical English 1, 2 from the perspectiveof the learners; Wu Botao (吴博涛, 2010) has written a thesis on evaluation principlethrough analysis of NPE). However, no one has taken task design as the exclusiveresearch concern. In other words, no scientific research and analysis have been doneto give us an overall picture of task design of New Practical English, let alone thewriting task design in NPE.
Chapter2 Literature Review
This part firstly introduces “task” in the pedagogical context, including thedefinition of task，task researches and the task-based language teaching and learning.Secondly, the developments of task evaluation studies in ELT materials both abroadand home are discussed. Thirdly, this part also shows the picture of theoreticalframework of this thesis
2.1 Task in the Pedagogical Context
2.1.1 Task Defined in the Pedagogical Context
There are a variety of definitions of “task”. “These definitions range from simplegenerality to complex specificity, from everyday tasks performed in the ‘real world’ topedagogical tasks performed in the L2 classroom”(刘素君, 2007). For example, arather non-technical, non-linguistic definition was given by Long (1985), which isinvolved in tasks people perform in the real world:A task is a piece of word undertaken for oneself or for others, freely or for somereward. Thus, examples of tasks include dressing a child, painting a fence, filling outa form,…(Long, 1985)Different from the definition given by Long (1985), the Longman Dictionary ofApplied Linguistics defines task from the perspective of the language-teachingcontext as follows:…an activity or action that is conducted as the result of processing orunderstanding language (i.e. as a response) Tasks may or may not relate to theproduction of language. Richard, Platt, & Weber (1986) state that a teacher is requiredby a task to specify what will be regarded as successful completion of the task. It issaid that the use of a variety of different kinds of tasks in language teaching can makelanguage teaching more communicative…since a purpose is provided for its own sake.According to this definition, we can see “task” is defined by the authors from apedagogical perspective. More recently, a definition of task is given by Swain as “anactivity that learners are required to use language, with emphasis on meaning, toachieve an objective” (Swain, 2001, cited in Skehan, 2003: 3).
Chapter3 Research Methodology........... 26-33
3.1 Research Questions 26
3.2 Materials under Evaluation and Defining Evaluating Criterion ........... 26-28
3.2.1 Materials under Evaluation........... 26-27
3.2.2 Defining Evaluating Criterion........... 27-28
3.3 Research Procedure........... 28-29
3.4 Research Instruments........... 29-31
3.4.1 Questionnaires........... 29-30
3.4.2 Interviews ........... 30-31
3.5 Data Collection and Data Analysis........... 31-33
3.5.1 Subjects ........... 31
3.5.2 Data Collection ........... 31-32
3.5.3 Data Analysis........... 32-33
Chapter4 Results and Discussion........... 33-57
4.1 Learning Needs Analysis of NPE Learners........... 33-35
4.2 Task Evaluation of NPE's Writing Tasks........... 35-51
4.3 Major Strengths and Problems of NPE's Writing ........... 51-57
4.3.1 Major Strengths of NPE's Writing Task Design........... 51-53
4.3.2 Major Problems of NPE's Writing Task Design........... 53-55
4.3.3 Possible Reasons for the Problems........... 55-57
Upon the task evaluation theory proposed by David Nunan, with the results oflearning needs analysis, evaluated the writing task design in NPE（Books 1 and 2）,which was used currently by many domestic higher vocational colleges for theirlearners. The findings and results of this study are concluded in two aspects:One aspect is about learning needs analysis which has been done in this study.Through the analysis of learning needs, this study summarized that most learners inhigher vocational colleges tended to have a low level of entrance English. Theirlearning needs of writing were to learn basic knowledge of writing language, thenthey could improve their comprehensive English skills and learn the mode andcharacteristics of applied writing which they could use in real life and in future work.The other aspect is about the writing task evaluation in NPE. By matchinglearners’ learning needs with the writing task design in NPE, this study concluded thatthe writing task design in NPE could basically meet the learning needs of learners inhigh vocational colleges. The writing task design showed its strengths in obviousgoals of the writing tasks with considering both real-world rationale and pedagogicrationale and rich, various and authentic input, the “task continuity” principles in aunit, and development of integrated skills. The writing task evaluation resultsindicated that teachers and learners were basically satisfied with the writing taskdesign in NPE despite of its drawbacks in some aspects.
There were also shortcomings existed in the writing task design in NPE. Firstly,the most frequently used classroom procedure for dealing writing tasks is IRF (i.e.teacher initiates, student responds and teacher gives feedback) pattern, whichindicates little potential for real classroom communication, self-interpretation,self-expression and personal creativity. In most cases, learners are doing the tasks inisolation without the real communicative context and their own experiences andfeelings. Thus learners fail to have a sense of improvement or achievement afterfinishing the tasks. Secondly, because of learners’ poor English foundations, some tasks seemed to far exceed the present level of learners’ linguistic knowledge andlearners would lose interest in it. On the other hand, to some degree, the writing taskdesign in NPE presents much more exercises in the section of “trying your hand”,especially in the part of general writing. We know taking too much time on any taskcan make learners bored and disgusted. Thirdly, there is no assessment and evaluationin some tasks and the tasks have not built into it some means whereby learners mightjudge how well they had performed.Upon the findings revealed by this study, this following part puts forward theimplications and suggestions.
 Allwright, D. L. 1981. What do we want www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ teaching materitals for[J]. ELT Journal(10): 5-18.
 Breen, M. 1987. Learner Contributions to Task Design[A]. In Candlin Christopher,& D. Murphy (ed.), Language Learning Tasks[C]. Englewood Cliffs NJ: PrenticeHall. 23-46.
 Brown, J. D. 2001. The Elements of Language Curriculum-A Systematic Approachto Program development [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language and Research Press.
 Crookes Graham, & Susan M. Gass. 1993. Tasks in a Pedagogical context:Integrating theory and practice[M]. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
 Cunningsworth, A. 2002. Choosing Your Course Book[M]. Shanghai: ShanghaiForeign Language Education Press.
 Dong, Hongxue. 2004. Evaluating a business coursebook——new internationalbusiness English[J]. Chinese Journal of Applied Linguistics (6): 92-95.
 Dudley-Evans, Tony, & St John, M. J. 1998. Developments in English for SpecificPurposes: A multi-disciplinary approach[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge UniversityPress.
 Ellis, R. 1998. The Evaluation of communicative task[A]. In Tomlinson Brain(ed.), Materials Development in Language Teaching[C]. Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press. 217-238.
 Hutchinson, T., & Waters, A. 2002. English for Specific Purposes: Alearning-centered approach[M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign LanguageEducation Press.
 Littlejohn, A. 1998. The analysis of language teaching materials: inside theTrojan Horse[A]. In B. Tomlinson (ed.), Materials Development in LanguageTeaching[C]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 190-216.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Current Situation of College English Teaching
很长一段时间，一直被批评为大学英语教学效率低（戴炜栋，2001年蔡其刚，2005）。虽然许多因素可以导致教学效果不佳，英语教师有一个不可否认的部分（张毅刚丁方，1996）。许多教师往往原因归结给自己的学生，他们缺乏热情，但他们不看自己的问题。事实上，现在许多大学英语教师的内容与他们沉闷的教学方法对学习结果的结果相对较低的压力。这大大废墟英语学生的学习兴趣。许多学生喜欢做他们的自我，而不是听老师练习。大学英语教师要想方设法赢得学生回到自己的类。此外，由于高校扩招，出现严重短缺的英语教师（蔡继刚，2005）。许多刚毕业的英语专业的学生被招募教师短缺的危机处理的问题。当这些年轻的教师刚开始他们的工作，他们也很难becalled称职的教师，更遑论有研究能力。对这些年轻教师在其工作的最初几年最重要的事情是生存的教学工作。For a long time college English teaching has been criticized for its low efficiency(Dai Weidong，2001; Cai Jigang, 2005). Although poor effects of teaching can beresulted from many factors, English teachers have an undeniable part in it (ZhangYigang & Ding Fang, 1996). Many teachers tend to attribute the reason to theirstudents for their lack of enthusiasm, but they do not look for problems in themselves.In fact, many college English teachers now are content with their dull ways of teachingas the result of the comparatively low pressure on learning results. This greatly ruinsstudents’ interests in English. Many students prefer to do exercises by themselvesrather than listen to teachers. College English teachers should find ways to winstudents back to their classes.Moreover, because of the enlarged enrollment in colleges and universities, thereappears serious shortage of English teachers (Cai Jigang, 2005). Many newlygraduated English major students are recruited to deal with the problem of teachershortage crisis. When these young teachers just begin their work, they can hardly becalled competent teachers, let alone having research abilities. The most important thingfor these young teachers in the first few years of their work is to survive the teachingjob.
1.2 New Demands and Challenges on College English Teachers
The current situation of college English teaching makes it necessary for collegeEnglish teachers to develop. High-quality teacher development is the foundation toachieve educational excellence (Xia Jimei, 2000). Traditional role of teachers as amere knowledge transmitter cannot satisfy the needs of society any more. In order tomeet the ever-changing needs of the education, college English teachers should set upa belief of lifelong leaning to realize their self-development.While how can teachers realize their self-development? The traditional teachereducation is supposed to be an ineffective way to promote teachers’ development. Inthe top-down teacher education, the teachers cannot give play to their decisive roles intheir self-development. In fact, teachers’ professional development is a very personalthing, and teachers’ internal self-developing awareness plays the most important partin it. Teachers’ self-initiated researches can improve teachers’ development effectively. The concept of “teacher-as-researcher” demands the teachers take a reflective viewtowards their everyday teaching to lead to positive changes to their classrooms andmeanwhile to develop themselves in the research process.Accordingly， action research, which can bridge the gap between theory andpractice, is supposed to be the best choice for teachers to do research in theirclassroom. An important principle of action research is to be educational research inthe sense of self-development. It is through engaging into researchers’ own practicethat they are able to create a living form of educational theory. When the researchersanswer questions like “How do I improve what I am doing?”, they are makingprogress(McNiff et al, 2002). Just as Brydon-Miller (2003:11) says, “Action researchis work in progress”.
1.3 Significance of the Study
In the former action researches, teachers usually focus on the class and the students;Teachers’ development is rarely observed. In this study, the researcher, as a collegeEnglish teacher, focuses on self and observes her own professional development. Shecompacts dual roles into self: being researching and being researched. Self-awarenessand self observation are the base for professional development in all fields (Bailey etal, 2001: 22, quoted in Yang Huiqin, 2005)Presumably, the present study will provide supporting findings that the teacher-researcher can develop professionally through action research. More college Englishteachers are expected to adopt action research as a way for professional development.Only when teachers themselves take a research attitude towards teaching and carry outresearches in their classroom, can their development be realized.
Chapter 2 Literature Reviews and TheoreticFramework
2.1 Overview of Action Research
Action Research has existed for more than 60 years. Researchers have differentdefinitions of it. The most frequently mentioned are as follows:Action research, as defined by Peter Reason and Hilary Bradbury, is:[It is ]a participatory, democratic process concerned with developing practicalknowing in the pursuit of worthwhile human purposes, grounded in a participatoryworldview which we believe is emerging at this historical moment. It seeks to bringtogether action and reflection, theory and practice, in participation with others, in thepursuit of practical solutions to issues of pressing concern to people, and moregenerally the flourishing of individual persons and their communities. (Reason &Bradbury, 2001:1)
2.1.2 A Brief History of Action Research
Action research, as a research method, has been existed for over 60 years. The basisof the action research tradition is formed through the effort of Collier and Lewin in the1940s in the USA (Brydon-Miller et al, 2003; Kemmis & Zhang Xianyi, 1994). As asocial psychologist and educator, Kurt Lewin made important contribution to thedevelopment of action research. In his book Action Research and Minority Problems,he coined the term “action research” as well as its function and process. Lewin sawaction research as a spiraling process of reflection. “We should consider action,research and training as a triangle that should be kept together for the sake of any of itscorners” (Lewin 1946, quoted in Burns 1999:27).Stephen Corey at Teachers College of Columbia University was among the first touse action research in the field of education (Wang Qiang, 2002; Tian Fengjun, 2003;Li Xiaoyuan & Yu Liming, 2007). He claimed that the scientific method in educationwould bring about changes because the educator would be involved in both theresearch and the application of information. Corey considered that the benefit of actionresearch is in the change that occurs in everyday practice rather than the generalizationto a broader audience. He saw the need for teachers and researchers to work together.However, in the mid 1950s, action research suffered attack as being unscientific.Therefore, researchers’ interests in action research decreased over the next few years,when the experiments with exact research designs and quantitative data collectionbecame the mainstream. Education practitioners questioned the applicability ofscientific research designs and methodologies as a means to solve education issues.
Chapter 3 My Action Research Project.......... 25-32
3.1 Research Setting ..........25-27
3.2 Research Questions ..........27
3.3 Data Collection ..........27-28
3.4 Research Procedure.......... 28-30
3.5 Tension between Insider and Outsider.......... 30-32
Chapter 4 Data Analysis.......... 32-47
4.1 Teacher’s Self-concept..........32-37
4.1.1 Role Model.......... 32-33
4.1.2 Learner.......... 33
4.1.3 Friend ..........33-34
4.1.4 Organizer and Designer ..........34-35
4.1.5 Resources Provider ..........35-37
4.2 Teaching Strategies ..........37-40
4.2.1 Classroom Organization..........37-38
4.2.2 Instruction.......... 38-39
4.2.3 Feedback to Student.......... 39-40
4.3.1 Classroom Behavior.......... 40-41
4.3.2 Teamwork Cooperation ..........41-43
4.4 Teacher’s Beliefs of EFL Teaching.......... 43-47
Chapter 5 Discussion.......... 47-52
5.1 Action Research and College English..........47-48
5.2 Aspects Being Influenced by Action Research.......... 48-49
5.3 Degree of Influence of Action Research..........49-50
5.4 Comparison between the Present Study..........50-52
In this self-study, action research is acted as an effective tool for me, a collegeEnglish teacher, to solve practical problems. This case study provides evidence of thepower of action research for promoting teacher development.Through reflection, my pedagogical abilities get improved. I redefine my roles ofteacher. Instead of a controller of the class, more roles need to be played, includinglearner, friend, organizer, resources provider, and more importantly a role model. Thenin order to improve the teaching efficiency, I think over the need to improve myinstructional techniques. I play songs and video clips in class to attract students. And Ioffer students the chance to be a teacher. To encourage students to speak, I change thediscussion questions to be more related to their daily lives. To deal with students’reluctance to speak in oral class, I use scores to stimulate them, namely connectingtheir performance to the final oral scores. The improved teaching practice gains memore sense of achievement and inspires me to carry out my future experiments.Action research can arouse college English teachers’ consciousness to carry scientificresearch, improve academic sensibility, strengthen their confidence, and bring sense ofachievement and satisfaction to their jobs. They will experience the happiness of thebond of teaching and researching, and get rid of the feeling of lassitude and tirednesstowards their professions. Meanwhile, doing action research can build dense academicatmosphere, intensify academic exchanges between colleagues and finally boostholistic teaching levels. Teachers take part in action research is the demand ofself-professional development (Wang Qiang, 2002).What’s more, I become more reflective. Experience alone is insufficient forprofessional growth, and that experience together with reflection is a much morepowerful impetus for development. So those language teachers who can thinkreflectively about the abnormal occurrences in classes and find ways to solve them willfind their work more rewarding.
The process of action research is cyclic in nature. That means it doesn’t end with acertain rounds of action. So action research stresses on continuous improvement. Infact, it is a ongoing learning process for teachers. It is supposed to be an ideal way forteachers’ lifelong self-improvement.At the time of college English teaching reform, action research is especially usefulfor language teachers. It provides a set of procedures to explore new teaching models in the new era. Action research fills an institutional need of English education for aform of research, meeting the practical needs of teachers at the same time. Everyteacher can be a life-long learner with the help of action research.Implication of the study
 Allen, L & E.F. Calhoun. 1998. School-wide action www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ research: findings from sixyears of study[J]. Phi Delta Kappan 79(9):706-710.
 Ancess, J. 2001. Teacher learning at the intersection of school learning and studentoutcomes[A]. In A. Lieberman& L. Miller.(eds.) Teachers Caught in the Action:Professional Development that matters. New York: Teachers College Press.
 Auger, W. & R. Wideman. 2000. Using action research to open the door to life-longprofessional learning[J]. Education 121(1):120-127.
 Avison, D. et al. Action research[J]. Communications of the ACM, 1999, Vol 42(1).
Baker, S & S.Smith. 1999. Starting off on the right foot: the influence of fourprinciples of professional development in improving literacy instruction in twokindergarten programs[J]. Learning Disabilities Research and Practice, 14(4):239-253.
 Brydon-Miller, M., D. Greenwood & P. Maguire.2003. Why action research? [J].Action Research Vol1(1): 9-28.
 Burns, A. 1999. Collaborative action research for English language teacher[M].New York: Cambridge University Press.
 Catelli, L. A., K. Padovano & J. Costello. 2000. Action research in the context of aschool-university partnership: its value, problems, issues and benefits[J].Educational Action Research 8(2):225-242.
 Cohen, D. 1990. A revolution in one classroom: the case of Mrs. Oublier[J].Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 12(3): 311-329.
 Crookes, G. 1993. Action research for second language teachers: going beyondteacher research[J]. Applied Linguistics14(2):130-144.
Part One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
正如我们所知道的，有大量的学习过程和学习效率的影响因素。他们主要分为两大类：智力因素和非智力因素。很长一段时间，研究者们重视学习者的智力因素，而忽略了非智力因素在这方面。但随着心理学的发展，已成为越来越多的学者意识到学习者的动机，兴趣，情感的重要性，意志，人格，所以他们的研究，属于非智力因素（韦氏，1940）。事实上，智力因素和非智力之间的关系是演员和导演之间的关系类似。他们都不应该被忽略，因为它们之间的互补性和互动性。许多学者（弗鲁姆，1964年，D，1994年我的EI特伦布莱加德纳，1995; Gao等人，2003年，刘查，2009年，邓小平等人，2009）显示兴趣，学习动机，学习的效果。他们有兴趣在这一领域的原因可能是：（1）学习动机可以解释为什么一个学习者确实比别人更好，即使他们有同等能力，（2），它可以解释为什么一个学习者的研究漫长而艰难的任务，而另一些人在开始放弃，（3），它可以解释为什么一个学习者，老师用最小的方向就可以解决问题，而另一些人必须持续监督。归属学习者学习动机有着密切的联系，，因为学习者如何解释他们的学业成就的原因，会影响他们随后的成就动机（威廉姆斯负担，2000年）。As we know, there are a large number of factors affecting the learning process and learningefficiency. They mainly fall into two categories: intelligence factors and non-intelligence factors.For a long time, researchers have paid much attention to the intelligence factors of the learnerwhereas ignored the non-intelligence factors in that regard. But with the development ofpsychology, more and more scholars have become aware of the importance of the learner’smotivation, interest, emotion, will, personality and so on to their study, which belong tonon-intelligence factors (Wechsler, 1940). As a matter of fact, the relationship betweenintelligence factors and non-intelligence is similar to the relationship between actors anddirectors. Neither of them should be ignored due to the complementarity and interactivitybetween them.Many scholars (Vroom, 1964; D myei, 1994; Tremblay& Gardner, 1995; Gao et al., 2003;Liu & Cha, 2009; Deng et al, 2009) display interest in the effect of learning motivation to thelearner. The reasons why they are interested in this field might be: (1) learning motivation canexplain why one learner does better than others even though they have equal ability; (2) it canexplain why one learner studies long and hard at a task, while some others give up at thebeginning; (3) it can explain why one learner can solve the problem with the minimumdirection from the teacher, while some others have to be consistently supervised. Learners’attribution has close connection with learning motivation, because how learners explain thecauses of their academic achievement would affect their subsequent motivation to achievement(Williams & Burden, 2000).
Heider (1958) was the initiator of attribution theory. In the 1980s, Weiner (1974)constructed a new version of the attribution theory based on the former theories. He held thatthe most important factors affecting attributions were ability, effort, task difficulty, and luck.Attribution factors could be classified into three dimensions: locus of causality (internal orexternal), stability (stable or unstable), and controllability (controllable or uncontrollable).According to the dimension of locus of causality, ability and effort belonged to internal factors,while task difficulty and luck belonged to external factors. According to the dimension ofstability, ability and task difficulty were stable factors, while effort and luck were unstablefactors. According to the dimension of controllability, only effort belonged to controllablefactors, while others belonged to uncontrollable factors.Since the birth of Weiner’s attribution theory, many foreign researchers have conducted alot of studies within its framework on the learner’s achievement attribution. These studies could be divided into three categories in terms of attribution measurement. First, the researchersdisplayed certain settings of academic achievement and asked the subjects to report the reasonsfor their academic achievement. Then the researchers asked the subjects to tell the attributionaldimensions of the reasons they had reported (Struthers et al., 1996; Wagner et al., 1989).Second, the researchers listed some choices for academic achievement and asked the subjects tochoose from (O’Sullivan & Howe, 1996). Third, the researchers interviewed the subjects andread the diary or autobiography of the subjects (William & burden, 1999).The findings of the past research indicated that attribution to success and failure of foreignlanguage learning could facilitate or impede subsequent learning behavior. They also showedthat learners who succeed in foreign language learning were inclined to attribute their success tointernal unstable controllable factors, while those who failed in foreign language learning wereapt to attribute their failure to external stable uncontrollable elements.
1.2 Significance of Study
Numerous studies have been conducted on attributions in the field of English languagelearning since it is considered to involve some typical key factors applicable to foreignlanguage learning in general. Scholars at home have carried out much research in this domainfocusing on undergraduates as subjects (Qin, 2000; Zhang, 2002; Jiang, 2003; Li, 2004; Zeng,2007; Wang, 2007), but few researchers have targeted the higher vocational college non-Englishmajors for studying their self-attribution.As a matter of fact, higher vocational-technical education is an indispensable part of highereducation. The purpose of implementing higher vocational-technical education is to trainworkforce with hands-on skills needed in vocation-oriented workplaces. With the developmentof society and economy, higher vocational-technical education in China has been developingrapidly since the beginning of the 1990s. In its early days, many students chose to study inhigher vocational colleges to learn practical skills. But now it is largely students who scorelower marks in the national college entrance exam that attend vocational colleges. It is notsurprising that many of these students have the English lesson as one of their greatestchallenges in their study. In particular, the non-English majors there complain the most heavilythat making much achievement in English learning is very hard. To help these studentsaccomplish their aim, one thing that can be done is to analyze their attribution for academicachievement in English learning so that they can be supervised accordingly.
Part Two Review of Related Literature
2.1 Brief Introduction to Attribution Theory
Attribution means inferences that people attribute traits and causes to things they observe.Attributions are situation-specific and not abstract (Siegel & Shaughnessy, 1996). So during atypical day, people probably make a number of different attributions. Attribution can reflectone’s perception of the reason why something appears. This perception is just people’ssubjective explanation of the reasons, not necessarily the real reasons for behaviors and events.However, this perception has more effect on people’s affect response and subsequent behaviorsthan the real reasons do. Attribution theory was firstly proposed by Americansocio-psychologist Fritz Heider (1958) and was developed by other scholars. This study willintroduce Heider’s, Rotter’s and Weiner’s theories (Heider, 1958; Rotter, 1966; Weiner, 1974).
2.1.1 Heider’s Attribution Theoy
Fritz Heider as the pioneer put forward the attribution theory in 1958. According to histheory (Heider, 1958), attribution could be divided into other-attribution and self-attribution.Other-attribution referred that one person made the attribution regarding the behaviors of others,while self-attribution meant that one made the attribution regarding one’s own actions.Other-attribution consisted of situational attribution and dispositional attribution. Situationalattribution was that one might explain the behaviors with respect to situations, whereasdispositional attribution revealed that one might explain the behaviors with respect to theperson's personality or dispositions. For example, if a student failed to complete a project, somepeople might suppose that his failure to complete the project were caused by his busy schedule,and others might suppose that his failure was produced by his laziness. The former wassituational attribution and the latter was dispositional attribution. But if this student attributedhis own failure to poor learning atmosphere, it would be self-attribution. Generally speaking,when one person tried to explain the behaviors of others, he tended to adopt dispositionalattribution, while people tended to use situational attribution when they explained their ownbehaviors.
Part Three Empirical Study............ 21-39
3.1 Introduction ...........21
3.2 Quantitative Study ...........21-31
3.2.1 Research Question........... 21-22
3.2.2 Subjects........... 22
3.2.3 Instrument ...........22-24
3.2.4 Data Collection........... 24
3.2.5 Data Analysis........... 24
3.2.6 Results and Discussion........... 24-30
3.2.7 Summary........... 30-31
3.3 Qualitative Study ...........31-39
Part Four Conclusion ...........39-42
4.1 Major Findings ...........39-40
4.2 Pedagogical Implications........... 40-41
4.2.1 Implications for High Vocational...........40-41
4.2.2 Implications for High Vocational College........... 41
4.3 Limitation of the Present Study and Recommendation for Future Research ...........41-42
First of all, the teachers should help the students to form the positive attribution style ofEnglish learning. For instance, if the students get high marks in the examination or makeprogress in the study, the teacher should tell them that this is often caused by their hard study,while the students get low score, the teachers should tell that it is caused by lack of effort.Second, the teachers are responsible for the learners’ confidence development. Theyshould encourage the learners to study constantly. When the students fail to pass an examination,the teachers should guide the students to know that it is often because their past learningmethod may not be suitable for them, rather than because they lack language aptitude.Moreover, the teachers should employ various teaching approaches to attract students’attention. What’s more, they should try their best to build a student-oriented teaching model toarouse students’ interest of learning English.Lastly, the teachers could provide some effective learning skills to the learners to helpthem to identify the most suitable methods for each student
There are a few limitations that go with this study owing to the practical difficulties. Firstly,the sampling of the subjects is not representative enough. The subjects of the quantitative studyare from three colleges in Wuhan, Hubei province, and all the interviewees in the qualitativestudy are from Wuhan Technical College of Communications. They can not represent all thehigher vocational college non-English majors in China. Secondly, although the researcher oftenreminds herself that presuppositions should be discarded, researcher’ own experience is stillpossible to influence the interview. Thirdly, the present study just involves two variables, i.e.the attribution factor variables and students’ performance on PRETCO variable.Some recommendations for future study can be offered vis-à-vis the limitations of thepresent study. Firstly, further research is needed to expand the sampling of subjects. Besides,the researcher should learn systematically how to conduct the qualitative study in order to makethe subjects fully express themselves. Lastly, future studies are recommended to involve morevariables that are related the learners’ attributions for their academic achievement, such asmotivation and self-esteem.
 Bernard, H.R. Research Methods in www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ Cultural Anthropology [M]. Newbury Park: SagePublications, 1988.
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 Crookes, G & R. Schmidt. Motivation: Reopening the research agenda [J]. LanguageLearning, 1991, 41(4): 469-512.
 D myei,Z. Motivation and motivating in the foreign language classroom [J]. The ModernLanguage Journal, 1994(3):273-284.
 Erkut, S. Exploring sex Difference in Expectancy, Attributions, and Academic Achievement[J]. Sex. Roles, 1983(9): 217-231.
 Fontana, W.A. & J.H. Frey. 1994. Interviewing: The art of science [A]. In N.K. Denzin &Y.S. Lincoln (Ed.). Handbook of Qualitative Research [C]. Thousand Oaks: SagaPublications
 Forsterling, F. Attribution retraining: A Review [J]. Psychological Bulletin, 1985, 98(3):495-512.
 Graham, S. A review of attribution theory in achievement contexts [J]. EducationalPsychology Review, 1991, 3(1):5-39.
 Heider, F. The Psychology of Interpersonal Relations [M]. New York: Wiley & Sons,1958.
Jones, E.E. & K.E. Davis. 1965. From acts to dispositions: The attribution process inperson perception [A]. In Leonard Berkowitz (Ed.). Advances in Experimental SocialPsychology [C] .New York: Academic Press.
Chapter One Introduction
在本章中，研究者示出的背景情况，目的以及构造分析的研究。研究背景包括阅读理解研习的凝聚力在这一领域的最新研究进展。这项研究的目的是要找出第二语言学习者的凝聚力意识，他们的课本中的词汇衔接模式的现状。词汇衔接为基础的阅读教学模式和词法的研究人员在同一领域进行今后的学习，它可能会提供一些建议。主体结构的研究在本章的小节。这是论文的结构和内容的简要回顾。In this chapter, the researcher illustrates the background, the purpose as well as the structureof the study. The background of the study consists of the cohesion in reading comprehension aswell as the recent research progress in this field. The purpose of the study is to find out the presentcondition of the second language learners‘ cohesion consciousness, the patterns of lexical cohesionin their text book. It might provide some suggestions on lexical cohesion-based reading teachingmodel and for the lexical researchers conducting the future study in the same field. The mainstructure of the study is presented in the sub-section of this chapter. It is a brief review of thestructure and the contents of the thesis.
1.1 The Background of the Study
阅读是语言学习以及大学英语教学的主要部件之一的最重要组成部分之一。教师和研究人员很早就认识到阅读能力ASA可靠的预测学习者在第二语言或外语（L2）水平。阅读理解的学习，但重要的是这是非常困难的定义和实现。它涉及心理语言学的语言表面意义读卡器（Carrell，1988）构建了一个作家和结束表示编码过程开始。这意味着，学习者SDEM和积极的心理活动，需要的先验知识，如原理图和系统性的知识，对文字进行处理。图式知识是知识，语言技能，如单词，短语，句子，从句和话语，而系统性的知识是知识的题材。以书面形式解码文本的读者需要使用合适的阅读技巧，以帮助探头和理解文本。因此，是一个重要的语言之间的互动，并认为inreading。阅读能力涉及很多方面的知识（如语言，认知，生活和学习），没有人能要求有正确的观点，在阅读的关键是什么。Reading is one of the most essential components of language learning as well as one of majorparts of college English teaching. Teachers and researchers have long recognized reading ability asa reliable predictor of learners‘ proficiency in a second or foreign language (L2). Readingcomprehension is important in learning but it is very difficult to define and to achieve. It involvesa psycholinguistic process which starts with a linguistic surface representation encoded by a writerand ends with meaning constructed by the reader (Carrell, 1988). This means that the learnersdemand active mental activities which require prior knowledge, such as schematic and systemicknowledge to process the text. Schematic knowledge is the knowledge of language skills such aswords, phrases, sentences, clauses and discourse whereas systemic knowledge is the knowledge ofthe subject matter.Readers who decode text in written form need to use suitable reading skills to help probe andcomprehend the text. Thus, there is an essential interaction between language and thought inreading. The ability to read involves so many aspects of knowledge (such as language, cognition,life and learning) and no one can claim to have the correct view of what is crucial in reading.
According to Halliday and Hassan who proposed a cohesion theory in 1976, there are fivecohesive ties which could help readers integrate textual meaning together and form a coherentmental picture toward the information presented in texts. They are reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion.The ability to recognize and use cohesive ties in texts is important for achieving readingcomprehension successfully (Munby, 1978). In another study, Cohen & Fine (1978) indicated thatnon-native adult speakers of English failed to comprehend expository texts mostly because theywere unable to recognize and use cohesive ties in texts properly for integrating textual information.Nunan (1993) claimed that if students intend to comprehend academic reading materialssuccessfully, it is important for them to be able to identify the cohesive relationship betweensentences.From informal observations, it has frequently been found that one of the major hurdles incomprehending texts is the recognition of words and phrases that refer to the same idea.Traditionally, these have been called reference words‘ or referential expressions‘. Such wordshave been classified into various categories like personal pronouns, demonstrative, lexicalcohesion and other alternative phrases. This research is about the use and interpretation ofreference words or referential expressions in reading. Referential expressions are those words andphrases in language that can be used for referring to persons, objects, phenomena, times, placesand other things‘.
Chapter Two Literature Review
In this chapter, we will go over some of the studies relevant to this study. There are studies oncohesion, especially lexical cohesion abroad and at home. Apparently in text linguistics, anyenquiry into cohesion is in terms of text, and so is coherence. Therefore, before we begin thereview, it is necessary to consider what a text is and make a distinction between some importantconcepts.
2.1 Definitions and distinctions
2.1.1 Text and Discourse
Discourse and text are two terms in English which are often used in a confused way. Theycame into text linguists‘ attention when they recognized the necessity to approach languagebeyond sentences. Different scholars have different opinions about the definition of them. Oneopinion is that the concepts conveyed by the two terms manifest no huge difference. This can beseen from the definitions provided by Richards & Platt (1978): Discourse is ―a general term forexamples of language use, i.e. language which has been produced as the result of an act ofcommunication. And text is ―a piece of spoken or written language.―A text may be consideredfrom the point of view of its structure and/or its functions, e.g., warning, instructing, carrying out atransaction.Another opinion is that discourse is the combination of text and its situational context,while text is the verbal record of discourse. So discourse is dynamic; on the contrary, text is static.Brown and Yule (1983) hold that text is ―the verbal record of a communicative act, while theytreat discourse as language in use, ―the analysis of discourse is, necessarily, the analysis oflanguage in use. Enkvist (1989) thinks discourse is ―text and its situational contextwhile text is―discourse without context. Cook (1989) regards that text is a stretch of language interpretedformally without context, while discourse is stretches of language perceived to be meaningful,unified and purposive. Nunan (1993) uses text to mean any written record of a communicativeevent, while discourse is the representation of the communicative event in context. However hedoes note the lack of agreement among experts and scholars and suggests many people use textand discourse interchangeably. There are also some scholars who think that the two terms can beused interchangeably, such as Halliday (1976). In this thesis, I do not want to get involved in thedispute over the definition of these two items and will treat them as interchangeable. I will use textto refer to any connected stretch of written or spoken language so that it forms a unified whole, butwill preserve the original use coming from the relevant works.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework........... 24-42
3.1 The frameworks of lexical cohesion...........24-27
3.2 Comparison of Halliday and Hasan(1976)with Hoey(1991)........... 27-28
3.3 Understanding of Hoey‘s Theory ...........28-29
3.4 Sample analysis of lexical cohesion in New Horizon College English (second edition)........... 29-42
3.4.1 Repetition........... 29-35
3.4.2 Collocation ...........35-42
Chapter Four Research Design and Methodology ...........42-45
4.1 Research questions........... 42
4.2 Subjects ...........42-43
4.3.1 The Questionnaire...........43-44
4.3.2 The textbook of New Horizon College English...........44
4.4 Procedure ...........44-45
Chapter Five Results and Discussions ...........45-56
5.1 The present situation of college students‘consciousness...........45-48
5.2 Procedures of Applying Lexical Cohesion ...........48-56
Lexical cohesion, as an important factor in text, is prerequisite to coherence of a number ofsentences into a whole coherent one. It plays such an important role in keeping a text coherent thatmuch emphasis ought to be given to it in the reading practice.However, the results of the questionnaire made by the author showed that most collegestudents lack a strong awareness of lexical cohesion and thus are not proficient in making use of itin the process of reading. In order to improve non-English major students‘ cohesive awareness andtheir reading ability at text level, the author attempts to apply the theory of lexical cohesion incollege English reading teaching and thus establish the lexical cohesion-based reading teachingmodel. The new model based on lexical cohesion theory emphasizes the understanding of a text asa whole in macrostructure and links of high-frequency words at text level. Through pre-reading,while-reading, and post-reading activities, the students can actively make use of the readingstrategies and skills to get a thorough comprehension of the text. With cohesion-analysis readingapproach, the students can grasp comparatively fast the structure of the text, seize the theme andpotential meaning of the text, identify the details and understand the writer's attitude and view, andthus improve their reading comprehension at both the sentence and text level, which are supposedto be the required reading abilities of English learners.
Moreover, in the traditional English class, there is often only one kind of reading strategiespracticed in class, that is, the skill of reading intensively. Although using texts for languageteaching is a ―perfectly justifiable use of text as one way of teaching language‖ (Williams, 1986),the author of this thesis thinks that the texts can readily be used for the practice of other skills aswell. Therefore, in applying lexical cohesion in the teaching of college English reading, the authorintegrates the practice of the reading skills of skimming and scanning as well as that of speakingand writing. In this way, the texts are fully exploited and the content of the lesson is muchenriched. To some extent, the integration of skills practice motivates the students to learn English.The model is expected to be efficient in college English reading teaching, which clearly shows therequirement of improving English teaching from the textual perspective and also the importanceand necessity of training on lexical cohesion awareness among the college students.6.2 Implications for InstructionThe results of the present study show that the students who have a good command of thelinguistic resources necessary for the creation of textuality as indicated by their holistic cohesionscores and holistic coherence scores are more proficient readers and writers of text than those whodo not. It follows that, to be proficient in reading and writing text, a good command of language atthe level of the sentence is necessary, but not sufficient. What is also needed is an effective controlover the various sources of textuality, including cohesion.
1Edge, J. (1986). Towards a Professional Reading www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ Strategy for EFL Teacher Trainees[P]. Universityof Birmingham.
2Brown, G. &G. Yule. (1983). Discourse Analysis [M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., Sinatra, G. M. & Loxterman, J.
3A. (1991). Revising social studiestext from a text-processing perspective: evidence of improved comprehensibility. Readingresearch quarterly [J]. 26:251-276
4Carrell. (1982). Cohesion is not coherence. TESOL quarterly [J]. 16(4): 479-488.
5Carrell, J. Devine. (1988). Interactive approaches to second language reading [M]. CambridgeUniversity Press: Cambridge.
6Carter, R. & M. McCarthy. (1988). Vocabulary and language teaching [M]. New York: Longman.
7Cook, G. (1989). Discourse [M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
8De Beaugrande & Dressier, W. (1981). Introduction to Text Linguistics [M]. London: LongmanGroup Ltd.
9Dudley-Evans, T. & St. John, M. (1998). Developments in ESP: A mufti-disciplinary approach[M]. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Enkvist, N.E. & M.
10Bjorklund. (1989). Toward a taxonomy of structure shifts: connexity andCoherence.In W. Heydrich, F. Neubauer, J.S. Petofi & E. Sozer, Analysis of text anddiscourse [Eds.]. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
1.1 Research background
从对比分析理论出现在20世纪40年代和20世纪50年代提出的概念“母语转移”。转让是指学习者所学的知识，技能，方法和经验，他的新的专业基础知识技能的学习和收购的影响。传输可分为正迁移和负迁移。正迁移意味着学到的知识可以帮助和促进新知识的学习。对比，如果所学的知识和经验，阻碍收购的新知识，它是负迁移，即干扰。在学习外语，转让主要是指母语和母语的学习新的语言的学习经验的影响。它也被提及为L1转移。这种转移发生在所有领域，包括物质，词汇，语法，文字，语用和文化。The concept “mother tongue transfer” was put forward from the contrastive analysistheory emerged in the 1940s and 1950s. Transfer means the influence of the learners’ learntknowledge, skills, methods and experiences to his study and acquisition of new knowledgeand skills. Transfer can be divided into positive transfer and negative transfer. Positivetransfer means that the learnt knowledge can help and promote the learning of new knowledge.On the contrast, if the learnt knowledge and experiences hinder the acquisition of newknowledge, it is negative transfer, namely, the interference. In the learning of foreignlanguage, transfer mainly means the influence of the mother tongue and the learningexperiences of mother tongue to the learning of new language. It is also mentioned as L1transfer. This transfer takes place at all fields including substance, lexis, syntax, text,pragmatics and culture.
至于语言转移，语言学家们进行了研究，从不同角度和不同的意见。在20世纪40年代和50年代，语言学家C. Fries和R.拉多提出了对比分析假说，他们认为，主要的困难在学习第二语言的语言差异引起的。学习的首要任务是找到相当克服这种差异，因此，学习者应该比较和分析了母亲的话语与目标语言的各个方面，以找出他们之间的分歧，并予以解释或预测发现，或者被发现期间的困难和错误学习第二语言，它会指导教材编制和教学活动。该理论侧重于在语言学习中的负迁移。在20世纪80年代以来，乔姆斯基提出的普遍语法理论，他认为，人类的语言与语言的共性，它们的结构。普遍语法是人类独有的语言系统，它存在于正常的人的大脑，促进所有语言的学习。这一理论强调的学习目标语言的母语正迁移。不同的语言有一定的普遍性，这使他们发挥积极转移其他舌头在学习外语。与此同时，每一种语言都有其自身的特殊性，导致母语在外语学习中起到了负面作用，那就是负迁移。As for language transfer, linguists have conducted studies from different angles anddifferent opinions. In the 1940s and 1950s, linguists C. Fries and R. Lado put forward thecontrastive analysis hypothesis where they believed that the main difficulty in the learning ofsecond language was caused by the linguistic difference. The primary task for learning is tofind out and overcome this difference, thus learners should compare and analyze the mothertongue with the target language in all aspects, in order to find out their differences andinterpret or predict the found or to be found difficulties and errors during the study of secondlanguage, it will instruct the teaching materials compiling and teaching activities. This theoryfocuses on the negative transfer in language learning. In 1980s, Chomsky proposed theuniversal grammar theory where he believed that human languages were with linguisticuniversals in their structures. The universal grammar is the linguistic system exclusive to human; it exists in the brains of normal people and promotes the learning of all languages.This theory emphasizes the positive transfer of the mother tongue in the learning of targetlanguage. Different languages are with universalities in certain degree, which enables themother tongue to play positive transfer in the learning of foreign language. At the same time,each language has its own particularities, which cause the mother tongue to play a negativerole in foreign language learning, and that is negative transfer.
As for English and Chinese, since they belong to different families and have greatdifferences, so Chinese learners who are studying English will feel more negative transfer ofChinese during their study, however, the positive transfer of Chinese is undeniable, too.Adults’ acquisition of the 2ndlanguage is different with that of the 1stlanguage.Before learning the second language, a great volume of mother tongue concepts haveformed in their brains, thus certain thought modes and language habits have takenshape. Adults will naturally use their mother tongue knowledge to understand andpractice foreign language during their acquisition of the foreign language. Becausethere are certain basic concepts, normal applications of the mother tongue and foreignlanguage, learners can use their mother tongue to master the foreign language in certaindegree. For example, after acquiring some basic skills, learners can translate somesentences easily. i.e. 他教我英语: He teaches me English. 中国是一个美丽的国家:China is a beautiful country. This kind of positive transfer of mother tongue is not rarein the learning process, especially in the initial stage. It helps the learners a lot in theactual practice of foreign language. However, along with the deepening of the study,the author can find that although many people can speak English fluently, they havegreat difficulties in the understanding and expression during their actualcommunication with foreigners. The reason may be that learners have always been usedthe Chinese thought mode and application methods to practice English. In anotherwords, the mother tongue has generated negative transfer in the communication.
Along with the development of society and economy, high-tech especially computertechnology and the information network are widely used. The transmission and the frequencyof updates of world knowledge are speeded up. Society of lifelong learning is established .Allthese require contemporizing college students to improve the ability of second languageacquisition. Language transfer is a real existence which must be considered when learnersfully describe the process of acquiring a second language. English writing is the learners’language output material. It provides a good analysis object for language transfer inresearching process of learning a second language. However, according to analyzing thecompositions of the students, researchers find that the negative transfer of native language isthe main obstacle that impeded to improve students’ English writing.
2 Literature Review
2.1 The study of native language transfer
Researches on mother tongue language started in 1940s and 1950s in U.S.A. In 1957,Lado had pointed out that those aspects which were similar to the mother tongue in the 2ndlanguage were easy to be mastered while those different ones were hard. In the next a fewdecades, researches on mother tongue transfer had constantly made progress in different fieldsand levels.In general, abroad researches on mother tongue transfer mainly focus on forms of mothertongue transfer and influencing of mother tongue transfer. Selinker (1983) divided mothertongue transfer into positive transfer and negative transfer. Odlin (1989) believed that theassessment on the facilitation of mother tongue should rely on the reducing quantity of errorsand the progress of learning while the negative influences could be summarized as“undersized application”, “excessive application”, “wrong application” and“misunderstanding”. Ellis (1994) indicated that: the facilitation of the mother tongue at theearly stage of the 2nd language acquisition was rather obvious, because at that time learnershadn’t built a development rule. Ellis had also confirmed by many empirical researches thatinterference from the mother tongue was rather universal in the acquisition of the 2ndlanguage.
3 Research Design ...........29-31
3.1 Subjects.......... 29
3.2 Instruments.......... 29
3.3 Research procedure..........29
3.4 Data collection.......... 29-31
4 Errors Caused by Negative Transfer .......... 31-42
4.1 Substance errors ..........31-32
4.1.1 Errors in capitalization.......... 31
4.1.2 Errors in punctuation..........31-32
4.2 Lexical errors ..........32-36
4.3 Syntactic errors ..........36-38
4.3.1 Errors in subject-verb agreement.......... 36-37
4.3.2 Errors in word-order.......... 37
4.3.3 Errors in tense ..........37-38
4.3.4 Errors in voice.......... 38
4.4 Negative transfer in discourse..........38-40
4.4.1 Errors in cohesion ..........39-40
4.5 Data analysis ..........40-42
5 Conclusion ..........42-58
5.1 Major findings ..........42-43
5.2 Implications of the study..........43-57
5.3 Limitations of the study.......... 57-58
Looking back on the entire process of research and the result, the paper can find that theresearch still has the following shortcomings. First, the research objects are the students of aschool familiar to the author and the scope of research is limited to the students of a fewmajors. Then whether the students of other schools, majors and grades also have the sameproblems, but the author does not carry out research in these aspects, no comment will begiven. Second, this article only analyzes and probes into the negative influence of the negativetransfer of mother tongue in English writing, although the effects of the positive transfer ofmother tongue are also involved, it is far from completing and deep-going. In addition,whether the influence of the negative transfer of mother tongue will reduce with the studentsentering higher grades, it also deserves our research. These will be the future researchdirection of the author. The author hopes more researchers will research in this field in thefuture.
Since every language has its developmental history and carries certain culturalfoundation. If the cultural connotations embodied in different languages are not understood,then the communication of the people from different countries is bound to fail. Sometimes itmay cause very serious result. Consequently, teachers should make efforts and expand fromthe aspects of words and daily communication in English teaching, so the students couldunderstand the cultural foundation behind the words and the different cultural informationcarried by the words, rather than just get satisfied by learning about the reading, writing andthe corresponding Chinese meanings. If students do not understand the cultural contentsembodied in English, though they have remembered some words, grammar rules and meansof expression, they only remember some meaningless symbols.
 Blum-Kulka, & Levenston. 1977. Aspects www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ of Lexial Simplification in the Speech and Writing ofAdvanced Adult Learners[J]. In S. P. Corder & E. Roulet (eds.) Acte du seme Colloque de Linguistique deNeuchtale. Geneve: Librairie Droz.
 Blum-Kulka, S. 1983. Learning how to Say What You Mean in a Second Language: Study of SpeechAct Performance of Learners of Hebrew as a Second Language[J]. Applied Linguistics 3.
 Brown, D. 1994. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching[M]. New Jersey: Prentice HallRegents.
 Clark, H. & Clark, E. 1977. The Psychology and Language: An Introduction toPsychololinguistics[J]. New York: Harcourt Brace and Jonanovich.
 Cook. 2000. Second Language Learning and Language Teaching[M]. Beijing: Foreign LanguageTeaching and Research Press.
 Corder, S. 1967. The Significance of Learners’ Errors. In Richards (Ed.) 1974, Error Analysis(pp19-30)[M]. London: Longman Group Limited.
 Corder, S. 1971. Idiosnycratic Dialects and Error Analysis. In Richards (Ed.) 1974, Error Analysis (pp158-172)[M]. London: Longman Group Limited.
 Corder, S. 1981. Error Analysis and Interlanguage[M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 Deng, Yanchang & Liu Runqing. 1988; 1991. Language and Culture[M]. Beijing: Foreign LanguageTeaching and Research Press.
 Ellis, R. 1985. Understanding Second Language Acquisition[M]. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1,1 Research Background
In recent years, many domestic and foreign scholars had studied the correlativerelationships between students' reading ability and writing ability，and the studiesbecame more and more widely. Some overseas researchers thought that the readingscores could represent the English writing ability well (Woodford, 1982); And inChina, some researchers thought that reading ability had an indirect influence towriting ability (Mai, 1999); some thought that the relationship between the acceptskill and output skills was low during English learning (Xu，2004); However, someother researchers thought that there was a close relationship between reading abilityand writing ability (such as: Xie, 1994; Zeng，2005; Wang, 2008). As English teachers,we all knew during our teaching activities, it was very important for languageacquisition researchers and language teachers to study and know the relationshipbetween reading and writing, as well as the influence produced by reading ability tothe fluency, accuracy and complexity of writing. Therefore, the research on therelationship between the two had become the crosscutting concerns for researchersand teachers.The research of the relationship between reading and writing of the foreignscholars was mainly focused on the second foreign language learning environment;The research in China was mainly focused on the correlative relationship betweenEnglish reading and writing, and the main research method was to analyze the scoresof English reading and writing courses firstly, then to get the correlation numberbetween the two and finally to analyze to what extent the former had influenced the latter. However, different researchers concluded different correlations between the two,because they used different test subjects and methods during their experiments. Butall the results of these studies showed a similar conclusion，which was，Englishreading ability had certain effect to English writing ability，and there was a highcorrelative relationship between reading and writing, and both of them could promoteeach other. Reading required understanding and comprehensive ability，while therequirements of the writing was using and the ability of expression; and reading wasthe basis of writing, one could attain and accumulate more vocabulary, phrases, usefulexpressions and excellent sentence patterns only by reading, after accumulating them,one should understand and master gradually about the usages of these language points，thus could transform them to the correct expressions of writing, and finally improvedone's writing ability. The relationship between reading and writing were just as therelationship between input and output，so a large amount of reading was anindispensable way for transforming the language from the input into the output.
However, from all researches conducted on the correlative relationship betweenreading ability and writing ability, we could conclude that most researches in Chinawere mainly taken the students of Han nationalities as subjects, and they werenon-English majors，too，they used experiments and the sufficient data to demonstratethe correlation between the two, and the result showed that there was a highrelationship between them and they two promote each other. However, for the collegestudents of English majors in the minority nationality regions，their ability of usingEnglish language skills are worse than those of the same grade in China because ofmany influencing factors, such as regional environment, economy or teachers, and soon，especially on mastering and using the basic knowledge of English, accordingly,their reading and writing ability also are at lower levels. Thus, it requires the teachersshould not only pay special attention to the presentation of the basic knowledge, butthe training of both the reading ability and writing ability in the process of teachingand learning, therefore, how about the relationship between reading and writing forthese college students of English majors in the minority nationality regions?
Chapter TwoTHEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
In this chapter, the author reviews the main theories related with the studies oncorrelative relationship between reading ability and writing ability. First, three modelsof the reading process: the bottom-up model which is represented by Gough, thetop-down model which is represented by Goodman and the interaction modes whichis represented by Rumelhart; Second，four kinds of writing process models which aregiven by Flower & Hayes, Berieter & Scardamalia, Grabe & Kaplan and Kellog's(1996); Third, two theories: Krashen's Input Hypothesis theory and Swain's OutputHypothesis. The paper will take these theories to build the whole theoreticalframework for proposing the research problems，hypothesis and for discussing theresearch results.
2.1 Models of the reading process
The reading process mainly includes two stages; perception and understanding.The process of perception is also a process of recognition and identification aboutlanguage symbols. While the process of understanding is a process of positiveconstructing about significance, which not only exists among every parts of the text，but between text and personal experience.The models of reading process can be roughly classified into three kinds that arebottom-up model, top-down model and interaction modeL (Zhang, 1997)The first kind of reading model is bottom-up model (Gough, 1976). It describesthe entire process of reading, which begins from the first sight of seeing the writingmaterials till the final understanding of the whole meaning. The whole process can bedivided into five stages; they are portrait characterization, the recognition of letters，the cognition of words, words matching among sentences and finally the short-term memory. The bottom-up reading model emphasizes that reading activity is a series ofmatching process, and in this process, the matching of information of these five stagesis independent and each stage will not influence each other.
The second kind reading model is top down model mentioned by Goodman. Thismodel of reading process regards reading as a guessing game on psychologicallinguistics. It includes the interactions between language and thought. And it alsotakes the view that the reading process is not a precise process of perception andmatching, but a process of selecting, making temporary decision and expecting. Whilethe effective reading is not the result of feeling and identifying precisely about allwritten language, but is the most effective skills of clues for choosing the guess whichproduces affection. Finally, this reading process not only focuses on the integrity ofreading, but emphasizes the role of understanding.
Chapter Three LITERATURE REVIEW.......... 31-44
3.1 Studies Conducted Abroad .......... 31-38
3.2 Studies Conducted in China.......... 38-41
3.3 The advantages and disadvantages.......... 41-42
3.4 Innovation of the study .......... 42-43
3.5 Chapter Summary .......... 43-44
Chapter Four EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN AND METHODS.......... 44-75
4.1 Research questions and assumptions .......... 44-47
4.2 Experiment design .......... 47-52
4.3 The Test of Hypotheses.......... 52-54
4.4 Experiment instruments.......... 54-56
4.5 Experiment condition.......... 56-63
4.6 Experimental Procedures .......... 63-68
4.7 Measures.......... 68-71
4.8 Statistical Methods Adopted.......... 71
4.9 Questionnaire .......... 71-73
4.10 Interview.......... 73
4.11 Chapter summary .......... 73-75
Chapter Five RESULTS AND DISCUSSION.......... 75-84
5.1 Comparison of writing performance .......... 75-78
5.2 The writing performance of the two groups .......... 78-80
5.3 The writing performance of the two groups.......... 80-83
5.4 Chapter summary.......... 83-84
This study is one of empirical research aimed at the relevance between readingability and writing capability, it has brought out some insightful findings; however,for the influence of the author's intellectual level and the limitations of the researchtime, the study still has some limitations and should be interpreted and discussed withcaution.
First，there are only seventy-seven students participated in the experiment, andthe subjects for experiment are limited and thus the experimental samples are alsoquite limited, which may produce certain influence on the results of the study,especially on the reliability and validity of the experiment. Therefore, in the furtherstudy, it is advised to employ more participants, thus increase the reliability andvalidity of the conclusion and finally draw a more reasonable and convincingconclusion.
Second, the subjects of the experiment are English major students from theForeign Language Department of Gansu Normal Universities for Nationalities, andthe experiment mainly investigate the effects of the reading ability on writingcapability of the English major students, not involves the non-English major students.Thus, it is suggested to broaden the research scope and conduct the comparativeanalysis in the later research.
At last，in this study, four experiment instruments are used, namely, Jacob'sscaling of marking the composition, the Wolfe-Quintero's T-units, and a paper forinvestigation and the constructive interview of four experimental group students totest the writing fluency，accuracy and complexity of the subjects. However, there maysome limitations in the methods of test and analysis; therefore, it is advised to utilizemore comprehensive and variable assessments to conduct testing and analysis andfinally draw more convincing conclusions.
1Bereiter, C, Seardamalia. M. From conversation www.51lunwen.org/yylwfw/ to composition [J], In R. G. L. Bissex(Ed), (1980).
2CNYS AT WRK: A child learns to write and read Cambridge，MA:Harvard University Press, 1982.
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3Carson, J. Reading for writing: Cognitive perspectives. Reading in the compositionClassroom [J].. New York; Newbury House, 1993.
4Chall J.S.，&Jacobs，V. A. Writing and reading ire the elementary grades:developmental trends among low SES children. Language arts，60(5), 1983
5Collins, A., & Gentner, D. A framework for a cognitive theory of 6writing. In L. W.Gregg, &E.R. Steinberg (Eds), Cognitive processes in writing (pp. 51-72).Hillsdale, N, 1: Erlbanm, 1980.
7Cumming, A, Writing expertise and second language proficiency. Languagelearning, 1989
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9Ellis，R?，& Yuan, F. Y. The Effects of Planning on Fluency, Complexity andAccuracy on Second Language Narrative Writing，2004.
10Flower, L. S. & Hayes, J. R. The dynamics of composing: Making plans andjuggling constrains ,1981.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Language，as an essential communication tool, has been evolved all the time dueto the exchanges and translations among different nations. English is one of thelanguages that have produced many varieties in the course of globalization. ThoseEnglish varieties with regional features also develop invariably and are graduallyaccepted as an ever-increasingly profound role in the international communication."China English" has been shaped as an English variety and borne Chinese culturesince English was brought to China.Some linguists hold the view that China English and Chinglish are the samelinguistic interferential variety but two different forms. In spite of the culture ChinaEnglish and Chinglish have shared, the linguistic function and the roles they play incommunication are totally different. Chinglish is a sort of transitional languageperformance when Chinese leam English, it is unstable and is through the process ofself-correcting to approach Standard English. The China English fully complies withthe rules of Standard English, featuring Chinese unique culture, events, ideas andtradition to the English world by linguistic devices such as transliteration, freetranslation and conversion. At the same time, there are many new terms with Chinesefeatures being created which boost external exchanges. It is valuable to distinguishChina English and Chinglish from linguistic and cultural aspects. However whetherfrom the number of papers published, or from both the depth and breadth of theresearch, the study of China English and Chinglish is still at an early stage.
1.2Research Significance and Purpose
English, widely used all around the world，has evolved into many varieties due tothe influence of different cultures. China English, as “a performance variety of anindividual country” and a language spoken by the largest population in this world, hasits own characteristics and has attracted attention by the linguists home and abroad.Chinglish is an interlanguage during the process of acquisition. It is the result ofinterference of many factors, such as native language transfer, cross-culturalcommunication, etc. However, China English is a kind of variety of interlanguageunder the influences of target language. It presents an increasing tendency oflocalization, though it includes the standard form of Standard English.The author tries to analyze the sources and functions of these linguisticphenomena, study the features and compare the differences of China English andChinglish，so as to make contributions to the English globalization and localizationthrough fully supporting the development of the China English while phasing outChinglish.
As a linguistic phenomenon, China English is attracting more and more attentionin the international linguistic field which results from the progress in China theseyears, as Chinese culture melt with other cultures so quickly and the concept of ChinaEnglish have been put forward to the world for many years.However, we should have a clear idea of the difference of China English andChinglish. Chinglish is a common problem in English learning and using, and it oftenleads to mistakes and misunderstanding which spoils the image of China in the world.It is time to find way to give away the misshapen and hybrid language that is neitherEnglish nor Chinese.Learning English as natively as possible in the cross-cultural communication isone side of a blade. And the other one is using English to express ones own idea in theway of retaining one's national and cultural features. By doing that firstly, one shouldbe confident in China English. New angle of observation is needed with the purposeof giving more specific analysis on “Chinese features” and “Chinese interference".
Chapter 2 Literature Review
This chapter includes three sections. The first section reviews the definitions ofChina English and Chinglish. The second section discusses the linguistic theory thatcan explain the phenomena of China English and Chinglish，including globalizationand Localization of English, English variety, interlanguage, linguistic adaptationtheory and linguistic transfer theory. The third section is the cultural theory that helpsto specify the reasons for existence of the two language forms. It stresses out thecultural differences between China and western countries such as thinking mode andethical value.
2.1 Definitions of China English and Chinglish
2.1.1Definition of China English
When we talk about why English widely prevails all over the world, there are twofactors determining its domination. On one hand, we should mention that English iseasy to leam, and has a rich reserve of vocabulary and a great potential for presentingideas. On the other hand, English is one of the languages that have most loanwords.Its inclusiveness and penetrability fuel to assimilate the advantages of other languagesand evolve itself into the most popular language in the world.The concept of China English was first raised in 1980 by Ge Chuangui, a famousChinese linguist. He wrote in Ramble on Chinese-English Translation “English isused by English-speaking nation. People bom with other mother tongue shouldconform to English using habits when they employ English. However, differentcountries have their unique culture. As for China whether ancient or modem, there area great deal of stuff with Chinese characteristic that need to show in linguistic form."
Chapter 3 Discussions on China English........... 26-47
3.1 Sources of China English........... 26-29
3.2 Sources of Chinglish ...........29-32
3.2.1 Mother Tongue Interference........... 30-32
3.2.2 Connotation Words........... 32
3.2.3 Ethical Value........... 32
3.3 Characteristics of China English...........32-41
3.4 Characteristics of Chinglish ...........41-45
3.5 From Chinglish to China English........... 45-47
Chapter 4 Outlook of China English and Chinglis........... 47-62
4.1 Boost China English........... 47-54
4.1.1 Function and Contributions........... 47-51
4.1.2 Present and Future ...........51-54
4.2 Phase out Chinglish ...........54-62
4.2.1 Translation Skills........... 54-59
4.2.2 Build Western Thinking Mode........... 59
4.2.3 Overcome Negative Mother-Tongue Transfe........... 59-60
4.2.4 Cement Basic Language Knowledge........... 60-62
Chapter 5 Conclusion........... 62-65
5.1 Research Findings ...........62-63
5.2 Limitations and Recommendations ...........63-65
The major findings of this study are as follows:
Firstly, to explain the phenomena of Chinglish and China English with the help ofrelevant linguistic theory, such as Globalization and Localization of English, EnglishVariety，Interlanguage, Linguistic Adaptation Theory and Linguistic Transfer Theory.The culture theory is also applied.
Secondly, to distinguish China English and Chinglish based on their sources andcharacteristics. As for China English, in terms of linguistics，it serves as an Englishvariety, and survives in the linguistic adaptation. On the other hand, Chinese culturehas great impact on the existence of China English，including cultural communication,politic exchange and Chinese thinking mode. As for Chinglish, the negative transferof mother tongue interference has compelling influence on it. In addition, culturefactors such as ethical value, thinking mode and connotation words which are hardlyunderstood for lack of culture knowledge lead to the incorrect linguistic form. Thefeatures of China English can be analyzed in terms of phonetics, morphology, syntax，discourse and emotion. Chinglish show itself in the forms of Collocation abuse,repetition abuse, modifier overuse, omission abuse, personification abuse, part ofspeech abuse，Monotonous Sentence Pattern, Commendatory and Derogatory WordsAbuse and Preposition Absence. Last but not the least, there is a conclusion on thedifferences and relations of China English and Chinglish.
Thirdly, to stress out the great influence of China English to the linguistics andglobal cultures, and speculate the its future development. Although China Englishexperiences dispute and discrimination at an initial stage, as China grows stronger andstronger, China English is bound to win the recognition and respect by the world. Onthe other hand，Chinglish is expected to evolve into China English or disappear bytranslation skills (including replacement, adding, and using principal and subordinatestructure, illustration, converting), building western thinking mode, overcomingnegative mother-tongue transfer, and cementing basic language knowledge.
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Graddol, D. The Future of English[M]. London: British Council, 1997.
Chapter One Introduction
English writing is a very important productive skill and it is difficult to be acquired forstudents，especially for the non-English majors. How to improve the students' writing abilityhas been the main concerns of teachers and students. Hence, the development of Englishwriting ability has been the important points in foreign language teaching. Some empiricalstudies have been done in this field, but few of these studies involve the effects ofreading-to-write on students' writing competence.English writing has been considered as the most difficult language skill to be learned.Although English teachers have made great efforts to improve students' writing ability, theirefforts achieve little effect and students' writing ability still could not reach the requirement ofthe teaching syllabus (Liu, et al.，2003). According to Cai Huiping and Fang Yan’s (2006)survey of the English majors, 47.1% of the students argue that English writing is very difficultand only about one sixth of them like English writing course. Only few of these students havethe enthusiasm to engage themselves into writing class activities. This indicates that there arestill a lot of problems existing in English writing class. Therefore，English writing teachersand researchers should make great efforts to do further exploration and research so as to givesignificant instruction to the writing teaching.
A lot of foreign language teaching approaches in writing have been introduced to Chinagradually since 1945. Among these teaching approaches the process approach has beenwidely applied to English writing teaching. From the 1980s, the English writing researches inChina have attracted the attention of teachers and scholars. However，only a few studies aboutthe effects of reading-to-write on students' writing competence have been done, and most ofthe subjects of these studies are English majors or senior middle school students. Few of thestudies are conducted by choosing non-English majors as subjects. What's more, the previousstudies in this field mainly focus on the imitation of forms rather than on the content. Thisresearch will try to find out whether reading-to-write has any effects on improving thenon-English majors' writing ability in terms of both the forms and content of theircompositions.
The subjects of this study were 80 non-English majors in Wuhan Yangtze BusinessUniversity. This study lasts one term (i.e. 18 weeks). Three tests (the pretest, posttest andlanguage proficiency test) were employed in this study. All the papers of these tests werecollected and evaluated by two teachers, and the scores of these papers were used as data.Language proficiency test was used to find out whether there is significant difference betweenEC (experimental class) and CC (control class). The results of language proficiency test andpretest showed that students' language proficiency and writing competence in these twoclasses were approximately at the same level, which indicated that it was feasible to select thestudents of the two classes as subjects. In order to see the influence of reading-to-writeinstructive approach on students' writing competence, the researcher analyzed the data fromthe following aspects. The total scores of the posttest and the scores of its subcategories—content and language between the two classes were compared by the means ofindependent-samples t test. In addition, the scores of the content and language of the pretestand posttest in EC were compared by the means of paired-samples t test.
Chapter Two Literature Review
This chapter gives a general introduction to the nature of writing, the relationshipbetween reading and writing and the definition of reading-to-write in the first place. Then thetheoretical background of this study is presented, and finally related studies on both Englishwriting and reading-to-write home and abroad are reviewed.
2.1 Nature of Writing
The term “writing’，can be understood in two ways. One refers to the actual act of writing.The other refers to the generally recognized meaning: to express and ideas and opinionsthrough written words and sentences. Generally speaking, writing teaching involves these twoaspects. Writing is a continuous process during which the people try to find out theappropriate words to exchange ideas. Nunan (1991) claims that "writing is a complex process,and competent writing is often accepted as the last language skill to be acquired. Few peoplewrite spontaneously, and few feel comfortable with a formal writing task intended for the eyesof someone else.”As an English course, English writing involves "composing”，which means that itinvolves the use of vocabulary, grammar, sentences and text to express ideas and opinions in ameaningful and logical way. In order to write well, people will need to be selective in theirwords and be discriminating in how they put the words together to form sentences. They alsomust be able to appreciate the nature, types and functions of sentences so that they use thesesentences effectively to show the relationships between the ideas，thoughts and feelingsexpressed in the writing. In addition, the writer should also pay attention to the forms; thecorrect form of spelling and punctuation, the acceptable grammar and the proper diction.
English writing is one of the four basic skills. And it is a very important output skill. Theobjective of English writing teaching is to get the learners to acquire the writing abilities andskills which they need to produce a variety of different kinds of written texts. And these textswill be similar to the ones which the learners would be expected to produce in their ownlanguage. The learners need to master the written forms of the language, learn to use thestructures and words which are less frequently used in oral English, or may be not used at all, but which are of great importance for effective communication in writing. Hence，in writingteaching, students should be exposed to the writing strategies and skills as well as thesituation which can prepare them for the real communication so that they can write logically,effectively and appropriately.As for the nature of writing, there are different kinds of definitions. According to Gould,Dianne and Smith (1989), writing is a creative act because it requires the people to interpretor make sense of something: an experience, a text, and an event. We write largely in order tounderstand and not just to express ourselves. Actually, most of our writings aim to reach anunderstanding and share the understanding with others.
Chapter Three Methodology.......... 30-36
3.1 Research Questions......... 30
3.2 Research Design .........30-36
3.2.1 Subjects .........30-31
3.2.2 Instruments .........31-32
3.2.3 Teaching Experiment......... 32-36
Chapter Four Data Analysis and Discussion......... 36-50
4.1 The Students'Current Language and Writing Competence......... 36-37
4.2 The Correlations between Reading and Writing .........37-38
4.3 The Correlations between General Language Proficiency and Writing .........38
4.4 Effects of Reading-to-Write on the Non-English Majors' Writing Competence in General 38-39
4.5 Effects of Reading-to-Write on Non-English Majors' Writing in terms of Content 39-44
4.6 Effects of Reading-to-Write on Non-English Majors' Writing ......... 44-50
Chapter Five Conclusion.........50-55
5.1 Major Findings of the Study .........50-51
5.2 Pedagogical Implication .........51-53
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Studies .........53-55
There were a pretest, a posttest and a language proficiency test in the study. Both theexperimental class and the control class used the same test papers in the three tests. Thecontent of the pretest was a writing topic which was chosen from the CET4 and the content ofthe post-test was also a writing topic chosen from the CET4. A language proficiency test wascarried out at the beginning of the term to guarantee the feasibility of selecting these studentsas subjects, and the paper of CET4 of December of 2010 was used as the content of thelanguage proficiency test.
Both the experimental class and the control class took part in the pretest on September 1，2011. The content of the pretest was a writing topic chosen from the CET4. Students wererequired to write a composition based on this topic according to the guidance within 35minutes. The total points were 100 points. The papers were marked by two English teachersaccording to the marking criterion proposed by Cohen (2005) (See appendix I). According tothis criterion, the total score for the writing is 100. The paper will be marked from three keycategories: content，organization and language. The scores for content and organization are 30points respectively and the scores for language are 40 points.
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