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            2018年精选英语论文范文十篇

            来源: www.zsalud.com 作者:lgg 发布时间:2018-04-27 论文字数:37485字
            论文编号: sb2018041320161720740 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
            本文是一篇英语论文,英语论文是指对于英语是或者不是第一语言的人进行教授英语的过程。 英语教学涉及多种专业理论知识,包括语言学、第二语言习得、词汇学、句法学、文体学、语料库
            本文是一篇英语论文,英语论文是指对于英语是或者不是第一语言的人进行教授英语的过程。 英语教学涉及多种专业理论知识,包括语言学、第二语言习得、词汇学、句法学、文体学、语料库理论、认知心理学等内容。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语论文,供大家参考。
             

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇一

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1Background of the Study
            Washback effect refers to the influence of testing on language teaching andlearning. The relationship between language testing and language teaching andlearning is partnership, which indicates that they are interrelated and restrictedmutually (Hughes, 1989). Therefore, it is of significance to research on washbackeffect of language testing for improving quality of language teaching and learning.For college students, College English Test Band4 (CET-4), which providesguidance service for college English learning on the one hand and is correlated withwhether they can graduate successfully and find ideal jobs on the other hand, hasdrawn their concentration extensively. At the same time, according to TestRequirements for CET-4 (2013), its purpose is to measure the practical Englishcompetence of non-English college students objectively and to guarantee that studentscan achieve the required level of English proficiency as College English CurriculumRequirements (2007) claimed. In order to perfect the goal, the correspondinginnovation has been made since December 2013. However, this thesis merelyconcentrates on CET-4 reading, whose reasons will be presented from below threeaspects. Firstly, from the perspective of reading importance, reading is viewed as animperative and necessary capacity in order to acquire a large amount of Englishinformation in written form in daily life. Besides, whether second language learnersinput meaningful and relevant second language materials decides the competence ofsecond language learning as input hypothesis of Krashen (1982) has listed. Secondly,from the perspective of CET-4 reading itself.
            …………
             
            1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
            For purpose of researching washback effect of CET-4 reading on collegestudents’ reading strategy use, this thesis put forward following specific questions: 1)Is there washback effect of CET-4 reading on college students’reading strategy use? 2)What effects can CET-4 reading make on college students’reading strategy use? If this study proved that there were differences on reading strategy use betweenstudents who have participated in CET-4 and those who have not and CET-4 readinghad positive washback effect on reading strategy use, it would be beneficial to givereasonable suggestions for English reading teaching and learning. Firstly, it would beconductive to increasing the awareness of students’ reading strategy use, adoptingmore effective reading strategies, and providing with enlightenment and direction forthe preparation of CET-4 reading. In addition, college English teachers can alsorecognize what reading strategies should be practiced and emphasized in the processof reading teaching in order to improve teaching quality and enrich students’ readingability.
            ………..
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Washback Effect
            The term “washback” has been of wide application in the field of appliedlinguistics, especially in the process of language testing, teaching and learning. Thefirst explanation was recorded in the following way “public examinations influencethe attitudes, behaviors and motivations of teachers, learners and parents, and becauseexaminations often come at the end of a course, this influence is seen working in abackward direction, hence it appears the term “washback” (Pearson, 1988, p.98).While its first formal interpretation should be traced back to Does Washback Exist, inwhich the term “washbak effect” was explained as the influence of testing on teachersand learners to “do things they would not necessarily otherwise do because of the test”(Anderson & wall, 1993: 117). However, with the exception of above definitions, thelinguists in varied researches express the advocacy for some other explanations, ofwhich several representative ones are listed below.Hughes explained washback effect as “the effect of testing upon teaching andlearning” (1989: 1).Shohamy described washback effect as the impact driven by tests in order topromote foreign language learning, i.e. “the utilization of external language tests toaffect and drive foreign language learning in the school context” (1992: 513).Prodromou adopted the description “back wash effect”, the equivalent towashback, effect which can be interpreted as “the direct or indirect effect ofexaminations on teaching methods” (1995: 13).
            ……..
             
            2.2 Reading Strategy
            Reading strategy, which is widely perceived as the essential for proficientreading, is of significance in the system of learning strategy. While in terms ofdefinition of reading strategy, different variations have been proposed amongresearchers.Langer (1982) insisted that reading strategy refers to some resources ortechniques took advantage of learners. Block (1986) made the argument that readingstrategy meant a conscious and dynamic process in which learners and readingcontents made interaction. Johnson (1998) considered that reading strategy suggestedthe behavioral process adopted by readers in order to solve the questions holding backthe understanding for reading comprehension. Wallace (1992) suggested that readingstrategy referred to the reading skill utilized by readers flexibly with the changes ofthe types of articles, context of articles and the purposes of reading. Aarnoutes andSchellings (2003) put forward the point of view that reading strategy referred to somecognitive activities through which readers could grasp the meaning of articlesaccurately, as well as predict, identify and resolve questions existing in the process ofreading flexibly.
            …………
             
            Chapter Three Methodology.......22
            3.1 Questions...........22
            3.2 Participants.........22
            3.3 Instruments........23
            3.4 Procedures..........23
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion.........28
            4.1 Differences on Reading Strategy Use......28
            4.1.1 Questionnaire Result Analysis and Discussion.....28
            4.1.2Interview ResultAnalysis and Discussion.........38
            4.2 Correlation Between Reading Strategy Use and Reading Proficiency.........40
            Chapter Five Conclusion ............49
            5.1 Major Findings .........49
            5.2 Implications ...........49
            5.3 Limitations........52
            5.4 Suggestions for Further Research.........53
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion
             
            4.1 Differences on Reading Strategy Use
            For the purpose of examining whether reading strategy use is affected by CET-4reading, it is vial to make comparisons for reading strategy use between those whohave not participated in CET-4 (G1) and those who have (G2) by independent-samplest test and the descriptive analysis. In the process of analysis, firstly the mean should bedescribed for the reason that it is beneficial to examine the frequency of differentreading strategies according to Oxford (1990) frequency standard in Table 4.1. Besides,it is necessary to measure standard deviation (S.D.) of each reading strategy, whichcontributes to analyzing the fluctuation degree of each reading strategy use.Furthermore, to examine t-value is conductive to compare the degree of differencebetween G1 and G2 apparently. Lastly, whether the reading strategy use of these twogroups is significant or not will be reflected by p-value, which is beneficial to verifythe difference significance. With the illustration of Table 4.2, the mean of these three categories of readingstrategies used by G2 ranging from 3.29 to 3.59 is significantly higher than that usedby G1 ranging from 3.17 to 3.25. Besides, the degree of fluctuation concerningreading strategies adopted by G2 fluctuating from .948 to 1.076 is obviously lowerthan that adopted by G1 changing from 1.197 to 1.342.
            ………
             
            Conclusion
             
            Whether CET-4 reading makes effect on reading strategy use has been analyzedby comparing the frequency of various reading strategy use between students whohave participated in CET-4 and those who have not. Consequently, the students whohave participated in CET-4 use reading strategies more frequently than the studentswho have not and the differences on almost all reading strategy use appear obviousand significant, which indicates that CET-4 reading intensifies students’ readingstrategy use. Meanwhile, CET-4 reading promotes students’ reading strategy use tovarious degree, namely, it exerts the influence on cognitive strategy use with the mostsignificant effect, matecognitive strategy use at medium level, while social/affectivestrategy use with the least influence.For the purpose of illustrating what effects CET-4 reading can make on students’reading strategy use, the correlation between reading strategy use and students’ CET-4reading proficiency has been explored. Among these three categories of readingstrategies, only metacognitive strategy composed of arranging, planning, monitoringand cognitive strategy consisting of inference, deduction, practicing, canning havesignificant correlation with students’ reading proficiency. Due to the cooperation ofmetacognative strategy, the cognitive strategy owns the more significant and greaterexplanation for students’ reading proficiency. Considering that CET-4 readingpromotes the usage of cognitive and metacognitive strategy which is proved to be thebeneficial facilitation for students’reading capacity, the conclusion that CET-4 readingexerts positive washback effect on students’reading strategy use can be made.
            ………
            References (omitted)

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇二

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 Background of the study
            Under the Reform and Opening-up policy and the economic globalization, Chinahas strengthened its relationship with other countries in politics, economy, and cultureetc.. Rapid development of economic globalization and the steady improvement inChina’s overall national strength are calling for professional translators equipped withhigh quality, high standard and high capacity. Hence, the demand for translationprofessionals is desperate. The research of translation teaching attaches greatsignificance to the cultivation of such translation professionals to adapt to therequirements of this era.In the classroom of college English, teachers’ attention on English teaching hasalways been paid to students’ listening, speaking, reading and writing, in which thestudent’ enhancement of translating skills is often ignored. Under such circumstance,the translation teaching is reduced to a weak point in college English teaching, whichhas not been given due and sufficient recognition. Besides, it seems that studentmajoring in English are the main focus of translation teaching, leading intentionally orunintentionally to the exclusion of non-English majors who ought to account for thevast majority of the college students in translation teaching. College English translationteaching is aimed at the students majoring in humanities and social sciences or naturalsciences and engineering students, in contrast to English majors, for whom they areoffered the course of Professional translation teaching. In this era of globalization andinformation technology, translation teaching confined to a small range alone cannotmeet the need of society. In fact, people engaged in translation activities are not limitedto graduates of English majors. 
            ……..
             
            1.2 Purpose of the study
            The purpose of this research is to explore the feasibility and validity of erroranalysis in college English translation teaching to non-English majors. In addition, thestudy intends to throw some light on college English translation teaching by virtue oferror analysis theory, providing pedagogical implications summarized from theteaching experiment and interview. There are two hypotheses the author intends toaddress: one is that error-analysis-based teaching approach can improve students’translation proficiency and competence better than the traditional translation approach.The other one is that error-analysis-based teaching approach is able to cultivatestudents’ translation initiative and interest, maintaining their positive attitude towardstranslation. In the meanwhile, the thesis serves to fill the research gap on error analysisin college translation teaching and enrich language teaching and learning.
            …………
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Brief Introduction to Key Terms and Basic Concepts
            Error analysis theory is the utilization and research on learners’ errors committedin second language learning. As a discipline of applied linguistics, error analysis theoryhas its historical background, playing a crucial significance in second languageteaching.At first, contrastive analysis theory played a predominant part from the 1940s to1950s in foreign language teaching. Robert Lado, one of the prime movers ofContrastive Analysis, made it clear that “The teacher who has made a comparison ofthe foreign language with the native language of the students will know better what thereal problems are and can provide for teaching them”.(Lado, 1957) By distinguishingthe differences of linguistic structures between first language and second language, onecan foresee what kind of errors foreign language learners may commit so as to takemeasures to reduce errors. The basic idea is that, when learners’ expression habit ofnative language are not in accordance with the target language, they will transfer theirlanguage habits to the target language, giving rise to errors. Contrastive analysisresearchers believe that, the difference between native language and target language isthe root of most second language learners’ errors generated (Dulay, Burt & Krashen,1982: 140).It is found by more and more researchers in practice that where the two languagesare identical in structure is not necessarily the place where errors occur. On thecontrary, where the two language are parallel is always the place where errors emerged.It can be concluded that a large number of errors do not have much relationship withfirst language. 
            ………..
             
            2.2 Theoretical Frameworks for Error Analysis Theory
            Any research or study cannot be carried out without certain theoretical foundation.To guarantee the reliability and rationality of the study in this research, three theoriesrelated to error analysis theory in different domains are involved. Comprehensiveelaboration on it will be presented successively as follows. It was in Corder’s article “the significance of learner’s errors” that the most closedefinition to the interlanguage emerged. In his paper, he mentioned that the learnershad not yet reached the proficiency of target language, which was called “transitionalcompetence”. It was a common recognition that learner’s language knowledge shouldbe regarded as a unified whole, into which new knowledge is melted and nativelanguage is restructured. In 1971, Nemser put forward the concept “approximativesystem” in his paper.However, it was Selinker who first introduced the term “Language transfer” in1969. He published a paper entitled Interlanguage, establishing itself in the research ofsecond language acquisition. He (1972) holds the view that interlanguage is a specificlanguage system for second language learners during the learning process of a secondlanguage. This language differs from either mother tongue or target language inpronunciation, vocabulary, syntax, pragmatics etc., otherwise it is a transitional anddynamic system growing gradually closer to the correct form of target language.
            ……….
             
            Chapter Three Methodology..........32
            3.1 Research questions........32
            3.2 Participants.............32
            3.3 Instruments.............33
            3.4 Procedures..............33
            Chapter Four Methodology...........49
            4.1 Students’ improved proficiency and competence in translation.........49
            4.2 Students’ changed initiative and interest in Translation.......56
            Chapter Five Conclusion.........60
            5.1 Main Findings........60
            5.2 Pedagogical Implications.....61
            5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study......63
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion
             
            4.1 Students’improved proficiency and competence in translation
            It is through SPSS 16.0 that all the data from the pre-test and post-test of theexperimental class and the controlled class were analyzed, whose purpose is toperceive whether there exists any change on students’ translation performance orcompetence.After a semester’s teaching with respectively different translation approaches inthe experimental class and the controlled class, there seems to be some changes instudents’ translation proficiency and competence between the two classes. As is thesame way adopted in analyzing the data in pre-test, the data analysis in this studywould still consist of Frequency Distribution, Group Statistic and Independent SampleTest. For the purpose of making a remarkable contrast in the scores between theexperimental class and the controlled class in the post-test, it was the frequencyhistogram that employed to perceive the difference. As is showed in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1, it can be seen that there are someimprovements and positive changes in students scores, implying that their translationlevel exalt to a great extent. It can be gotten the evidence from mean scores of the twoclasses through comparison between pre-test and post-test, the experimental classrising from 61.61 to 71.02, the controlled class from 63.21 to 66.45. It shows from thehistogram that there are 8 students whose scores are above 80, with 15 students from70 to 79, 11 students from 60 to 69, 6 students from 50 to 59 and only 1 student below50 in the experimental class.
            ……..
             
            Conclusion
             
            The author of this thesis has been attempting to testify whether the error analysistheory-based approach is more efficient in enhancing students’ translation competenceand proficiency than the traditional translation methods, which are confirmed withsufficient data and information at last. According to the data analysis and discussion inthe previous chapters, the major findings of present study are as follows: compared with the traditional translation methods, the error analysis-based approach can promote students’ translation competence and proficiency. It canbe seen from the various and remarkable changes of two classes before and after theteaching experiment that the students’ translation performance in the experimentalclass is more excellent than that of the controlled class, which testifies that thetranslation competence of students in the experimental class are superior than that ofthe controlled class who do not adopt the new approach. Therefore, the first hypothesisproposed in the part of research questions has been substantiated.
            ………
            References (omitted)

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇三

             
            Chapter one Introduction
             
            1.1 Background of the Study
            As an important receptive language skill, reading is of great importance incollege English learning. Good reading proficiency enables the students to useEnglish as a tool to obtain information and knowledge. College English CurriculumRequirements (2004)illustrates that ‘Students are expected to be able to employeffective reading strategies while reading…Students should be able to skim or scanreading materials…should be able to get a correct understanding of the main ideas,major facts and relevant details…and to read English literature related to their areasof specialty without much difficulty…’Whereas, having studied English for so manyyears, ta large number of Chinese college students’ reading performance is still farfrom satisfactory. Reading proficiency is influenced by many factors,The reasons canbe multidimensional. A great deal of researches have been conducted and showed thatthe affective factors have much influence on students’ English reading proficiency.And among which anxiety is considered to be one of the important variables whichcannot be ignored. Foreign language reading anxiety is a kind of fear andnervousness learners experience in a reading comprehension process. A number ofresearchers have founded that students’ English reading performance and theirreading anxiety are negatively correlated. Thus, students’ reading anxiety should betaken into account in English reading teaching.
            ……..
             
            1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
            As mentioned above, reading anxiety plays an important part in one’s readingperformance and Art students have been exposed to a high level of reading anxiety toa large extent. However, the researches of art majors’ reading anxiety are still invacancy. Thus it is imperative to explore a new instructional method to alleviate artstudents’ reading anxiety level. Considering the inefficiency of the traditional methodof English reading teaching, task-based language learning is proposed to have a greatchange in art students’ English reading teaching and to develop students’ readingcompetence. Through the study, the author applied Task-based language teaching tocollege art students’ reading classes in order to find the relationship amongTask-based language teaching, the students’ reading anxiety and their readingproficiency. If the instructional approach of task-based language teaching proves tobe an effective way in alleviating college art students’ reading anxiety and improvingtheir reading proficiency in English accordingly, it will be of great significance tocollege art students’ English learning and teaching. On the one hand, this study willbe of great help to find a more appropriate teaching approach for English teachers inart schools. More attention may be paid to the difference between art majors andcommon college students. And the English teachers try to apply TBLT to their English teaching to meet the art students’ demands and to overcome the difficultieswe are confronting in English teaching of art majors, such as low learninginterest,dull learning atmosphere and so on. On the other hand, as for art majors, Inthe process of accomplishing the tasks, if art students can actively involved in thetasks, they can acquire the knowledge and the language skills in a cooperative,relaxing and meaningful way. Thus it can stimulate their learning motivation,reducetheir reading anxiety and build their confidence in putting what they have learnedinto practice.
            ………
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1Task-based Language Teaching(TBLT)
            Task, as the key of TBLT needs to be clarified first before applying TBLT to thecollege art students’ English reading class. As for the definition of ‘task’, differentscholars have different ones for their different research perspectives. Somerepresentative definitions are listed as follows:According to Long’s view (1985: 89), A task is a piece of work undertaken foroneself or for others, freely or for some reward. In other words, "task" means thehundred and one things people do in everyday life, at work, at play, and in between.From Long’s opinion, task refers to the tasks we do in the real world which can alsobe termed as ‘real-world tasks’. He emphasizes on the authenticity of tasks. And Weshould also notice that Long’s definition of task includes both the tasks done withlanguage and without language.From the pedagogical Perspective, Richards, Platt and Weber (1985: 289)propose that a task is an action or activity that is complemented as the result ofunderstanding or processing language, such as listening to a tape while drawing a map. Tasks may or may not contain the production of language. A task normallydemands the teacher to specify criteria of assessing the outcome of the task. Carryingout various tasks in language teaching makes the language teaching morecommunicative.
            ………..
             
            2.2 Foreign Language ReadingAnxiety (FLRA)
            Anxiety is a construct of psychology. Researchers haven’t reach a consensus onthe definition of anxiety due to their different study perspectives. For instance,Spielberger (1972) considers anxiety as ‘an unpleasant emotional state or conditionwhich is characterized by subjective feelings of tension, apprehension and worry, andby activation or arousal of the automatic nervous system’. However, in Leary’s (1982)view, anxiety refers to a cognitive affective response characterized by psychologicalarousal (indicative of sympathetic nervous system activation ) and apprehensionregarding a potentially negative outcome that the individual perceives as impending”.May (qtd.in Engler 1995) points out that ‘Anxiety is the apprehension cued off by athreat to some value that the individual holds essential to his or her existence as a person’. Arnold (2000) proposes that anxiety is associated with some negativefeelings such as uneasiness, fear, nervousness, self-doubt, apprehension, frustrationor worry. It arises from communication, poor performance, fear of negativeevaluation and bad learning experiences.
            ……..
             
            Chapter Three Research Methodology....18
            3.1 Research Questions........ 19
            3.2 Participants.....19
            3.3 Instruments.....20
            3.3.1 Foreign Language ReadingAnxiety Scale(FLRAS)....20
            3.3.2 The Reading Parts of CET4 Test Papers...... 21
            3.4 Research Procedures.......22
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion......30
            4.1 Results and Discussion ofArt Majors’FLRALevel......30
            4.2 Results and Discussion ofArt Students’English Reading Proficiency..........37
            Chapter Five Conclusion.......... 43
            5.1 Major Findings.......43
            5.2 Pedagogical Implications....... 44
            5.3 Limitations of the Study.........45
            5.4 Suggestions for Further Research...........46
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion
             
            4.1 Results and Discussion of Art Majors’FLRALevel
            As mentioned in chapter 3, the foreign language reading anxiety scale was employed to test art students’ reading anxiety level. It includes 20 items which wasanalyzed on a five-point Likert scale. The total grades ranges from 20 to100. Thehigher the score is, the greater the students suffers from reading anxiety. In this part,the data of questionnaires collected from the two tests will be analyzed and theresults and discussion of data analysis will be presented in order to make surewhether TBLT is effective in alleviating college art majors’English reading anxiety. The pre-test of art students’ FLRA was conducted to ensure whether students’English reading anxiety both of the two parallel classes are at the similar level.Descriptive statistics of FLRA in Pre-test and independent samples t-test areemployed to analyze the results of pre-test on art students’ English reading anxiety.The following table 4.1 and table 4.2 display the results of the descriptive statisticsand independent samples t-test. As is shown in the above Table 4.1, the mean score of the experimental class andthe control class are 69.1710 and 68.8152 respectively.And standard deviation is6.84567 in the experimental class and 6.23419 in the control class. Thus, there is nosignificant difference between the experimental class and the control class instudents’ English reading anxiety. Whereas, from the students’ mean scores of bothclasses, we can see that they have suffered a comparatively high degree of Englishreading anxiety.
            ………..
             
            Conclusion
             
            The author has presented the introduction of the study which consists of thebackground, purpose, significance of the study and the structure of the thesis. Thenthe relevant literature review concerning TBLT and FLRA has been put forward inChapter Two. In order to find out the effectiveness of TBLT in alleviating artstudents’ English reading anxiety, the author has conducted a teaching experimentand introduced the research methodology in Chapter Three. In Chapter Four, theresults and discussion of the data collected from the teaching experiment arepresented. And the conclusion is reached in Chapter Five. It includes the Majorfindings, the pedagogical implications for English reading teaching, the limitations ofthis study and the suggestions for further research are pointed out by the author aswell. The purpose of the study is to make a survey of the effectiveness of TBLT onalleviating college art major’s English reading anxiety and improving their Englishreading performance. On the basis of the results and discussion presented in chapter 4,the major findings can be summarized as follows: TBLT can alleviate art students’ FLRA effectively. Through the results anddiscussion of the data analysis, we can see that art students do suffer a high level ofreading anxiety before the experiment. However, art students’ English readinganxiety level of the experimental class decreases to a large extent after theexperiment. While there is no significant change in the control class. And as can beenseen from the post test, the English reading anxiety level of the experimental class ismuch lower than that of the control class which all demonstrates that TBLT iseffective in lessening art students’English reading anxiety.
            ………
            References (omitted)

             

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇四

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 Background of the Study
            According to the college English teaching syllabus for English majors publishedin 1984, translation course was formulated and established as the compulsory coursefor English majors, which is considered as a practical and useful course. The trainingof translation competence is one of the language comprehensive competences.However, as far as the current English majors’ translation teaching is concerned, theteaching quality has been negatively affected by some existing problems. Forexample, students are not or a little interested in translation, which results in theirtranslation competence still can not be improved.The traditional teaching method is a teacher-centered one, which makes studentsin a passive state in translation learning. The operation process of this traditionaltranslation teaching is just as the following. After giving and explaining sometranslation skills and theories, the teacher assigns some related translation exercises,making students gradually strengthen their skills through finishing the exercises.Finally, the teacher offers the assessment rules and the reference model. As a result,students feel bored with the course, and have no interest in the course, not to sayimproving their translation competence.
            ………
             
            1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
            Considering the background of the research, the main task of translation teacheris to arouse students’ interest in translation and improve their translationcompetence by exploring a new teaching method to translation teaching. Rivers (1987)believes that through interactive teaching, students can not only increase theirknowledge storage, but also can apply their mastered knowledge to practicalcommunication. The teaching process is an interactive process not only amongstudents themselves but also between students and the teacher.The introduction of interactive teaching method to translation teaching can justmeet the urgent need for a new teaching approach, because this method can create aninteractive atmosphere, in which students’ subject role can be realized and teachersare not just the readers or the controllers of the class. In the process of teaching,students as translators or readers can comprehend and master the nature of translationin its theoretical meaning, and gradually increase more translation knowledge orfoster their translation skills. With the help of Internet and multimedia, the traditionalinteractive class teaching becomes the multimedia computerized interactive one, which adds more interest, information, practical applicability to the translationteaching. The open world, limitless learning resources ceaselessly arouse students’innovation and diffusion thinking, providing them with more approaches to gainknowledge. Therefore, the application of web-based interactive teaching method totranslation teaching can stimulate students’ interest in translation and facilitate theirtranslation competence, giving certain implications to translation teaching.
            ………
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Studies on Translation Teaching
            To discuss how to explore a new teaching method to arouse students’ interest intranslation and improve their translation competence, a literature of the definition oftranslation and the traditional translation approach abroad and at home is of greatimportance. To improve the quality of translation teaching, it is necessary for teachers to havea better exploration of translation, including its definitions, process and characteristics.The definitions of translation should be put forward as the first topic in our discussion.As for the definition of translation,different people have different opinions, becausethey may have vastly different translated materials, different purposes of publicationsand different needs from the audiences’ perspectives. Accordingly, numerous andvaried translation strategies and methods as well as different answers have appearedwith reference to the definition of translation.The Pocket Oxford Dictionary of Current English (1978:970) defines translationas “an act product of translating”, Webster’s Seventh New Collegiate Dictionary(1976:1254), in a broader sense, giving the definition as “an act, process or instanceof translating; a rendering from one language to another”, even “a change into adifferent substance, form or appearance; conversion”. In Approaches to Translation,Peter Newmark claims that translation is a craft consisting in the attempt to replace awritten message and/or statement in one language by the same message and/orstatement in another language (Newark, 2001:7).
            …….
             
            2.2 Web-based Interactive Teaching Method
            According to Johnson et al. (1991), collaborative learning, also known ascooperative learning, takes full advantage of small groups so that students worktogether to maximize their own or each other’s learning. In dealing with authenticproblems, students are provided with an environment by collaborative learning inwhich they can communicate with each other.Knowledge is continually and autonomously constructed by studentsthemselves through interaction. Students will construct their translation knowledgeand skills much better if they take an active part in the learning process. Being dividedinto small groups, with the help and communication of their peers, students tend tolearn more about what’s taught. In terms of how long the knowledge will , students insmall groups could learn much more firmly than other students in other instructionalformats. Therefore, students hold a positive attitude toward their class throughcollaborative learning.Supporters of collaborative learning admit that students work in small groupscommunicating with each other actively. As a result, not only are their interestmotivated, but also their critical thinking are promoted. Johnson (1986) proposed thatthere was convective evidence that students in cooperative groups could achieve athigher levels of thoughts and keep up information longer than those who studiedquietly as individuals. Through the collaborative learning, students could gain anopportunity to participate in discussion and take responsibility for their own learningas well as become critical thinkers (Totten et al., 1991).
            ……….
             
            Chapter Three Methodology.........18
            3.1 Research Questions.........18
            3.2 Participants.........18
            3.3 Instruments.........19
            3.4 Procedures•......... 21
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion.........29
            4.1 Students’Changed Interest in Translation.........29
            4.1.1 Pre-questionnaire Results and Discussion.........29
            4.1.2 Post-questionnaire Results and Discussio.........32
            4.2 Students’Improved Competence in Translation.........36
            Chapter Five Conclusion.........42
            5.1 Major Findings.........42
            5.2 Pedagogical Implications.........43
            5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Study..........44
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion
             
            4.1 Students’Changed Interest in Translation
            In order to explore whether can students become more interested in translation,pre-questionnaire was conducted both in the Experimental Class and Controlled Classat the beginning of the semester. The researcher collected the data by analysisinstruments. There are 12 questions altogether, which are all about students’interest intranslation. Pre-questionnaire was conducted at the beginning of the semester both in theExperimental Class and Controlled Class. The questionnaire includes 12 questions intotal. Each question is followed by five choices, namely, A, B, C, D, and E.A refers tostrongly disagree, B refers to disagree, C refers to uncertainty, D refers to agree, Erefers to strongly agree. The first one is about students’ main attitude towardstranslation. Considering that students are involved in four activities through theapplication of the Web-bases interactive teaching method, which are preparation,presentation, discussion and conclusion. Therefore, questions from 2 to 12 are aboutstudents attitude towards the four stages of translation learning. The results anddiscussion will be presented elaborately and respectively.
            ……….
             
            Conclusion
             
            The main purpose of the research is to investigate the feasibility and effectivenessof the web-based interactive teaching method in motivating students’ translationinterest and promoting their translation proficiency.After presenting the research purpose, background significance of the study andreviewing the previous study, with the help of various instruments, the teachingexperiment has been conducted. The instruments include teaching experiment,pre-test and post-text, pre-test questionnaire and post-test questionnaire, an interview.Based on the data collected and analyzed, the author reaches the conclusion of theresearch. In this chapter, the major findings of the experiment is firstly summarized,and then the pedagogical implication was put forward, and finally the limitations aswell as some suggestions for future study is provided. The collected data was discussed and analyzed in the chapter four, from whichthe author concludes the major findings of the research just as listed in the following.Firstly, based on the discussion of the results collected from the pre-testquestionnaire, post-test questionnaire and the interview, we can find a great majorityof the participants are in favor of the application of the web-based interactive teachingmethod in translation class. They think the teaching method is beneficial and hasbenefited them from the following aspects: making them pay more attention to thetranslation process and gain more interest in translation, strengthening their awarenessof class subject, helping them feel less anxious in class and build a more harmoniousand friendly relationship with others and facilitate language acquisition .
            ………
            References (omitted)
             

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇五

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 Background of the Study
            With the advent of knowledge-explosion economic era, knowledge as a vitalinvisible resource has become foundation of creating wealth as well as effectivestrategy for individuals and organizations to tackle challenges and sustaincompetitiveness. Therefore, how to manage knowledge effectively has aroused greatconcern among the practitioners and academicians. Meanwhile, it is knowledgesharing that bears the core and key part of knowledge management.There is no doubt that schools tend to be typical organizations characterized byknowledge which gets spread and innovated in them. The development and progressof schools, to some extent, depends on knowledge resources, the most significantfortune possessed by teachers. In this sense, whether teachers can effectively manageknowledge plays an indispensable role in the long run of educational development.Therefore, the study of knowledge sharing among teachers can be seen as aninevitable result of social and educational development. As is stated by Wu Minglie(2002), a scholar from Taiwan, teachers’ knowledge sharing can enhance their abilityof problem solving, and thus promote professional growth among teachers by sharingknowledge they possess and absorbing knowledge they get. In addition, a series ofstudies made by Zheng Huizhu (2005), Jiang Liqi (2008), and Liao Haogui (2011)suggested that there is significant correlation between knowledge sharing and teacherprofessional growth. Consequently, the study of teachers’ knowledge sharing hasinjected new impetus to teacher professional growth which is the premise and basis ofeducation development.
            ……..
             
            1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
            College teacher professional development or growth refers to the process ofmastering essential knowledge and skills required in practice during each stage ofteaching career. (Ye Lan, 2004) In this sense, teachers are not only those who absorb,spread, and use knowledge, but those who innovate , which means that teachers tendto be knowledge carrier in education while knowledge becomes learning resource inthe course of TPG. In addition, TPG needs the flowing and updating of knowledge,which can be quickly realized through knowledge sharing within limited time.Therefore, knowledge sharing provides easy access for teachers to enrich theirprofessional knowledge and to promote their professional competence.On the basis of the above analysis of the current background and necessity ofresearch on knowledge sharing in TPG, the thesis aims to make up for the deficiencyof previous studies in both research depth and scope. In the course of summarizing theliterature, it is found that most of the existing studies stay at theoretical levels, whichare merely restricted to such aspects as concept and connotation of knowledge sharing,analysis of barriers and influencing factors and so on. 
            ……..
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Knowledge Sharing
            In such a knowledge- explosion age, knowledge is deemed as the cornerstone forindividuals and organizations to increase competitive advantage, which also putsforward the more, higher and newer requirements for education. Therefore, how tograsp more knowledge rapidly and long-lastingly in limited time is a crucial issuefaced by higher education for cultivating innovative talents. Under suchcircumstances, effective knowledge management has aroused great concern amongthe practitioners and academicians. The term knowledge management in the field ofeducation was first proposed by D.H. Hargreaves (1999), scholar of CambridgeUniversity, in the article The Knowledge-Creating School published in BRITISHJournal of Educational Studies, which has long been regarded as the earliest literatureof significance on knowledge management in the field of education. Researcherssuggested that knowledge management can be defined as the procedure and strategiesto help individuals or groups to create, classify, store, share and renew knowledge(Davenport & Prusak, 1999; Alavi & Leidner, 2001; Bock & Kim, 2001; Chen, 2008).Plessis (2007) argued that knowledge management is a planned, structuredapproach to manage the creation, sharing, obtaining and leveraging of knowledge.Abecker & Elst (2009) indicated that knowledge management views tacit and explicitknowledge as a key strategic resource, which aims at improving the utilization ofknowledge at individual, organizational, and inter-organizational level so as topromote innovation and quality.
            …….
             
            2.2 Teacher Professional Growth
            With the deepening promotion of contemporary teacher education reform,teacher professional development first put forward in 1980s has attracted world wideattention and become the mainstream research focus among scholars andadministrators over the world, which aims at improving teachers’ quality, enhancingteacher autonomy, and facilitating long-term professional development.In 1966, The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organizationand the International Labor Organization proposed that teaching should be treated as a specialized occupation in Special Intergovernmental Conference on the Status ofTeachers. The Carnegie Education and Economic Forum group published A NationPrepared Teachers for the 21st Century, in which education is considered as aspecialized profession. The working group of Holmes also published Tomorrow’sTeachers, defining clearly that teaching is a specialized field not just a pure technicalskill. In Teachers Law of the People’s Republic of China, teacher is defined as aspecialist fulfilling the responsibility of teaching and education. The nationaldemonstration education work conference further indicated that actions should betaken to further deepen the educational and pedagogical reforms to improve the levelof national education specialization. From all the above, it is obvious that increasinglylarge numbers of countries are attaching great attention to the specialization ofteachers.
            ……..
             
            Chapter Three Research Methodology.... 26
            3.1 Questions.........26
            3.2 Participants......26
            3.3 Instruments......26
            3.3.1 Questionnaire........ 27
            3.3.2 Interview....... 36
            3.4 Data Collection andAnalysis..........36
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion...... 38
            4.1 Sharing Strategy and the Status ofProfessional Growth among........38
            4.2 College English Teachers with DemographicVariables........41
            4.3 English Teachers with DemographicVariables........53
            4.4 Strategy and ProfessionalGrowth among College English Teachers.....6
            Chapter Five Conclusion...........71
            5.1 Major Findings........71
            5.2 Pedagogical Implications........73
            5.2.1 Implications for Teachers......73
            5.2.2 Implications for Universities and Colleges...........75
            5.3 Limitations of the Study..........76
            5.4 Suggestions for Further Study.........77
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion
             
            4.1 The Application of Knowledge Sharing Strategy and the Status of Professional Growth among College English Teachers
            As mentioned in the last chapter, five-point Liket-type scale was adopted in thequestionnaire, which means each question was scored by the Arabic numbers rangingfrom 1(score) to 5(score), with intermediate values 3.00(score). Therefore, theevaluation of each question is showed in terms of the Mean. That is to say, the higherthe mean is, the better the evaluation will be. According to scores achieved by theresearch participants, evaluation standard was made as follows: low level (mean valuebetween 1.00 and 2.00); moderate level (mean value between 2.01 and 3.00); mediumto high level (mean value between 3.01 and 4.00); high level (mean value between4.01 and 5.00).Description statistics was used to describe the main features of data collected,including maximum, minimum, mean and Std. Deviation. In this study, only 60questionnaires were available, and the background information of participants issummarized in the following table: As to each dimension, the application of personalization strategy boasts thehighest with mean score of 3.972, followed by systematic strategy with 3.643 andsocialization strategy with 3.511, which suggests that college English teachers aremore inclined to exchange and share their teaching experience through face-to-facecommunication, written materials, networking tools such as micro-blogs, micro-lettersthan to participate in knowledge communities.
            …..
             
            Conclusion
             
            On the basis of the questionnaire and statistical results, major findingsresponding to the research questions are reached, which are presented as follows:Firstly, the results show that college English teachers perform pretty well on thewhole in application of knowledge sharing strategy with the mean score of 3.697,indicating that present status is at medium to high level. When it comes to eachdimension of knowledge sharing strategy, college English teachers surveyed are atmedium to high level in using three dimensions respectively with the mean scoresranging from 3.01 to 4.00. However, among them, teachers do best in the applicationof personalization strategy and the least used strategy for teachers is socializationstrategy, suggesting that college English teachers are more inclined to exchange andshare their teaching experience through personalization strategy such as face-to-facecommunication, talking as well as discussion than participating in knowledgecommunities. Hence, more attention should be paid to it.Secondly, the results show that the connotation of college English teacherprofessional growth can be summarized into four aspects, namely, teachingknowledge and skills, students tutoring, advanced educational information andprofessional spirit. Moreover, the current situation of professional growth amongcollege English teachers is set in good condition, which has achieved a high level ingeneral with a mean score of 4.09.
            ………
            References (omitted)
             

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇六

             
            第一章 绪 论
             
            1.1 选题背景
            在当今英语教学中,尽管英语教师尝试各种教学法,用尽浑身解数丰富课堂教学,但是收效甚微。尤其在高校英语教学中,长期以来,高校多数英语教师依然遵循着典型的行为主义“讲解—操练—复用”的模式,课堂教学主要侧重于讲解课文,注重语篇、句子分析,对课文中重要语言点进行讲解和操练。受到这样模式教学的学生,在阅读时可以理解文章的意思,但在英语口头表达以及书面表达时,会出现严重的搭配混乱和用词不准以及语言不够地道的情况,造成了普遍的“中国式英语”问题。英语专业学生也不例外,普遍词汇量不足,有话说不出,或者学了单词不会用或者用错地方,说出来的句子带有很浓的汉语味。2000 年,高等学校外语专业教学指导委员会颁布了《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》,大纲明确指出:“教师应鼓励学生积极参与课堂的各种语言交际活动以获得基本的交际技能,并达到新《大纲》所规定的听、说、读、写、译等技能的要求”。这告诉我们,英语专业教学应该以提高学生阅读能力、扩大词汇量、具备口语表达和书面表达能力为目标,同时这也体现出《大纲》对于英语教师的教学要求。外语教学法种类繁多,对于当今的英语教学最具影响力的莫非结构法和交际法。尽管结构法认为语法规则是语言学习的首要任务,却在一定程度上忽视了语言的交际性和应用性,而日益为大众所接受的交际法则过分强调了语言的交际性功能,忽视了语法在英语学习中的重要性。而本研究要探讨的语块理论介于两种教学法之间,强调语言学习和交流的基本单位不是语法和单个单词,而是语块。语块因其具有特定的话语功能和高效有力的词汇扩增功能,因而在在学习和交流中处于中心地位。
            ………
             
            1.2 研究意义
            当前,随着科技的飞速发展和新兴交叉学科的不断涌现,世界各国文化的交流、碰撞和合作日益深入,这就对英语人才的培养提出了更高更专业的要求。因此,我国外语教育界亟待思考和审视的问题是,如何加大力度培养更高质量的英语专业人才,更加高效地提高英语人才的英语综合运用能力和素质。那么,采用何种教学法更能高效快速地提高学生的英语语言能力,就是英语教育界需要解决的迫在眉睫问题。英语专业课程的教学方法直接关系到学生听、说、读、写能力的培养与提高,故此需要得到教学工作者的重视。而探讨语块理论在英语专业“基础英语”课程中的应用,不仅是正确贯彻《高等学校英语专业英语教学大纲》的需要,更为当前提高高校英语专业学生英语水平提供了一条切实可行的路径。“语块”的概念在 1975 年由 Becker 第一次提出。语块是语义、语法和语境的集合体,英语学习者可以将语块作为整体进行学习,这在很大程度上能够减轻他们的记忆负担,在进行语言输出时不必过多关注语法规则,能够灵活地输出和运用语块。通过语块学习英语,可以提高英语学习的效率,使语言表达更加具有准确性、丰富性、逻辑性和地道性。从语块理论的研究历程来看,它是一个相对年轻的理论。虽然研究和关注的人越来越多,但到目前为止这一理论的很多方面都具有进一步深入和拓展的空间。从这一角度看,语块理论具有广阔的发展前景。
            ……..
             
            第二章 语块教学的理论依据及其研究现状
             
            2.1 语块理论概述
            语块理论首次由 Becker 在 1975 年提出。他认为所谓的“语块”就是以整体形式存在的一串词的组合,它们存在人的大脑之中,学习者在使用时需要对其进行整体修改或者细微修改后作为预制组块进行使用。然而,众多研究者们还从各种研究角度对语块做出了不尽相同的理解和定义,就这些定义所使用的术语也纷繁多样,到目前为止,“语块”的定义和术语,仍然没有达成统一。Pawley & Syder 对语块的定义是:语块就是“词汇化句干(lexicalized sentencestems)”,“词汇化句干”即“语法形式和词汇内容大部分是固定的一些单位,它们有长有短”,这些固定单位有着固定或者半固定的成分,为一个族群或者团体约定俗成地使用,使得语言的交流变得更为便利简单。(Pawley & Syder 1983:191)Nattinger & DeCarrico 使用词汇短语(lexical phrases)表述,并将它们定义为:语块是一种多词的词汇现象,介于传统的词汇和句法之间,是形式和功能的合成体。它们在使用中,比一般按语法规则组合起来的语言更常用,更具有清晰的意义。他们的长度不等,但不论长短,都有一个相对固定的格式和可供替换的空档。每个语块都有自己的语用功能。(Nattinger & DeCarrico 1992:1)王佩娜从教学角度出发,她同样认为语块是以固定或者半固定的形式存在,并且具有固定的语义,为语言的使用者在进行语言输入和输出过程中反复提到或者使用。(王佩娜 2008:55)语块是一种有利于提高语言生成能力的短语、固定搭配、习惯用语和句式。
            ……….
             
            2.2 语块对二语习得的作用
            在我国,英语学习者在汉语环境下经过传统的语法翻译教学后,将语言进行实际运用时出现很多问题,如词不达意,言语模糊或语义不连贯,更有些表达沿用汉语言风格而完全不符合英语表达习惯等。(廉洁 2001:29)第二语言习得研究表明,第二语言习得不可或缺的一个重要过程便是语块的学习,尤其在初学阶段。整个语篇几乎被英语语块所占据,但语块的出现并不是随机的,它具有一定的标准或准则,而这种标准或准则又受语言环境和社会习惯制约,所以我们可以预测某些结构会出现在哪种情况下。另外,语块在语篇中的功能是多种多样的,它是意义与功能的结合体。在实际教学中,我们的重点不是教授语言规则,而是培养学习者的语块意识,让他们去频繁接触、大量吸纳语块,进行语块操练,然后自己总结语言的使用规律。这种方法使学生从一开始就能轻松地使用语言,并最终达到熟练掌握,也许更加合理,似乎更接近母语或自然语言的习得过程。
            ……..
             
            第三章 语块理论在英语专业“基础英语” 教学.......... 18
            3.1 研究目的 ....... 18
            3.2 研究假设 ....... 18
            3.3 研究对象 ....... 19
            3.4 研究方法 ....... 19 
            3.5 研究过程 ....... 20
            3.6 教学设计 ........ 20
            3.6.1 实验班教学设计 .......... 21
            3.6.2 对照班教学设计 .......... 27
            第四章 数据分析与问卷调查研究结果.......... 28
            4.1 实验前数据分析与问卷调查研究结果 .... 28
            4.1.1 实验前英语能力综合测试 ......... 28
            4.1.2 实验前“基础英语”学习现状分析 ........ 32
            4.2 实验后数据分析与问卷调查研究结果 .... 34
            4.2.1 实验后英语能力综合测试 ......... 34
            4.2.2 实验后“基础英语”学习现状分析 ........ 41
            第五章 小 结......... 44
            5.1 研究结论 ...... 44
            5.2 研究局限性与展望 ..... 45
             
            第四章 数据分析与问卷调查研究结果
             
            4.1 实验前数据分析与问卷调查研究结果
            开学之初对甲乙两班进行首次统一的英语能力综合测试,试卷选取 2011 年上海市英语高考试卷(附录 1)。之所以选择上海市英语高考试卷,是为了测试公平,避免学生曾经做过原题,因为甲乙两班均没有上海考生。 2011 年上海市英语高考试卷能够从听力、语法、词汇、阅读、翻译和写作几个方面对学生进行能力检测,经过严格评分,分数统计数据如下:(甲班 44 人,乙班 45 人)根据表 1-2 可知,在英语卷总成绩中,甲班 41-60 分数段人数为 5 人,占甲班总人数的 11.4%,61-90 分数段有 39 人,占甲班总人数的 88.6%;乙班 41-60分数段有 7 人,占乙班总人数的 15.6%,61-90 分数段有 38 人,占乙班总人数的 84.4%。甲班平均分 68.0,乙班平均分 67.8。由此可知甲乙两班学生英语综合水平基本一致,这样就保证了实验对象(即甲班实验班和乙班控制班)的可比性。根据表 3-4 可知,在英语作文成绩中,甲班 31-60 分数段人数为 27 人,占甲班总人数的 61.4%,60-100 分数段有 17 人,占甲班总人数的 38.6%;乙班 31-60分数段有 25 人,占乙班总人数的 55.6%,61-100 分数段有 20 人,占乙班总人数的 44.4%。甲班作文平均分 57.2,乙班作文平均分 58,这样就保证了实验对象(即甲班实验班和乙班控制班)的可比性。根据表 1-2 和表 3-4 的数据分析可看出,甲班和乙班学生在英语综合试题以及写作试题方面反映出的产出性词汇基本处于同一水平,具有一定的可比性。
            ……….
             
            结论
             
            国外著名语言学家 Lewis(1997;2000)、Nattinger 和 DeCarrico(1992)通过实验研究证明,“语块”能够显著提高学生的英语运用能力以及英语词汇学习效率。本实验研究对象则是中国高校英语专业学生,英语对于他们是作为外语来学习的,该研究旨在验证在英语国家适用的语块理论是否也适用于中国英语专业学生。笔者在文献分析和问卷调查基础之上,对本研究提出了实验假设,并通过教学实验研究进行了验证。经历了一个学年的教学实验研究,笔者最终验证了之前提出的实验假设,即基于语块理论的“基础英语”课程教学能够提高英语专业学生产出性词汇/表达性词汇的质量,能够提高他们的英语学习效率,能够提高他们的英语综合运用能力。由此可见,语块理论能够帮助学生树立语块意识,引导他们将英语语义、语法和语境融为一体,帮助他们辨认语块、操练语块、积累语块,并通过反复练习逐步在语言交际表达中使用语块。那些平时运用孤立记忆法记忆词汇的学生,通过实验教学树立了语块意识,逐渐形成了语块作为语言基本单位的观念,从而在英语学习尤其是词汇学习中有意识地辨认和积累语块。语块教学拓宽了他们的记忆广度,使他们更容易输入和输出语言单位,因而提高了他们产出性词汇/表达性词汇的质量,也就是英语表达的准确性。学生根据学到的固定或者半固定语块,能够迅速地将语块与已有知识进行重新编码和联系,达到了新知识与旧知识的稳固串联,从而大大提高了英语学习效率。拥有了语块意识,学生的英语学习方法得到了改善,词汇量明显提高,这使得英语专业学生在“基础英语”课程学习中,听、说、读、写、译各方面能力和英语综合运用能力有了明细提升。应该说,在一个学年的教学实验中,实验班和对照班在前测水平相当的条件下,分别接受了语块理论指导下的教学和常规方法教学,笔者在课堂活动、课外作业等方面都对学生做了完全不同的要求,因此,甲乙两班学生的词汇水平、英语学习效率以及英语综合应用能力都出现了显著差异。通过数据分析和对比,可以看出该试验研究验证了之前提出的实验假设。
            ............
            参考文献(略)
             

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇七

             
            第一章 绪论
             
            1.1 研究背景
            20 世纪 60 年代乔姆斯基的天赋论的观点开始取代了传统的行为主义理论,为国外母语和二语习得顺序的相关研究提供了新的理论视角。传统的行为主义心理学及其学习理论认为语言学习是一个通过“刺激—反应”形成语言习惯的过程,儿童习得母语的过程就是模仿成人语言并不断进行强化而形成一系列“刺激—反应”的联结的过程;而第二语言习得就是在语言环境中逐渐排除母语的影响,通过模仿和强化形成新的语言行为习惯的过程(Ellis,1999:45)。而以乔姆斯基为代表的天赋论和心灵论则主张在人类所有语言的深层结构中都存在着一些共同的语言原则,这些抽象的、复杂的原则为人类所有语言所共有,因此称为普遍语法,它通过人类特有的先天语言习得机制而影响语言习得(Cook,2000:23)。根据天赋论的观点,儿童习得母语的过程主要由语言习得机制所决定,所有儿童的母语习得过程遵循普遍的语法原则,也都经历相同的主要变化阶段,这就为 60 年代和 70 年代第一语言习得顺序的研究提供了理论基础,研究者们开始致力于发现学习者的第一语言习得是否遵循普遍的、自然的、恒定不变的规律和顺序。同时,在第二语言习得研究领域,结合天赋论和心灵论的观点,以及 Corder(1967)的“内在大纲”理论和 Selinker(1972)中介语概念的提出,都有力地推动了 70 年代第二语言习得顺序的研究(Dulay & Burt, 1973,1974;Cazden, Cacino, Rosansky & Schumann, 1975,etc)的广泛开展(转引自 Ellis,1999:30)。在 80 年代以后国外习得顺序的研究对象也包括了英语为外语的学习者,如Makino(1979,1980)、Tono(2002)、Izumi&Isahara(2004)对日本语者的英语语素习得顺序进行了探究;JUANARDéBOL BAREA(2012)以西班牙学习英语的外语学习者为研究对象,探究西班牙语者在习得外语英语的过程中呈现出的习得顺序。
            …………
             
            1.2 本研究选题的目的和意义
            本研究致力于探究中国大学生的英语习得顺序,考查的内容主要集中在英语句法方面。基于汉英两种语言语序的角度把英语句式分为四大类英语语序结构,分别为英汉语序准相似结构,英汉语序半相似结构,英汉语序差异结构以及英语独有语序结构。本文的研究目的主要包括:1) 探究中国学生对四大类英语语序结构的习得顺序;2)探究学生对四类英语语序结构的习得顺序与学生英语学习水平之间的相关性。论文选题的意义至少包括以下两点:(1)国外的习得顺序研究大都表明了学习者在语言习得的过程中对某些语法项目(如语素或否定结构等)遵循着内在的、普遍的、大体相似的习得顺序,探究我国英语学习者在外语学习过程中所遵循的习得顺序,有助于外语教师更好地了解学习者在学习外语的过程中内在的习得规律。(2)本研究对我国英语课堂教学中关于句法的教学内容的安排有着重要的指导意义。句法为学生英语语法学习的重要内容,而基于本研究从语序的角度对英语句式作出了的新的分类,外语教师通过了解了学生对不同英语语序结构的习得顺序,能更好地依据学生的习得顺序安排英语句法的教学内容,提高中国学生英语语法学习效率。
            …………
             
            第二章 文献综述
             
            2.1 国外习得顺序研究综述
            “习得顺序”这一课题最早在国外开始受到研究者们的关注,经历了较长的研究历程,对于该课题的研究所考查的英语语法项目主要包括了语素和句法结构,接下来分别对国外这两大类的研究的内容及成果进行综述。1)他仔细记录了这三名儿童对 14 个英语语法词素的习得情况,语言样本从实验对象的两周岁开始采集,通过录音的方式,每隔一至两周收集一次,直至他们四周岁为止。2)为了避免语料收集过程中儿童产生的自然语料的随机性带来的分析数据的困难,Brown 在该实验中通过采用语言样本的平均长度(MLU,mean length ofutterance)和强制语境(OC, obligatory context)的方法来获取分析数据,并规定了判断语素习得的标准:如果在连续三次收集的某一个儿童的语言样本中,某一语素在强制语境中出现的准确率为百分之九十以上,那么该语素就可以被判断为被该儿童习得。3)最后,根据研究结果进行分析后,Brown 发现这三名儿童按照大体相同的顺序学习英语的语素,由于这一致的顺序是通过测量受试平均句长得出的,所以该研究得出这 14 个英语语素的平均习得顺序(mean acquisition order),分别为:1.进行时-ing; 2\3.介词 in\on;4.名词复数-s; 5.不规则动词过去式;6.所有格’s;7.完全系动词 be; 8.冠词 the; 9.规则动词过去式;10.第三人称单数 s/es;11.第三人称单数 does/has;12.完全式助动词 be;13.简缩式系词’s;14.简缩式助动词’s。4)而 Brown(1973)最后也探讨了影响语素习得顺序的几个可能因素,包括语素在父母话语中产生的频率、语法转换的复杂性及语义复杂性等因素,分析后得出第一个因素的可能性很小,而后两个因素在很大程度上影响了习得顺序;5)作为语素习得顺序的开创性研究,Brown 的研究从研究方法、实验步骤和实验结果分析等多个方面为之后开展的大量相关研究提供了依据,具有非常重要的借鉴意义。
            ………
             
            2.2 国内习得顺序研究综述
            我国研究者在 90 年代开始关注习得顺序的相关研究, 对于习得顺序在国内语言界的定义,最早始于蒋祖康(1995)对国外这一课题的理论研究的介绍。在《语法习得次序与语法教学》一文中,他引入了国外习得顺序研究的两个相关概念,“自然路径”(naturalroute)和“语法习得次序”(sequence of development),并从语素和否定句两个方面对当时国内使用的两种教材的语法次序进行分析,发现教材对语素和否定句的引入次序与国外研究者得出的学习者的习得顺序有较大差异,得出当时的教材的语法次序并不参考学习者的习得次序,而国外研究者发现的学习者习得过程的这一普遍规律,说明语法教学的次序应该充分考虑学习者的习得顺序,但是由于该时期对习得次序的研究还处于浅显的阶段,该学者也强调并不能把它看作绝对的准则,而习得顺序的研究发现对于外语教学有着重要的指导意义和参考价值。戴曼纯(1998)回顾了国外自然习得顺序研究的由来、研究的内容和方法,主要针对该类型研究在考查的语言知识(仅限语素、否定词、疑问词等)的局限性、习得顺序的标准的片面性(实际为语素习得正确率顺序)、不符合语言习得的实际情况等方面提出了质疑,并得出结论说明国外“自然习得顺序”假设有待进一步探索。随后,国内的研究者开始更为全面地关注习得顺序这一课题的相关研究。主要包括对词汇、语法词素和句法结构的习得顺序的探究。其中,在词缀习得方面,刘平,孟庆娟(2006)初探了第一语言与第二语言词汇习得顺序之间的异同,赵玮婷(2007)通过词汇培训、词汇测试以及个别访谈,运用定量分析和定性分析的方法,对比研究了我国非英语专业大学生学习英语三类实词,即形容词、名词、动词,所体现的不同习得顺序;吴怡(2007)主要探究了中国学生(高中生、大一专科生)对英语词缀习得顺序。围绕语素习得顺序假设进行研究的来自赵云峰(2005)、阐智文(2007)和吕常福(2009)。前两位研究者都是以初中生为研究对象,探究了中国中学生的语法词素的习得顺序;而吕常福(2009)以 4-M模型中的四类语素(内容语素,早期系统语素,晚期桥梁系统语素和晚期外来者系统语素)为考查项目,验证了 4-M 理论中的三个假设,并得出了学生对这四类语素的习得顺序。
            ……….
             
            第三章 理论基础..... 14
            3.1Krashen 的“自然习得顺序假说”和 Pienemann 的“可教性假说”......... 14
            3.2 Chomsky 的普遍语法理论及“普遍语法完全可及观”......14
            3.3 句法结构理论.......... 15
            3.4 英语语序结构的分类 ...... 17
            第四章 英语语序结构习得顺序实证研究.....39
            4.1 研究问题.......... 39
            4.2 研究对象......... 39
            4.3 研究工具和过程..... 39
            4.4 研究结果分析及讨论...... 40
            第五章 研究结论....... 58 
            5.1 研究主要发现和意义..... 58
            5.2 本研究的不足及未来研究的建议......... 59
             
            第四章 英语语序结构习得顺序实证研究
             
            4.1 研究问题
            基于上文中英语语序结构的分类,本文拟探究中国学生对这四类英语语序结构的习得顺序,并对学生对四类英语语序结构的习得顺序与学生英语水平之间的相关性进行初探。本研究的受试为笔者所在高校山东师范大学的学生,其中包括英语专业学生 40 人,非英语专业学生 203 人。外国语学院全国英语专业四级考试通过率 95%的英语专业三年级学生设为高级组,非英语专业分为中级组和初级组,其中管理科学与工程学院全国大学生英语四级考试通过率为 92%的信息管理专业二年级学生(普通类)为中级组,参加测试人数为 131。传媒学院大学英语二级考试通过率仅为 43%的广播电视编导专业二年级学生(艺术类)为初级组,参加测试人数为 72,本研究拟从每组中随机抽样 20 名学生,所需实验受试总数为 60。将每组参加测试的全部学生编号序号,由于初级组和高级组总体数量较小,所以采用简单随机抽样法,高级组最后抽出的 20 名受试编号是:25,27,01,,34,,04,02,29,09,30,31,18,10,38,20,39,08,32,36,11,03。初级组最后抽出的 20名受试编号为:56,27,01,34,04,02,48,63,29,30,46,50,31,18,54,45,10,38,20,51。而中级组参加测试总体较大,所以采用系统随机抽样法(文秋芳,俞洪亮,周维杰,2004:92),用总体的总数除以样本的大小,得数为 6.55,四舍五入后得出抽样间距即 7,中级组最后抽出的 20 名受试编号为:46,53,60,67,74,81,88,95,102,109,116,123,130,6,13,20,27,34,41,48。
            ……..
             
            结论
             
            本研究致力于探究中国大学生的英语习得顺序,考查的内容主要集中在英语句法方面。本文作者基于汉英两种语言语序的角度把英语句式分为四大类结构,分别为英汉语序准相似结构,英汉语序半相似结构,英汉语序差异性结构以及英语独有语序结构。采用汉译英测试方法,对不同英语水平(初级、中级、高级)的 60 名高校学生进行实验调查和分析。本研究的实验调查和数据分析证明,初级组学生的四类英语语序结构使用频率的百分比排序和四类英语语序结构的使用的正确率大小顺序均为:英汉语序准相似结构>英汉语序半相似结构>英语独有语序结构>英汉语序差异结构;中级组的学生的四类英语语序结构使用频率的百分比排序和四类英语语序结构的使用的正确率大小顺序均为:英汉语序准相似结构>英语独有语序结构>英汉语序半相似结构>英汉语序差异结构;高级组的学生的四类英语语序结构使用频率的百分比排序和四类英语语序结构的使用的正确率大小顺序均为:英汉语序准相似结构>英语独有语序结构>英汉语序半相似结构>英汉语序差异结构。本研究发现不同英语水平的学生对四类英语语序结构的习得顺序有一定差异。即英语水平较低的英语学习者(初级组学生)的四类英语语序结构的习得顺序表现为(按先后顺序):英汉语序准相似结构、英汉语序半相似结构、英语独有语序结构、英汉语序差异结构;英语水平较高的英语学习者(中级组和高级组学生)会呈现出大体相似的英语语序结构习得顺序,表现为(按先后顺序):英汉语序准相似结构、英语独有语序结构、英汉语序半相似结构、英汉语序差异结构。该研究发现表明学生的四类英语语序结构的习得顺序与其英语水平相关。
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            参考文献(略)

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇八

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 The Origin of the Study
            I had been a high school English teacher for 13 years before I went to ZhejiangUniversity to receive further education. I was very tired of daily teaching which waslike a dull routine. Almost for every middle school besides mine, the number ofstudents who go to university has become the dominant assessment criterion of theeducation quality of a school and the teaching competence of a teacher. Suchphenomenon made me depressed.Luckily, during my study in Zhejiang University, I met Professor Wu. In hisclass, I began to think of the educational phenomenon in a critical perspective way.Then I connected what I've learned in the university and what I've experienced andthought during my high school teaching. An idea occurred to me all of a sudden that ayoung teacher called Ding in my office,a typical example of challenging the currentteaching situation and straggling to be a more qualified teacher can be the object of mystudy. Thus I conducted interviews with her as well as observed the English classes shegave, through which I successfully revealed the landscape of an English teacher'sclassroom teaching. Bit by bit, I found that although I had conducted an investigationon Ding's identity, belief, it was not enough to depict a vivid teacher's professional lifebecause of the deficiency of some other valuable data. Therefore, I conducted furtherinterviews with her, her students and her colleagues, observed more classes andlearned more about her memoir to supply as many as essential data towards a moreholistic understanding of the professional life of English teacher and the underlyingreasons contributing to the emergence of such a kind teacher. By studying Ding's innerworld and her struggling,I intended to gain a better understanding of her growing upand being mature in her professional life.
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            1.2 Aim and Rationale of the Thesis
            Nowadays teachers' lives and work is characterized by compliance withbureaucratic controls, disaffection and lack of critical reflection. For fulfilling theexternal demands for observable and performance outcome of teachers' work, theyoften lose the battle of winning students' heart of learning. They are only struggling tomaintain the psychic and emotional energy essential to their work rather than connectin the face-to-face, voice-to-voice, and heart-to-heart interactions of the classroom(Palmer, 2002). Most of them are lost in the search for their new professional identity. Wallace(2002:281) stated that those who can survive aad thrive are the ones who cangenerate their own professional dynamic. Flexible professional knowledge, love,responsibility and vigor are what a popular teacher needs to own as well as teachingskills. For teachers, the most important is not to get some knowledge from an essay,but to enhance their sensitivity on "take-for-granted" things happening in daily life.Therefore, they can reflect on curriculum constantly and achieve self-emancipation inprofessional practice.
            ………
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Theories on Teacher's Professional Development
            As Liu Runqing (cited in Richards and Nunan, 2000: F5) pointed out, the threeterms ("teacher training", “teacher education" and "teacher development,,)used toconceptualize the idea of teachers' professional growth reflect the approximate threetransformation stages in the field. Due to the connotation of the previous twothatteachers are like passive object to be shaped, "teacher development" thus becomes apopular term among researchers and teachers,recognizing teachers' initiatives as theengines for their professional growth. However, while the term is frequently andwidely accepted and used, divergent focus attached to ‘development’ occurred.Because teaching can take up a lot of our lives in one way or another, an increasingnumber of us want to find out more about ourselves, our teaching and the relationshipbetween the two. Then we ask ourselves, how can we use what we discover to guideour future development? In individual terms, how can I become the best teacher I canbe for my students (Edge,1993)?What is meant by professional development for teachers? We'll take as ourstarting point a definition from Dale Lange, who has worked for many years inpreservice foreign language teacher education in the United States. He writes, “Teacherdevelopment is a term used in the literature to describe a process of continualintellectual, experiential, and attitudinal growth of teachers”(1990,250).While someprofessional development certainly occurs in preservice and inservice trainingprograms, Lange,s use of the term allows for "continued growth both before andthroughout a career "(ibid.). He adds that "the intent here is to suggest that teacherscontinue to evolve in the use, adaptation, and application of their art and craft" (ibid.).
            ……….
             
            2.2 Personal Practical Knowledge
            It is now widely acknowledged that there is a body of knowledge that teachersshare. Much of the current research agenda on teaching includes practical knowledge(Elbaz, 1983),tacit knowledge (Polanyi,1966), knowledge-in-action (Schon,1983),craft knowledge (Tom & Valli, 1990), and personal practical knowledge (Clandinin &Connelly, 1985). Those types of knowledge refer to teacher knowledge revolved inpractice that is experiential and implicit (Eraut,1988). In the epistemological stance ofknowledge constructed and reconstructed through experience, knowledge should notbe seen as one separated from the knower (Dewey & Bentley,1949,cited from Olson,1995). Actually, knowledge is depicted as socially constructed and the interactionbetween individuals.Elbaz (1983:5) defines that practical knowledge focuses attention on the actionand decision-oriented nature of the teacher's situation, and regard her knowledge as afunction of her response to that situation .This type of knowledge is oriented to aparticular practical context and social context, which is highly experiential andpersonal (Tsui, 2003: 45). Practical knowledge refers to teachers' knowledge ofclassroom situations and the practical dilemmas they are faced while carrying outactions with particular purpose in these settings (Carter, 1990). Fenstermacher (1994)described practical knowledge as teachers' knowledge, the knowledge for teachers.
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            Chapter Three Research Methodology..........14
            3.1 The Research Setting .........14
            3.2 Research Method .........14
            3.2.1 Case Study .........15
            3.2.2 Narrative Inquiry......... 16
            3.3 Data Collection .........18
            3.4.DataAnalysis.........19
            Chapter Four Research Result......... 20
            4.1 Critical Analysis of Ding,s Professional Life.........20
            4.2 Analysis of Ding's Classroom Discourse .........24
            4.2.1 Authenticity ----Classroom Is Life .........27
            4.2.2 Affective I-statement .........28
            4.2.3 Being a Teaching Material Controller.........31
            4.2.4 A Mentor during Reflection-in-action.........33
            4.3 Reflection on Ding's Identity......... 33
            Chapter Five Conclusion .........41
             
            Chapter Four Research Result
             
            4.1 Critical Analysis of Ding's Professional Life
            Ding graduated from Zhejiang Normal University in 2003 and majored in Englisheducation. She has been teaching for eleven years. She chose to be a teachervoluntarily, because of the influence from her mother, a country primary school teacher.Her mother devoted herself to teaching in spite of the hardships and low pay. Thus shegained great respect from her students. So when she filled in the wishes for theentrance exam of college, the first wish was to be a teacher. She worked very hard atuniversity and attained excellent results. Thanks to her efforts, she entered a famouskey high school——Xiaoshan high school. With great passion, her English teaching style wasn't so conditional. She gavestudents plenty of opportunities to practice and tried her best to motivate their learninginterests. But an increase in student-student talk in the classroom may be interpreted asa sign of loss of control and an indication of the failure of the new strategy. What'sworse, owing to the low marks of her students, she was surrounded by a flood ofdistrust and dissatisfaction from the school leaders. As a consequence, she had tochange her teaching mode and paid emphasis on transmitting the knowledge thatwould be tested. Woodill et al(1994) consider part of being human is to be acceptedand rooted in a human community. There is a need for consensual validation throughmeaningful relationships for a person to maintain an identity. The professionalidentity(Gitlin, 1992; Kelchtermans, 1993; Boyle&Skopp, 1998; Wenger, 1998;Connelley&Clandinin, 1999; McLaiighlin&Talbert,2001) is shaped by social,culturaland institutional conditions, such as examination pressure, technical measurement oftheir classroom behavior (Nias,1989 &Van den Berg, 2002).
            ……….
             
            Conclusion
             
            Teacher development is a process of personal development. The goal of teachereducation is not to graduate people who "know" a lot about teaching, but to graduategood teachers who understand themselves as teachers. Fullan (1992) arguedmeaningful and substantial changes in teaching come after self-understanding in theform of reflection on personal and practical knowledge. To understand teacherdevelopment involves understanding not only the knowledge and skills that the teacherholds but also understand what sort of person the teacher is and the context in whichthe teacher works. We understand teacher development is actually a process ofself-realization in the traditional philosophical sense. The route constructed for teacherdevelopment is based on this understanding.This case study has revealed some challenges and struggles for teachers'professional development by describing a middle school teacher's professional life andher view on her profession. Through my research,I strongly feel the necessity of theconnection of factors both from a teacher's self efforts and the supports from theircolleagues, the teaching materials and the working places they are in. With regard toteachers' professional development, it is worthwhile to popularize a school-basedin-service training program in middle schools. This program is particularly intended toaddress those problems in practice that are hindering teachers' professionaldevelopment. The idea of school-based in-service training dates back to the 1960s(YangXiuzhi 2002). Such training allows schools to design their own training plans,objectives and contents. More importantly, we should base those factors on the schooland teachers' specific practical needs. Teachers are expected to develop themselves inpractice. This perspective of teacher development is by nature a transition for teachers.During the process, “teachers as learners" and “schools as learning communities"(Clarke &Hollingworth 2002: 949).
            ………
            References (omitted)

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇九

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 The Origin of the Study
            I had been a high school English teacher for 13 years before I went to ZhejiangUniversity to receive further education. I was very tired of daily teaching which waslike a dull routine. Almost for every middle school besides mine, the number ofstudents who go to university has become the dominant assessment criterion of theeducation quality of a school and the teaching competence of a teacher. Suchphenomenon made me depressed.Luckily, during my study in Zhejiang University, I met Professor Wu. In hisclass, I began to think of the educational phenomenon in a critical perspective way.Then I connected what I've learned in the university and what I've experienced andthought during my high school teaching. An idea occurred to me all of a sudden that ayoung teacher called Ding in my office,a typical example of challenging the currentteaching situation and straggling to be a more qualified teacher can be the object of mystudy. Thus I conducted interviews with her as well as observed the English classes shegave, through which I successfully revealed the landscape of an English teacher'sclassroom teaching. Bit by bit, I found that although I had conducted an investigationon Ding's identity, belief, it was not enough to depict a vivid teacher's professional lifebecause of the deficiency of some other valuable data. Therefore, I conducted furtherinterviews with her, her students and her colleagues, observed more classes andlearned more about her memoir to supply as many as essential data towards a moreholistic understanding of the professional life of English teacher and the underlyingreasons contributing to the emergence of such a kind teacher. By studying Ding's innerworld and her struggling,I intended to gain a better understanding of her growing upand being mature in her professional life.
            …………
             
            1.2 Aim and Rationale of the Thesis
            Nowadays teachers' lives and work is characterized by compliance withbureaucratic controls, disaffection and lack of critical reflection. For fulfilling theexternal demands for observable and performance outcome of teachers' work, theyoften lose the battle of winning students' heart of learning. They are only struggling tomaintain the psychic and emotional energy essential to their work rather than connectin the face-to-face, voice-to-voice, and heart-to-heart interactions of the classroom(Palmer, 2002). Most of them are lost in the search for their new professional identity. Wallace(2002:281) stated that those who can survive aad thrive are the ones who cangenerate their own professional dynamic. Flexible professional knowledge, love,responsibility and vigor are what a popular teacher needs to own as well as teachingskills. For teachers, the most important is not to get some knowledge from an essay,but to enhance their sensitivity on "take-for-granted" things happening in daily life.Therefore, they can reflect on curriculum constantly and achieve self-emancipation inprofessional practice.
            ………
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Theories on Teacher's Professional Development
            As Liu Runqing (cited in Richards and Nunan, 2000: F5) pointed out, the threeterms ("teacher training", “teacher education" and "teacher development,,)used toconceptualize the idea of teachers' professional growth reflect the approximate threetransformation stages in the field. Due to the connotation of the previous twothatteachers are like passive object to be shaped, "teacher development" thus becomes apopular term among researchers and teachers,recognizing teachers' initiatives as theengines for their professional growth. However, while the term is frequently andwidely accepted and used, divergent focus attached to ‘development’ occurred.Because teaching can take up a lot of our lives in one way or another, an increasingnumber of us want to find out more about ourselves, our teaching and the relationshipbetween the two. Then we ask ourselves, how can we use what we discover to guideour future development? In individual terms, how can I become the best teacher I canbe for my students (Edge,1993)?What is meant by professional development for teachers? We'll take as ourstarting point a definition from Dale Lange, who has worked for many years inpreservice foreign language teacher education in the United States. He writes, “Teacherdevelopment is a term used in the literature to describe a process of continualintellectual, experiential, and attitudinal growth of teachers”(1990,250).While someprofessional development certainly occurs in preservice and inservice trainingprograms, Lange,s use of the term allows for "continued growth both before andthroughout a career "(ibid.). He adds that "the intent here is to suggest that teacherscontinue to evolve in the use, adaptation, and application of their art and craft" (ibid.).
            ……….
             
            2.2 Personal Practical Knowledge
            It is now widely acknowledged that there is a body of knowledge that teachersshare. Much of the current research agenda on teaching includes practical knowledge(Elbaz, 1983),tacit knowledge (Polanyi,1966), knowledge-in-action (Schon,1983),craft knowledge (Tom & Valli, 1990), and personal practical knowledge (Clandinin &Connelly, 1985). Those types of knowledge refer to teacher knowledge revolved inpractice that is experiential and implicit (Eraut,1988). In the epistemological stance ofknowledge constructed and reconstructed through experience, knowledge should notbe seen as one separated from the knower (Dewey & Bentley,1949,cited from Olson,1995). Actually, knowledge is depicted as socially constructed and the interactionbetween individuals.Elbaz (1983:5) defines that practical knowledge focuses attention on the actionand decision-oriented nature of the teacher's situation, and regard her knowledge as afunction of her response to that situation .This type of knowledge is oriented to aparticular practical context and social context, which is highly experiential andpersonal (Tsui, 2003: 45). Practical knowledge refers to teachers' knowledge ofclassroom situations and the practical dilemmas they are faced while carrying outactions with particular purpose in these settings (Carter, 1990). Fenstermacher (1994)described practical knowledge as teachers' knowledge, the knowledge for teachers.
            ………..
             
            Chapter Three Research Methodology..........14
            3.1 The Research Setting .........14
            3.2 Research Method .........14
            3.2.1 Case Study .........15
            3.2.2 Narrative Inquiry......... 16
            3.3 Data Collection .........18
            3.4.DataAnalysis.........19
            Chapter Four Research Result......... 20
            4.1 Critical Analysis of Ding,s Professional Life.........20
            4.2 Analysis of Ding's Classroom Discourse .........24
            4.2.1 Authenticity ----Classroom Is Life .........27
            4.2.2 Affective I-statement .........28
            4.2.3 Being a Teaching Material Controller.........31
            4.2.4 A Mentor during Reflection-in-action.........33
            4.3 Reflection on Ding's Identity......... 33
            Chapter Five Conclusion .........41
             
            Chapter Four Research Result
             
            4.1 Critical Analysis of Ding's Professional Life
            Ding graduated from Zhejiang Normal University in 2003 and majored in Englisheducation. She has been teaching for eleven years. She chose to be a teachervoluntarily, because of the influence from her mother, a country primary school teacher.Her mother devoted herself to teaching in spite of the hardships and low pay. Thus shegained great respect from her students. So when she filled in the wishes for theentrance exam of college, the first wish was to be a teacher. She worked very hard atuniversity and attained excellent results. Thanks to her efforts, she entered a famouskey high school——Xiaoshan high school. With great passion, her English teaching style wasn't so conditional. She gavestudents plenty of opportunities to practice and tried her best to motivate their learninginterests. But an increase in student-student talk in the classroom may be interpreted asa sign of loss of control and an indication of the failure of the new strategy. What'sworse, owing to the low marks of her students, she was surrounded by a flood ofdistrust and dissatisfaction from the school leaders. As a consequence, she had tochange her teaching mode and paid emphasis on transmitting the knowledge thatwould be tested. Woodill et al(1994) consider part of being human is to be acceptedand rooted in a human community. There is a need for consensual validation throughmeaningful relationships for a person to maintain an identity. The professionalidentity(Gitlin, 1992; Kelchtermans, 1993; Boyle&Skopp, 1998; Wenger, 1998;Connelley&Clandinin, 1999; McLaiighlin&Talbert,2001) is shaped by social,culturaland institutional conditions, such as examination pressure, technical measurement oftheir classroom behavior (Nias,1989 &Van den Berg, 2002).
            ……….
             
            Conclusion
             
            Teacher development is a process of personal development. The goal of teachereducation is not to graduate people who "know" a lot about teaching, but to graduategood teachers who understand themselves as teachers. Fullan (1992) arguedmeaningful and substantial changes in teaching come after self-understanding in theform of reflection on personal and practical knowledge. To understand teacherdevelopment involves understanding not only the knowledge and skills that the teacherholds but also understand what sort of person the teacher is and the context in whichthe teacher works. We understand teacher development is actually a process ofself-realization in the traditional philosophical sense. The route constructed for teacherdevelopment is based on this understanding.This case study has revealed some challenges and struggles for teachers'professional development by describing a middle school teacher's professional life andher view on her profession. Through my research,I strongly feel the necessity of theconnection of factors both from a teacher's self efforts and the supports from theircolleagues, the teaching materials and the working places they are in. With regard toteachers' professional development, it is worthwhile to popularize a school-basedin-service training program in middle schools. This program is particularly intended toaddress those problems in practice that are hindering teachers' professionaldevelopment. The idea of school-based in-service training dates back to the 1960s(YangXiuzhi 2002). Such training allows schools to design their own training plans,objectives and contents. More importantly, we should base those factors on the schooland teachers' specific practical needs. Teachers are expected to develop themselves inpractice. This perspective of teacher development is by nature a transition for teachers.During the process, “teachers as learners" and “schools as learning communities"(Clarke &Hollingworth 2002: 949).
            ………
            References (omitted)

            2018年精选英语论文范文篇十

             
            Chapter I Introduction
             
            1.1 Significance of Selecting this Topic
            Under the background of quality education, the importance of English is becoming moreand more prominent. Fluency knack in English is an important symbol of high quality talents.As a compulsory subject and with the aggravation of the employment situation for collegegraduates, English has to be laid emphasis on by all kinds of universities and got the necessaryattention from all college students. English teaching quality has an important relationship withthe graduates-quality-oriented reputation of colleges and universities, especially with educatingmodern talents to adapt to social development. Therefore, how to effectively carry out collegeEnglish classroom teaching and improve students‘ English level, commonly attracts collegeEnglishteachers‘ attentionto promote their research. According to ―College English Curriculum Requirements (hereinafter referred to as―Requirements) promulgated in 2007 by the Ministry of Education,1college English courses,participate in the credit system in the school system to keep the undergraduate accounting for10% of the total credits (16 credits). According to the Requirements, college English teachingrequirements are divided into three levels, namely, general requirements, higher requirementsand highest requirements. The design of college English courses should take full considerationto listening and speaking ability, and give enough learning hours and credits; should extensivelymake use of advanced information technology; should develop and construct courses based oncomputer and network; should provide students with a good language learning environment.
            …….
             
            1.2 Purpose and Importance of the Research
            The purposes of the research to the application of the Inquiry Teaching based onConstructivism in college English classroom mainly include the followings:
            (1) Provide college English teachers new teaching ideas and teaching methods. Manycollege English teachers are unclear about exploratory teaching, even there is a certain degreeof misreading about this wayof teaching, and also theydon‘t know how to carryout in teachingpractice. This study will present the inquiry-based teaching thought and essence to Englishteachers, so as to make them grasp the essence of inquiry teaching, receive the new teachingidea, change the traditional teaching method and mode, and exert students‘ initiative andenthusiasm. In addition, in the process of in-depth analysis and study, we also can get someresearch by-products, such as locating of the roles of teachers and students, students‘ emotionaldevelopment, the development of the comprehensive quality and so on.
            (2) To promote the reform of college English teaching, and cultivate students‘autonomouslearning abilities. This study will help the reform of the college English teaching method andteaching contents, and shift the teaching focus from the ―tests to ―students. According to thedifferent needs of different students, different stages, we can set different problems, to make theteaching more personalized and flexible and make the students‘ subjectivity behave well.Students can achieve the meaning construction of old and new knowledge and skills finish tasksindependently, so as to cultivate students‘ abilityof autonomous learning.
            ……..
             
            Chapter II Literature Review
             
            2.1 Definition of Involved Concepts
            Language is a tool of human communication as well as an important carrier of nationalculture and national spirit. The national language is not only a symbol system orcommunication tool, but also a system of people‘s understanding of the world. Language canreflect the cultural spirit of a nation, specifically covers philosophy, cognitive style, values,religious beliefs, aesthetic taste and moral consciousness. Language has a nature of beinginstrumental and humanity, so it is with the language education.College English teaching is an integrated teaching system including a variety of teachingmodes and teaching means, which treats the foreign language teaching theory as the guide, andthe English language knowledge, application skills, cross-cultural communication and learningstrategy as the main content. The teaching aim of college English is to cultivate the students‘comprehensive application ability for the English language, especially listening and speakingskills, in order to make them communicate effectively and extensively in English. At the sametime, their ability of autonomous learning and comprehensive cultural quality can be improvedto meet the need of social development in our country and international communication.
            ………
             
            2.2 Relevant Studies on Inquiry Teaching at Home and Abroad
            After doing research into all the literature works on inquiry teaching in foreign cultures,we can easily conclude that the researches abroad are methodic and systematical, which refer toa wide rang of aspects on related theories including the origin of inquiry teaching, the varioustranslation for inquiry teaching, elements of composing inquiry teaching, models and thepreconditions of conducting inquiry teaching. What is more, there are also a great many studieswhich concentrate on the implementation of inquiry teaching in concrete subjects. Oliver (2006)initiated an Inquiry-based Teaching program as a step of a junior class. And he expressed andassessed its effects on communications and advanced teaching aids. Hutchings and O‘Rourke(2003) put forward a kind of new course combining the Inquiry Teaching with the traditionalteaching mode. In the process of teaching the basic theories, Justice et al. (2002) described anInquiry Teaching for the students in colleges and tested the success of it. Spronken Smith et al(2007) did the research into the Inquiry Teaching method and illustrated the study of it ingeography course, covering from the class inquiry activities to the whole projects and the goodsides and problems for teachers and students during this kind of class. Muuk konen et al. (2005)carried out an Inquiry Teaching cognitive psychology curriculum and treated it as the basiccourse for study. In the field about medicine, Houlden et al. (2004) adopted Inquiry teaching inthe medical course to figure out students‘ understanding of the importance of the program andto study the effects of this kind of teaching mode on students‘determination whenthey started ajob-choosing. Rangachari (2006) applied Inquiry Teaching in the sophomore year on the coursecalled ―Social Life of Scientific Knowledge. By means of comparing with the traditionalmethod, researchers have noticed that some advantages of Inquiry Teaching over the traditionalone and Inquiry Teaching can somehow contribute to improving students‘ academic scores. 
            ………..
             
            Chapter III Theoretical Basis ....... 20
            3.1 Constructivism.......... 20
            3.2 Hu manis m......... 24
            Chapter IV Research Design........ 26
            4.1 Research Questions.... 26
            4.2 Subjects ..... 26
            4.3 Research Methodology ...... 27
            4.4 Experiment Procedure ....... 28
            4.5 Principles of the Teaching Design ...... 30
            Chapter V Data Analysis and Discussion...... 35
            5.1. Analysis of Questionnaire Survey...... 35
            5.2 Analysis of Tests........ 37
            5.3 Analysis of the Interview .... 39
            5.4 Analysis of the Observation ....... 41
            5.5 Discussion ........ 41
             
            Chapter V Data Analysis and Discussion
             
            5.1. Analysis of Questionnaire Survey
            As is mentioned in chapter IV, two questionnaires with the same questions were designedfor both the experimental class and the controlled class before and after the experiment. Thequestionnaire papers are collected during the class. 65 copies were given out and 63 effectivecopies were withdrawn in the first questionnaire; and in the second time, 65 copies were givenout and 64 effective copies were withdrawn. The analysis of the survey is as follows. From the table above, we can find that at the beginning of the semester, the mean score ofthe questionnaire between the two classes has no distinguished differences. But after a semester,the experimental class has an obvious improvement than the controlled class. The mean score ofthe experimental class went up obviously: the score of ―Interest of Learning English is22.3940>15.8485, the score of ―Ability of Self-study is 20.3030>15.4242, the score of―Attitude toward Inquiry Teaching is 21.9696>14.5152. In the pre-questionnaire, students‘score of ―interest of learning English in the controlled class is higher than in the experimentalclass (17.2500>15.8485), and at the end of the semester, we find an opposite result(18.9062<22.3940). Though students may understand that learning English is very important,but without right and proper guidance, their ability to self -study will not increase distinctly.Because of no contact with inquiry teaching, the ―attitude toward inquiry of the controlledclass has no significant improvement.
            ………….
             
            Conclusion
             
            College English classroom should provide the students not only the book knowledge, butalso a kind of learning ability. In this study, through the teacher‘s guidance to college students,and the exploring of the knowledge, we obtained the following findings:
            (1) The inquiry teaching method based on constructivism in college English teaching canhelp teachers understand better and think more effective of their teaching strategies in theteaching process. To a certain extent, it is effective to improve the teaching quality. It is goodfor a teacher‘s future development.
            (2) The analysis of the questionnaires and interview shows that inquiry teaching method notonly gives impact on students‘ classroom learning, it can also affect their thinking ability andattitude towards problems in daily life. This teaching mode fully mobilizes the enthusiasm ofstudents and reflects the dominant position of the students. With the teacher as a guide, studentscan analyze and solve problems step by step. They learn ―how to learn, no longer ―in order tolearn. Learning has become a habit. What‘s more, students become the masters of learning inthe classroom and that has change the original dull atmosphere in the classroom.
            ………
            References (omitted)

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