1.1 Research Background
High proficiency in writing is a key to success in a wide variety of situations andprofessions; meanwhile it is of critical importance for students to apply for promising jobs.Writing skills for university students are among the overwhelming indicators of success inacademic work during their freshmen year of college (Geiser & Studley, 2001). Writingskills for professionals are critical for their daily work and essential for application andpromotion within their disciplines (Light, 2008). Writing induces the capability ofconstructing logics, articulating ideas, debating opinions, and sharpening multipleperspectives. As a result, effective writing is conducive to associating convincingly withcommunication targets, including teachers, peers, colleagues, coworkers, and thecommunity at large (Crowhurst, 1990). No wonder that writing skill is an indispensible partto be checked for every test at home and abroad，such as TOELF, lELTS，GRE, BEC，CET4, CET6, TEM4，TEM8 and so on.Notwithstanding such manifestation of the significance of writing, it is reported in the2002 National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) report in the U.S.A. that lessthan a third of students in Grade 4 (28%)，Grade 8 (31%), and Grade 12 (21%) scored at orabove proficient levels，and only 2% wrote at advanced levels for all three samples.Moreover, only 9% of Grade 12 Black students and only 28% of Grade 12 White studentswere able to write at a proficient level (National Center for Educational Statistics, 2003).
1.2 Significance of the Research
Based on the CET 4 and CET6 compositions extracted from the CLEC，the study aimsto reveal the relationship between the linguistic features and the writing quality by meansof the advanced software，namely Lexical Frequency Profile, Coh-Metrix3.0 and L2Syntactic Complexity Analyzer for the analysis of vocabulary, syntax and textual cohesion.This study will be of great value mainly for the following two aspects:Firstly, theoretically speaking, the study is going to offer guidance and reference forthe teaching methodology of L2 writing. The study reveals the contribution of lexicaldiversity, syntactic complexity, textual cohesion to writing quality, reflects the mostdecisive factor of the writing quality and analyzes the mutual relationship between thelexical diversity and quality of writing, the syntactic complexity and quality of writing aswell as the textual cohesion and quality of writing. Hopefully, this research will shedsome light on the instruction of CET 4 and 6 writing and provide practical advice.Secondly, practically speaking, the study demonstrates a new direction for thedevelopment of automatic assessment of the writing. The study is to be carried out bothby means of software and labor work to comprehensively examine more than 28variables that might have an impact on writing quality and build the relation modelbetween these related variables and writing scores.
Chapter TwoLITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Lexical Features and Quality of Writing
In the process of L2 writing，students are always perplexed by vocabulary. Leki&Carson (1994) surveyed 128 L2 learners to know about their feelings on the courseEnglish for Academic Purposes (EAP). It is discovered that the strongest zeal for studentsis to improve their language proficiency, especially lexical proficiency. Jordan (1997)obtained the similar conclusion in his study on Chinese students in UK applying for theirmaster degrees, 62% of whom regarded vocabulary as their biggest problem in the processof English writing. Over the past two decades，researchers have attached more and more importance to L2vocabulary studies. As an important element of language proficiency, lexical proficiency isdefined from different perspectives and evaluated by a series of measurements. Meanwhile, lexical proficiency, to a large extent, is embodied by lexical features. As a matter of fact,studies on lexical features have received more and more attention from home and abroadresearchers mainly focusing on total words, lexical diversity (LD) or lexical richness (LR)and lexical complexity (LC), among which lexical diversity or lexical richness has gainedmore popularity for lexical proficiency study.
2.2 Syntactic Features and Quality of Writing
Syntactic complexity (also called syntactic maturity，or linguistic complexity)，isimportant in the prediction of the quality of student writings. Wolfe-Quintero et al. (1998)pointed out that a syntactically complex writer uses a wide variety of both basic andsophisticated structures，while a syntactically simple writer uses only a narrow range ofbasic structures. In the past half century, researchers adopted many different indices tostudy the syntactic complexity and attempted to find out the relationship among the scores,the grades, the ages and the writing quality. Syntactic complexity is defined as “the range of forms that surface in languageproduction and the degree of sophistication of such forms” (Ortega, 2003). It is animportant factor in the second language assessment construct as described in Bachman's(1990) conceptual model of language ability, and therefore is often used as an index oflanguage proficiency and development status of L2 learners. Various studies have proposedand investigated measures of syntactic complexity as well as examined its predictivenessfor language proficiency, in both L2 writing and speaking settings, which will be reviewedrespectively.Syntactic complexity is also called syntactic maturity, referring to the range oflanguage production form and the degree of the form complexity. Therefore，the length ofthe production unit, the amount of the sentence embeddedness and the range of thestructure type are all the subjects of the syntactic complexity (Ortega 2003: 492).
CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY ......... 20
3.1 Composition Collection .........20
3.3 Variables......... 23
3.3.1 Dependent variables......... 25
3.3.2 Independent variables......... 26
3.4 Data Analysis.........28
CHAPTER FOUR DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS.........30
4.1 Quantitative Differences in High- and Low- Proficiency Writings-1ivviv.........30
4.2 Comparison between Quantitative Features of CET 4 ......... 38
4.3 Impacts of Quantitative Features on Writing Quality.........47
5.1 Lexical Diversity and Writing Quality.........47
5.2 Syntactic Complexity and Writing Quality......... 48
5.3 Textual Cohesion and Writing Quality ......... 49
5.1 Lexical Diversity and Writing Quality
U index assessing lexical diversity has showed significant difference between high-and low-proficiency writing both in CET4 and CET6. It may suggest that high-proficiencywritings have displayed more diverse vocabularies, which is different from the study ofWang (2004). In his study, the target students have a similar lexical diversity. Among theindices assessing lexical study in his study, none index has showed significant differencebetween high- and low-proficiency writings or correlated with writings scores. In his study,he explained the possible reason for such a result that there is significant difference inaverage words. However, this result is probably attributed to his measurement of lexicaldiversity. In his study, TTR was employed as an index of lexical diversity, but asmentioned above, TTR is reliable only when texts have the same length. In Wang's study,texts vary in length; thus longer texts tend to have lower TTR. That is why the relationshipbetween lexical diversity and writing quality is blurred. But in this study, we adopted Uindex to measure lexical diversity in CET compositions, for U index can avoid theweakness of TTR and eliminate the influence of text length. Besides, Liu (2003) studied 57second- year college students in two natural classes and found out that vocabulary size hadno immediate effect on writing score. However, the result that lexical diversity has apositive impact on the quality of writing in this study is in accordance with the study ofMcNamara et al. (2001).
This study aims to explore the relationship between lexical features and L2 writingquality with the help of Lexical Frequency Profile, the relationship between syntacticfeatures and L2 writing quality through the use of the computational tool L2 SyntacticComplexity Analyzer and the relationship between cohesive features and second languagewriting quality with the help of the computational tool Coh-Metrix3.0. Meanwhile, thestudy gives us information about the textual representation of different writingproficiencies along multiple textual measurements.This section summarizes the major findings of this study and presents theoretical,methodological and pedagogical implications for L2 writing research. Limitation of thepresent study and suggestions for further studies are raised in the end.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
English writing is an important way of communication, which can enhance the ability oflanguage acquisition in the process of second language learning. As one of the language skills,English writing is very difficult to master. After many years, students still find that their writingis unsatisfactory and have many problems. It is widely acknowledged that much attentionshould be paid to English writing. At present our college English writing teaching is time-consuming and low effectiveness, for teachers spend a lot of time and energy reading andcorrecting students’ compositions, but the efficiency is not high; at the same time, studentsspend a lot of time writing, and the results are not satisfactory.The following conspicuous problems tend to exist in the English writing. First, when givena topic, students tend to think in Chinese and do a translation job. Second, students spend toomuch time avoiding grammatical errors in the process of writing, which leads to the ignoranceof the organization of the compositions in a comprehensive view. Third, enriching the contentduring the writing process is difficult for students, for they fail to support their viewpoints withappropriate examples and strong arguments. English writing is the weakest part in Englishlearning especially for Chinese Vocational college students. According to Basic Teaching Requirements for Vocational College English Course,developing students’ comprehensive abilities to use English language is the teaching aim ofvocational college English. In terms of writing, students should have the ability to master thebasic writing skills and accomplishing writing tasks of different types, including narration,description, argumentation and practical writings like business email or announcement. Besides,their writing should have a clear organization and proper coherence; at the same time, studentsshould be able to write or describe something with adequate content and proper form indifferent situations, such as business situation.
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Research
As we can see, most English class in the vocational colleges is always a big class which contains at least sixty students and in the class students may not receive the feedback fromteacher immediately, although offering feedback is one of the essential tasks. It is helpful andefficient for teachers that students themselves can check other s’ writing and give comments. Sothese two feedbacks have their own roles in the revision. Considering the vocational collegeeducation, examining the practice of teacher feedback and peer feedback on EFL writing is ofgreat importance and necessity. This study is aimed to discuss the effects of teacher feedbackand peer feedback in the English class in order to provide some useful English writing teachingmethod and studying ways for vocational college education. This is not only consistent with thespirit of the new curriculum; at the same time reflects the “student-centered” teachingphilosophy.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Feedback Theory
Feedback is widely seen in education as crucial for both encouraging and consolidatinglearning (Anderson, 1982; Brophy, 1981; Vygotsky, 1978), and the importance has also beenacknowledged in the field of English writing.In language learning, feedback means evaluative remarks which are available to languagelearners concerning their language proficiency or linguistic performance (Larsen-Freeman,2005). In the filed of teaching and learning, feedback is defined as many terms, such asresponse, review, correction, evaluation or comment. No matter what the term is, it can bedefined as “comments or information learners receive on the success of a learning task, eitherfrom the teacher or from other learners (Richards et al., 1998)”.A more detailed description of feedback in terms of writing is that the feedback is “inputfrom a reader to a writer with the effect of providing information to the writer for revision”(Keh, 1990). From the presentation of general grammatical explanation to the specific errorcorrection is all the range of feedback. The purpose is to improve the writing ability of studentsby the description and correction of the errors.The role of feedback is to make writers learn where he or she has misled or confused thereader by supplying insufficient information, illogical organization, lack of development ofideas, or something like inappropriate word-choice or tense (Keh, 1990).
2.2 Theoretical Foundations of Feedback
Collaborative learning, also called cooperative learning, is the second theoretical basis thatback for the application of feedback in writing class. It is feasible that students communicateactively with each other in the classroom.There is a clear difference between students-centered and traditional teacher-ledclassrooms. Students’ enthusiasm of participating in group discussion strengthens whenstudents are completely absorbed in collaborative learning in the students-centered class. Whenstudents get together to work out a problem, ideas are conveyed among them and immediatefeedback is received from their group members.Collaborative learning emphasizes that both students and instructors participate and interact actively (Hiltz, 1997). Collaborative learning is viewed from both behavioral andhumanistic perspectives (Slavin 1987). The behavioral perspective stresses that students areencouraged to study under a cooperative situation and rewarded in the form of group rather thanindividual ones. As for the humanistic perspective, more understanding and better performanceare gained from the interaction among peers. So it is obvious that collaborative learning putsmore attention to the influence of peers, which is different from the previous English writingteaching theories(Johnson and Johnson, 1986).Collaborative learning make the students work and learn together to maximize their ownand other’s study.
Chapter Three Research Methodology...... 21
3.1 Research Questions ......21
3.2 Subjects ....21
3.3 Instruments ....22
3.3.1 Writing Tasks......23
3.3.3 Pre-test and Post-test ....24
3.4 Research Design......24
3.5 Data Collection........27
Chapter Four Results Presentation and Discussion..... 29
4.1 Students’ Changed Writing Proficiency .....29
4.2 Students’ Changed Interest in English Learning and Writing .......36
Chapter Five Conclusion ........ 43
5.1 Major Findings ........43
5.2 Pedagogical Implications and Suggestions .....44
5.3 Limitations of the Study ....46
5.4 Suggestions for Further Study .....46
Chapter Four Results Presentation and Discussion
4.1 Students’ Changed Writing Proficiency
The data from the pre-test and post-test of the EC and CC were all collected and analyzedthrough SPSS 13.0 to investigate the difference before and after the adoption of teacherfeedback and peer feedback in the English writing class. As table4-1 shows, the mean score of the control class (11.43) is rather similar to theexperimental class (11.56). Moreover, the standard deviation of experimental class (9.357) isalso rather similar to that of the control class (9.421). The mean score of the experimental groupis a little bit higher than that of control the group (11.56>11.43), but the disparity is only 0.13,and the lowest score and the highest score of the two groups are quite close to each other.On the basis of the group statistics of the pre-test, the author carried out an independentsamples t-test in order to further compare the mean scores of the pre-test between CC and EC.Table 4-2 shows the Sig is 0.624, higher than 0.05, showing the writing proficiency of twogroups have no significant difference. Thereby, the statistics in the row of “Equal variancesassumed” should be observed. The Mean Difference is merely 0.338, and the Standard ErrorDifference is only 2.086. In addition, Sig. (2-tailed) is 0.836 (>.05), which indicates that thestudents from both EC and CC share almost the same level of English writing proficiencybefore the study.
Feedback plays a key role and is quite effective in enhancing students’ writingproficiency. The comparison of mean scores in pre-test and post-test indicates that both groupsof EG and CG make more progress in their writing after this feedback-initiated writinginstruction. Teacher feedback and peer feedback can lead to achievements in students’ writing,which means that the two kinds of feedback are all helpful, effective for promoting students’writing competence to some degree and there is no definite answer for the research question,which one will enhance students’ writing ability the more effective method between teacherfeedback and peer feedback. Teacher and peer feedback play different roles in improvingstudents’ writing. When giving teacher feedback, students in the control class make greaterprogress in organization and content, which was different from the experimental class. Theresults and discussion on students’ focus on the five language aspects had been mentioned in theprevious chapter. Those deep-level language aspects, like the content and organization are theweakest points for most of the students especially for the vocational students, so teacher has theability to point out the mistakes more deeply. As for peer feedback, students may have difficultyin recognizing the errors in those deep -level aspects so they put more attention to the grammarand vocabulary.
Chapter I Introduction
1.1 Theoretically analytical tool of the thesis
Aiming to analyze the features of English advertisements, the author picks English1advertisements which closely relate to people's daily life and rank first on the list ofcommercial advertisements as the studying material and applies thematic structure andthematic progression patterns as the theoretical tool of analysis.Now, quite a large number of linguists have studied theme and rheme, usingthematic structure and thematic progression patterns to conduct studies on detaileddiscourses，such as novels, sports news and students' theses. Taking thematic structureand thematic progression patterns as the analytical tool can help to explore how textsare developed. Halliday，a great linguist who has made many contributions tolinguistics, claims thematic structure as "basic form of the organization of the clause asmessage" (Halliday 1985:34). Each clause can be divided into theme part and rhemepart. The relation between themes and rhemes of the text can reveal how the text isconducted, which is known as thematic progression. Through thematic progression,coherence of the text can be established.
1.2 Purpose of the study
Through the perspective of Systemic-Functional Grammar, 42 written texts ofEnglish advertisements are taken as the corpus and their thematic structures andthematic progression patterns are analyzed one by one. The author will analyze thedistribution of different themes and explore the use of four basic thematic progressionpatterns in this type of advertisements, trying to answer three questions:(1) What are the features of the usage of different themes in English advertisements?(2) Which thematic progression is used most often and why?(3) What pragmatic effects do these four thematic progressions have in Englishadvertisements?In the whole thesis, these three questions will be answered through analyzing theparticular English advertisements. Halliday's(1994) theory of thematic structure and XuShenghuan's(1982) four basic thematic progression patterns will be adopted asanalytical framework, the reason of which will be explained later in Chapter 2.
Chapter II Literature review
2.1 Studies on thematic structure
Theme and rheme distinction was firstly described by V. Mathesius in 1939 (HuZhuanglin 1994:137). In his mother tongue, Czech，he tries to analyze sentences fromthe perspective of communication and function and show how the information in asentence is expressed. Firbas translates Mathesius' definition of theme as: "[the theme]is that which is known or at least obvious in the given situation and from which thespeaker proceeds."(Martin 1992:434) Therefore, according to him, theme is the startingpoint of the message, which is known or given in the utterance and from which thespeaker proceeds, while rheme plays a role as new information, which is about what thespeaker says on theme and represents the very important information that the speakerwants to convey to the hearer. In his opinion，a clause is divided into three parts: theme,rheme and transition. Of course, it is obvious that Mathesius does not use the exactexpression of "theme" and "rheme".Though Mathesius' point of view has some deficiencies, it influences Praguescholars greatly. One of his well-known followers, Firbas, proposes a view to improvethe thematic theories. He believes that theme is one that has lower degree ofcommunicative dynamism in some certain context while rheme has higher one.Different from Mathesius in dividing a clause into three parts (Hu Zhuanglin et al1989)，Firbas (1992) merges the concept of transition into rheme and divides a clauseinto two.Following with their opinions, there are two groups differing from each other. Onegroup thinks that theme is equal to "given" while the other one, Systemic School,accepts 'separating approach' which disentangles the two. Systemic School argues thatthere are differences existing between information structure (given-new) and thematicstructure (theme-rheme).
2.2 Studies on thematic progression patterns
In discourse analysis，a sentence is understood as a message，conveyinginformation from the speaker to the listener. It can be separated into two segments:theme and rheme. Mathesius' (1976) concept of theme and rheme leads to a surge ofinterest in discourse analysis operated at the level of clause. The different choices andorders of discourse themes, the mutual connection and hierarchy between themes andrhemes, as well as their relationship to the hyperthemes of the superior discourse (suchas the paragraph, chapter, etc.) to the whole text or to the situation would influence theinternal structure of the text. Halliday (1985:227) subscribes to that opinion too，statingthat "the success of a text does not lie in the grammatical correctness of its individualsentences，but in the multiple relationships established among them". Therefore,thematic progression performs an important role in discourse analysis.Both scholars abroad and at home make great contributions to the study ofthematic structure together with thematic progression.
Chapter III Analytical framework of the study and research design......... 20
3.1 Analytical framework of the study........ 20
3.1.1 Analytical framework of thematic structure........ 21
3.1.2 Analytical framework of thematic progression patterns........ 22
3.2 Research design........24
3.2.1 Consideration on selecting data used in the analysis........ 25
3.2.2 Analytical procedures........ 27
Chapter IV Analysis of thematic structure........ 33
4.1 Some rules of identifying and counting themes........ 33
4.2 Simple theme, multiple theme and zero theme........ 35
4.2.1 Distribution of simple theme, multiple theme and zero theme........ 36
4.2.? Data analysis ........38
4.3 Textual theme, interpersonal theme and experiential theme........ 39
4.3.1 Distribution of three functional themes ........40
4.3.2 Data analysis ........42
4.4 Summary ........ 43
Chapter V Analysis of thematic progression patterns........ 44
5.1 Distribution of thematic progression patterns........44
5.2 Data analysis ........ 44
5.3 Summary ........45
Chapter V Analysis of thematic progression patterns
5.1 Distribution of thematic progression patterns
Before discussing the distribution of thematic progression patterns, anadvertisement sample will be taken as an example, which is selected from Michelin.Example 3:GE(T1) is building the world by providing capital, expertise and infrastructure for a globaleconomy(Rl). GE Capital(T2) has provided billions in financing so businesses can build and growtheir operations and consumers can build their financial futures(R2). We(T3) build appliances,lighting, power systems and other products that help millions of homes, offices, factories and retailfacilities around the world work better(R3).^In this example given above, themes and rhemes have already been marked forconvenience. T1 refers to the theme of the first clause while R1 refers to the rheme, andso on. These three sentences in this piece of advertisement are all concerned about GEenterprise, although there is a slight difference among them. According to ZhuYongsheng (1985)，these themes can be seen as the same one and these clauses aresharing the same theme.
This thesis is focused on the thematic structure and thematic progression patternsof English advertisements, aiming to find some features and favored patterns.A literature review on thematic structure，thematic progression patterns andEnglish advertisements is made before the detailed analysis and finds that fewresearches are done on advertisements with a perspective of thematic organization andby a case study of one specific kind of advertisements. Therefore, the author conducts astudy on English advertisements by setting a theoretical framework, including theHalliday's theory of thematic structure and Xu Shenghuan's classification of thematicprogression patterns. Through these methods，the research is done by investigating thestatistics and results are given below: English advertisements prefer to use simpler themes to convey' informationquickly and directly. Multiple themes and clauses with themes omitted are used not sooften and differ from each other not so much in number because of the uniquecharacteristics of advertisements.
随着教育资源的进一步信息化、网络化和数字化，在线学习将成为现代教育发展必不可少的一个环节。在线学习也称E. Learning或网络化学习。通过互联网进行学习与教学活动，它充分利用现代信息技术所提供的、具有全新沟通机制与丰富资源的学习环境，实现一种全新的学习方式。这种学习方式离不幵由多媒体网络学习资源、网上学习社区及网络技术平台构成的全新的网络学习环境⑴。在线学习在国内外广泛地被应用，美国Campus Computing Project的2008年调查表明超过70%的美国高等教育机构使用了校园范围内在线学习系统2009年调查发现在美国的5类大学中.在线学习平均普及率从2000年的15%上升到了 2009年的55%左右I?“。随着英语学习人数的增加，中国国内在线英语学习网站和学习系统不断涌现。这种在线学习方式让学习者有了一个学习、提高和运用英语的广阔空间。这些网站和系统大多提供了丰富的资源和多维的信息，创建了良好的交互学习环境，其访问速度基本稳定，导航清楚，界面比较友好，对学习者有一定的帮助。但由于信息化程度落后、理论体系不健全，经费短缺、网站建设者观念陈旧等因素，国内在线学习网站和系统在功能性、安全性、互动性、智能性、人文性等方面还存在很多不足。其主要体现在：管理功能不完善、教学互动机制不健全、缺乏自助和自主学习理念、信息庞杂且多基于文本、主题不突出、栏目大同小异、内容缺乏创新、交互手段单一、忽略教学特点、网络安全性关注不够。提升在线英语学习网站和系统的交互性。考虑增加更多的实时交互手段，如在线辅导、在线答疑；与此同时应提供多样化的在线活动让学生参与，如互动游戏、竞赛、社区等，通过及时反馈和实时参与可以激发学生学习主动性。提高在线英语学习网站和系统的智能性，加强教学的辅助性。在开发网站和系统的过程中，应充分考虑如何发挥教师的引导作用，对学习者进行积极的引导，使他们形成正确的学习态度，学习方法和树立健全的人格；提供多种辅助工具帮助学习者有效学习。
2. 2 JSP开发语言概述
JSP全称是Java Server Pages，是一种动态网页技术标准。JSP的1.0规范的最后的版本是在1999年9月推出的，在同年12月又推出了 1.1规范。在目前来说，JSP2.0规范的征求意见稿已经出台，但通用的较新的还是JSP1.2规范。JSP如此强大是不是学起来很困难呢？其实不然，使用JSP开发WEB程序是非常简单的，读者只需要有基本的HTML基础。就能很好的学习JSP 了，我们都知道HTML文件的扩展名是.html或者.htm，而JSP的文件扩展名是.jsp。只需要在HTML代码中添加JSP脚本代码，并修改文件扩展名，这样就可以构成JSP页面了。使用JSP幵发技术，Web服务器通过接收访问JSP网页的请求，并执行其中的程序段，然后将结果和HTML代码一并返回用户端。JavaServlet是JSP技术的基础,一般大型的Web应用程序都需要Java和Java Servlet配合才能开发出来。因此JSP与JavaServlet类似，都是在服务器端执行的，而返回给用户端的就是一个HTML文本，客户端只需要有通用浏览器就可以浏览。JSP技术相对于其他B/S模式下的其他技术有许多优势，现在被广泛认为是未来最有发展前途的开发技术。
3.1 网络化英语学习及管理工作........ 11
3.2 实现目标........ 11
3.3 业务分析........ 12
3.4 系统用例分析........ 13
3.5 主要业务行为建模........ 19
3.7 系统数据字典分析........ 27
3.8 系统非功能需求 ........28
3.9 系统开发运行环境........ 29
3.10 本章小结........ 29
4.1 系统架构设计........ 30
4.2 系统网络体系结构设计........ 31
4.3 系统总体功能设计........ 32
4.4 管理员模块设计........ 33
4.5 教师模块设计........ 34
4.6 学生模块设计........ 40
1 Literature Review
1.1 Theoretical Basis
Transfer took its root in psychology. Being a hot topic in SLA research, languagetransfer has been an important concept frequently used by SLA researchers and it is offundamental significance in the SLA research. However, as is often the case interminological disputes, it is difficult to give an accurate definition of language transfer, soits definition still remains controversial. The definition of “transfer” by psychologists is atype of learning activities by which learners previously acquired knowledge willinfluence the outcome of their later learning or training behavior. They claim that transfercan be either positive or negative. If a learner s previously acquired knowledge canproduce positive effects, it will facilitate the learner s language learning. If the learner spreviously learning experience hinders the learner s learning, a negative transfer willoccur. Behaviorists defined transfer as a consequence of habit formation, which impliesthe extinction of the learner s primary language when he/she is learning the new language.Habits were constructed through the repeated association between some stimulus andresponse, which would become bonded when positively reinforced (Larsen. Freeman&H.Long, 2000: 55). So second language learning can be viewed as a process of overcomingthe habits of the learner s native language in order to acquire the new habits of the targetlanguage.
1.2 Syntactic Transfer and Previous Researches on Syntactic Transfer
1.2.1 Syntactic transfer
It is now generally accepted that sentence is the key linguistic unit to realizecommunication and any language has its finite rules to build infinite sentences. The rulesof grammar, which are used for ordering and connecting words, are called syntax (萧立明，2002：111). Syntactic transfer refers to the usage of mother tongue s syntactic structurewhen learners meet difficulties in using foreign language syntactic structures. When twolanguages belong to different linguistic structures, syntactic transfer could be found in theerrors made by foreign language learners. “The notion of syntactic transfer has long beencontroversial, and empirical studies of L2 syntax have fueled much of debate.” (Odlin,2001). Some applied linguists think that language transfer is more conspicuous at the levels of discourse, phonology, and lexis than at the level of syntax as learners have amore developed metalingual awareness of grammar (Odlin, 1989; Ellis, 1994;Gass&Selinker, 1992). However, a large number of researches have shown that syntactictransfer is frequently found in learner s compositions, and the transfer mainly occur in theaspect of agreement, omission, word order, relative clauses, negation and so on. Syntactictransfer mainly results from different syntactic structures between native language andtarget language, partially due to the semantic differences between the two languages.
2.1 Research Questions
This chapter introduces the details of the research design, including researchquestions, subjects, research methods and research procedures. Both quantitative approachand qualitative approach are employed in this study. The quantitative approach is used todeal with the numbers of errors and their frequencies appearing in students writing whilequalitative approach is employed to describe the types and causes of errors. The aim of this study is to find out the syntactic errors in English majors writingcaused by language transfer, hence to help language teachers and learners get insights andimprove their teaching and learning. The author attempts to answer the followingquestions via this empirical study:
(1) What are the main kinds of syntactic errors caused by language transfer in ChineseEnglish majors writing?
(2) What are the possible causes of the syntactic transfer errors and how to avoid them?
The subjects involved in this research are 100 English major sophomores from morethan twenty different universities from different areas in China, including BeijingUniversity of Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, NanjingUniversity, Yantai University, etc. This study selects sophomores as subjects since theyhave been learning English for six to nine years, so their English level is at a considerablestate for the research. The first step is data collection of learners samples. The author randomly selected100 timed argumentations written by English major sophomores from the sub-corporaWECCL 2.0 and established a small-size corpus. Altogether two titles are selected andthey are: (1) “Education is expensive, but the consequences of a failure to educate,especially in an increasingly globalized world, are even more expensive.” Write an essayof approximately 300 words on this issue to state your own opinion. (2) Some peoplethink the university education is to prepare students for employment. Others think it hasother functions. Discuss and say what other functions you think it should have.Then the author corrected the errors in students compositions one by one andindentified the syntactic errors with the help of an experienced college teacher.
2 Methodology..... 20
2.1 Research questions ........ 20
2.2 Subjects ..... 20
2.3 Instrument and methods ..... 20
2.4 Research procedures...... 21
3 Results and Discussion ........ 24
3.1 Frequencies of syntactic errors in students English writing..... 24
3.2 Analysis of the main syntactic errors ..... 25
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Frequencies of Syntactic Errors in Students’ English Writing
The author analyzed 100 compositions in total. Only the negative transfer errors atsyntactic level were analyzed, errors from negative transfer of other levels such as lexis,pragmatics and discourse were beyond consideration. The following table shows thefrequencies of different types of syntactic errors made by Chinese English majors. As illustrated in table 3.1, English majors tend to make errors of run-on sentences,subject-predicate agreement, and independent because-clause. The highest frequency isrun-on sentences, being 20.7%, which shows that English majors are influenced byChinese paratactic sentence, subject-predicate agreement ranks the second and thepercentage is 16.2%, followed by independent because-clause, accounting for 9.1%. In thefollowing section, analysis of each type of syntactic transfer error will be analyzed indetail.
This thesis focuses on the syntactic transfer of Chinese in English majors writing.Through the detailed analysis of the data collected from the samples of writing, fourteentypes of syntactic transfer errors are identified and the causes of errors are analyzed.Among all the errors, “run-on sentences” ranks the first place (the proportion is 20.7%),then “subject-predicate agreement” (16.2%), “ independent because-clause” (9.1%),“serial verb construction” (8.6%), “omission of be and other particles” (6.1%),“omission of subject” (5.6%), “repetition” (5.1%), “nouns/pronouns and antecedentsagreement” (4%), “word order of adverbials” (3%), “omission of object” (3%), “wordorder in questions” (2.5%), “expression of passive sentences” (1.5%), “expression ofexistential or presentative function” (0.5%) and “other types of typological interference”(14.1%). Syntactic errors in English writing are mainly caused by students unawarenessof the differences between English and Chinese, and they tend to neglect the use of tenseand voice when writing English sentences. Besides, literal translation of Chinese sentencestructure also accounts for syntactic errors. When writing English compositions, studentsalways employ Chinese way of thinking, which leads to syntactic errors. From thestatistics, we can see that “run-on sentences” accounts for a much higher proportion thanother transfer errors. To some extent, this attributes to the exam-oriented education inChina. To college students, the most important purpose of learning English is to passstandard language examinations. In such examinations, run-on sentences are rarelyexamined except in the writing part, so such kind of error cannot draw both teachers andstudents enough attention.
在当今社会，随着科学技术的迅猛发展，社会的改革与进步，以及计算机技术的飞速发展，以“信息高速公路”和“多媒体”两大技术为支撑的信息化时代随着渗透到我们的日常生活中，并正以惊人的发展速度深入到人们的生活、生产等各个不同的领域中。信息化时代的到来，改变了人们的交往方式、学习方式、工作方式、生活方式。计算机多媒体技术在教学中的运用和网络技术在教学过程中的运用，是教学改革和教学发展的趋势，同时也是教学改革的突破口。互联网的发展与应用改变着人们的工作、生活、学习和交互方式。在教育领域，互联网的应用极大地拓展了教育的时空界限，改变着英语的教与学的关系，空前地提高人们学习的兴趣、效率和能动性。因此，在人类大步迈向信息社会的时候,我们应该认真研究网络媒体,抓紧网站建设，为教学服务[9-10]。近几年来，我国外语界掀起了一股改革的浪潮，越来越多的外语教师关注外语教学改革的热点和难点问题。如：外语课程的设置,教材和教学内容的更新，中学与大学外语教学的衔接，素质教育与外语教学，外语教学环境的创造，外语教学手段和方法的改革等。解决这些问题的办法之一就是要充分利用 Internet 上的丰富资源，建设英语网站,开展网络辅助英语教学。英语教师通过国际互联网可以方便地获取教学所需的最新的素材以及各种与教学有关的辅导材料，经过加工整理，编成网页，放到自己建设的英语网站上，学生则可以克服时空的限制，利用网络获取与课堂教学内容有关的资料和信息，或根据自己的兴趣爱好去浏览。开阔视野，拓宽知识面。在我们强调素质教育的今天，建好、用好英语网站给学生创造出积极、主动、自主学习的环境和氛围尤为重要。对英语教师来说,建好、用好英语网站不仅方便自己的教学，而且可以利用英语网站发布信息，在全国乃至全球范围内交流教学经验，开展合作研究，交换学术成果。英语教师可以通过互联网上的网络讨论组(Usenet) 组织学术讨论活动,召开英语教学研讨会，把最新的教学成果推出去，让更多的英语同行和英语学习者收益。我们还可以把自己的优秀教案、课件、Handout s 等放到自己的网站上与英语同行共享,扩大影响。
有些网站在网站的内容阀门虽然比较饱满，但是其内容的出现大多以纯文本的形式出现在网上，这样既缺少了网络学习的交互性的优势，也使得很多学生在学习过程中缺乏兴趣和乐趣。以“Morgan’s English World”上的英语课程为例，这个模块为学生提供了新世纪英语、大学英语、大专英语和高中英语等诸多英语学习的学习内容，但是这些课程的学习内容都是以纯文本的形式出现的，所有尽管这些课程的内容丰富，但由于形式单一，缺少动画等能吸引学生眼球的内容，学生在学习过程中会感到非常的吃力，这会使得学生丧失对这些内容的学习兴趣，就会不去学校，也就使得网站没有点击率，这样网站就不能够取得良好的教学效果。基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统主要是根据本人多年来从事英语教学经验，并结合高职高专院校学生目前的英语水平以及学生目前的学习态度等一系列的因素而进行设计与开发的。基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的设计与开发可以用于解决目前高职高专院校网络教学改革、提高学生对于英语学习的积极性、和学生进行及时交流与沟通，从而便于提升英语教育工作者自身的英语教学能力。
面向对象技术的第一个特征是封装，它的英文全称是 Encapsulation。封装就是在软件的设计过程中，对客观事物采用包装的形式将其包装起来，旁人是没有办法了解它的内部详细情况，只知道其外在显示的信息。一般来说，在软件的开发与设计过程中，对象是属性和操作的封装体，封装主要是针对对象而言的。从软件开发的设计理论与过程开说，封装具有两种不同层面上的含义：第一层含义是对象，也就是把所需要封装的对象的所有属性和及其对象与对象之间的操作进行有机结合，并最终形成一个不可分割的独立单位；第二层含义是用户只能够看见封装对象的基本信息，对对象的内部结构和操作对用户来说是不可知且是隐蔽的，对于第二层含义的封装对象只能通过其他对象的结构进行访问，而不能直接通过对象获取对象的内部结构和内部数据[22-23]。在一般的软件设计过程中，软件设计人员会将所需要封装的对象的使用者和对象的设计者分开，也就是说，对象的使用者只需要用对象的设计者所设计的对象的接口进行访问，而不需要知道该对象的具体细节。面向对象的第二个特征是继承，英文全称是 Inheritance，是指一个对象的属性和方法直接被另一个对象使用，这使得软件的设计人员可以重复使用不同的对象，这对软件的设计与开发具有远大而深远的意义。在面向对象的设计过程中，由于很多同类事物之间都有不同于其他事物的共同的特性，设计人员可以根据一类事物的共同特性运用“类”的定义，将这些事物的共同属性称之为“一般类”，而将每个事物都有不同于其他事物特性的独特特性，设计人员将每个事物的独特特性运用“类”的定义为“特殊类”。
2.2 ASP.NET 概述
ASP.NET[30-31]技术是由美国微软公司开发和主推的一种网页开发与设计的新技术，同时也是微软公司在进军.NET 开发技术战略的一个重要部分。ASP.NET 技术是基于.NET 战略框架下的一种功能更强大的新型的 Web 编程语言，ASP.NET技术一经推出，就收到广大的软件开发和设计人员的广泛好评，ASP.NET 技术发展至今，已经逐渐发展成为一种稳定、成熟、完善的 Web 编程语言。ASP.NET 技术在软件的开发和设计过程中，能够更好地给软件的开发和设计人员带来便利，一直具有在 Web 开发的过程和开发技术上的优势[32-33]。ASP.NET在软件的开发过程的优势主要表现在：第一种优势是：运用 ASP.NET 技术开发的软件首次在服务器端运行程序时即可实时的编译程序，使得软件的执行效率不逐条进行编译的执行效率要大幅度地提高。第二种优势是，ASP.NET 技术在软件的开发过程中是属于世界级的软件开发工具支持。第三种优势是 ASP.NET 技术在软件的开发过程中，软件的开发和设计人员能够快速适应 Web 应用软件开发，这体现了 ASP.NET 技术的强大性和适应性。
第三章 系统需求分析与功能设计...... 17
3.1 需求分析概述 ........ 17
3.2 系统需求分析的目的和任务 ........ 17
3.3 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的需求分析....... 18
3.3.1 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统需求分析的目的 ....... 18
3.3.2 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的可行性分析 ..... 19
3.4 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的功能需求....... 20
3.5 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的总体设计....... 24
3.5.1 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的总体设计思路 ....... 24
3.5.2 基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的总体架构设计 ....... 24
3.6 本章小结 .... 25
第四章 系统数据库设计.... 26
4.1 数据库设计的概述 ...... 26
4.5 本章小结 .... 37
第五章 系统的设计与实现...... 38
5.1 系统的流程设计 .... 38
5.2 系统的模块实现 .... 39
5.3 沟通平台 .... 39
一个成功的系统测试则是发现了尚未被发现的错误。系统测试的目的就是为了能够以最少的人力成本和时间成本来发现各种潜在的错误。一般来说，管理信息系统的系统测试主要包括系统的硬件测试、系统的软件测试和系统的网络测试。系统的硬件测试和系统的网络测试可以根据具体的性能指标来进行测试，一般我们所说的系统测试指的是系统的软件测试。对于基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的软件测试来说，其软件测试的用例及测试计划的设计主要围绕以下三个方面进行：第一个方面，是先确认软件的各个功能模块都能够按照软件的需求分析过程中所给出的结果实现，并且还能保证软件实现的质量。即既要保证系统的各个功能模块能够按照预期的目标实现和操作，同时也要保证各个功能模块的业务处理过程是正确且是符合系统设计的规范的。第二个方面，根据第一方面确认的信息及其在测试过程中获取的反馈信息和结果，进一步对系统进行完善，并且还要在完善的过程中对系统的各个开发过程的状态进行评估，从而确保系统的可靠性。
本文的课题主要来源于我校教务处的一个现实案例。本论文首先在介绍教育信息化的基础上，围绕课题的研究目的与意义，并结合本论文的主要研究内容和本课题拟解决的问题、论文的研究方法等实际问题的研究下，根据我校教务处对基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的重视，设计并开发了符合我校教务处的基于 Web的英语自助学习系统，并借助于基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的开发，完成本论文的书写。论文对于基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的设计与开发过程的进行了需求分析、数据库设计、系统设计与实现以及系统测试等方面进行叙述，具体研究工作如下所述：
（1）通过查阅大量的文献资料和根据课题的目的、课题研究的内容以及课题的研究意义和作用，并结合问卷调查的结果，完成了基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的需求分析。
（2）在数据库设计的理论指导下，并结合到我校教务处采集到的相关数据和我校试题库管理的实际需求，完成了基于 Web 的英语自助学习系统的数据库设计。
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 The Background of the Study of the NAC
The Nominative Absolute Construction (hereafter called the NAC) frequentlyappears in literary works and English tests. The NAC syntactically functions the sameas a finite clause. However, its structure is quite different from that of a finite clause,which is usually introduced by a subordinator and always involves a finite verb. In thefollowing three sentences, the italicized part of (la) is an NAC. It is identical with thecorrespondent parts of (lb) and (Ic) in both grammatical functions and semantic roles.But in the NAC in (la)，the subordinator is omitted and the finite verb is changed into anonfinite verb. Neither should the NAC be regarded as a postmodified noun phrase whose head ismodified by elements following it. The subject and elements following it in the NAChave no direct modifying relationship. In (2a)，the italicized part is an NAC，which canbe interpreted as “Because the dog barked next door all the night”. Comparatively, thesame words in (2b) are a noun phrase, in which "the dog” is postmodified by "barkingnext door all the night. The noun phrase can be interpreted as "The dog which/thatbarked next door all the night”. The strange construction NAC is inevitably encountered by English learners andusually found difficult to understand or grasp by most of them. Meanwhile, teachersalso find it hard to explain the NAC in English teaching. This phenomenon makes methink: how to systemically explain the nature, the existing mechanism and the cognitivebasis of the NAC? I have been trying to find the answer.
1.2 The Purpose of the Thesis
Based on Wang Yin's Event-domain Cognitive Model (hereafter called the ECM)(Wang Yin： 2005) and the Construal Theory (Langacker, 1987; Talmy, 1988; Croft &Cruse, 2004), this thesis generally aims to explore the nature of the NAC and explain itsexisting mechanism and cognitive basis so as to achieve a better understanding andtherefore a better learning and teaching of it. Specific purposes are as follows:First, the nature of the NAC is to be explored to answer the question what on earththe NAC is. The NAC is to prove to be a nonfinite or verbless clause reduced from acomplete finite clause to achieve language economy. The reduction lowers itsexplicitness but leaves it more expressive. Context and gestalt perception play asignificant role in the reduction process to avoid blurredness in meaning.Second, the existing mechanism of the NAC is to be explored by means of thenotions, such as “domain“event hierarchyand “default information" in the ECM, toanswer the question how the NAC is syntactically organized.Third, the cognitive basis of the NAC is to be studied by means of the ConstrualTheory in order to answer why the NAC can exist.
Chapter Two A General Survey of the Previous Studies of the NAC
2.1 Definitions of the NAC
Definitions and criteria of the NAC are usually discussed together to answer thequestion: what the NAC is. Some representative studies of scholars from home andabroad are to be reviewed to obtain a comprehensive view of the NAC. Although this construction is formally independent of the finite clause in thesentence, it is logically connected with it, serving as an adverbial modifier to thepredicate. This construction is always separated by a comma and expresses an adverbialmodifier. This construction is called Absolute Participle Construction by R. W.Zandvoord, Nominative Absolute Participle Construction by B. A. Ilyish, AbsoluteConstruction by M. Gashina, Absolute Clause by Quirk et al and AbsoluteConstructions or Clauses by Pam Peters in The Cambridge guide to English usage(Zhang Yingqiu, 2010; 101).Here a problem arises: what on earth the NAC is，a participle or a clause? Differentviews on the NAC reveal that there is no agreement on its definitions. Therefore it isnecessary to examine more studies concerned.
2.2 Studies on the Classifications of the NAC
Current studies generally classify the NAC similarly according to its functionsand/or structures. For example, in view of the structures, Guan Yingbo (2010： 199)classifies the NAC into Participle NAC (as shown in (7) and (8)), Infinitive NAC (asshown in (9)), Verbless NAC(as shown in (10)), With NAC(as shown in (11)), There-and It- NAC (as shown in (12) and (13) respectively), etc. These classifications are elaborated by Wang Bo (2005: 186-190) as follows:S+participle (as shown in (7) and (8)), S+n. or adj. or adv. or prepositional phrase (asshown in (14), (15), (10) and (16) respectively). With +NAC (as shown in (11)), Thereor /7+participle (as shown in (12) and (13) respectively), etc. It is to be noted that some Participle NAC, Infinitive NAC and Verbless NAC canbe added a or "Uhouf' ahead of them to constitute a With NAC. For instance,the NAC in (8), (9) and (16) can be changed into a With NAC (as shown in (17-19)) byadding a “wifh” before it. To avoid confusion, this thesis regards Participle NAC,Infinitive NAC and Verbless NAC as canonical NAC, from which examples are to beselected for the latter parts of it. It is also to be mentioned that the classification of theNAC by the functions is to be discussed in Section 2.3 below.
Chapter Three Theoretical Foundation......... 11
3.1 Limitations of Previous Cognitive Models......... 11
3.2 The ECM and Syntactic Structure .........11
3.2.1 An Introduction to the ECM......... 12
3.2.2 Key Notions of the ECM .........12
3.2.3 The Explanation of Syntactic Structure with the ECM......... 14
3.2.4 Summary......... 15
3.3 Construal and Syntactic Structure ......... 18
3.4 The Relationship between the ECM and the Construal Theory......... 21
3.5 Summary .........21
Chapter Four A Study of the NAC with the ECM and Construal......... 23
4.1 The Nature of the NAC......... 23
4.2 Existing Mechanism of the NAC.........33
4.3 Cognitive Basis of the NAC: Construal......... 36
Chapter Five Conclusion......... 41
5.1 Major Findings .........41
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Studies......... 42
Chapter Four A Study of the NAC with the ECM and Construal
Up to now, the NAC has not been clearly defined in this thesis. This is becausethere is still controversy over the nature of it. As mentioned in Chapter One，the NAC isstill regarded as a participle by some or a clause by others. Therefore, the nature of theNAC is worth exploring first. Without a comparatively accurate definition for the NAC,any further study concerning it will be in vain.However, it is not enough just to get some knowledge of what the NAC is. Withouttheoretical support, this knowledge is superficial and ineloquent. Thus，it is important tofurther explore its existing mechanism and cognitive basis. In Chapter Three, twotheoretical foundations have been reviewed to get a preparation for this furtherexploration. As mentioned in 3.3, the ECM is more powerful in syntactic interpretationthan its previous cognitive models. It will be adopted to interpret the existingmechanism of the NAC in 4.2. It is also known that Construal may serve as thecognitive basis of other cognitive models well. Thus in 4.3，the question why the NACcan exist will be answered with the help of the Construal theory.
The main contributions of this study come from three aspects: the nature of the NAC has been explored and a comparatively convincingdefinition is given to it. Previous controversy on its definition lies in what on earth it is,a clause or a participle construction. After a comprehensive study, the thesis defines it asa subordinate adverbial clause. Three reasons are given: first, the relationship betweenthe noun or the pronoun and the elements behind in the NAC is in fact the same as thatbetween subject and predicate. Second, the NAC functions as a subordinate adverbialclause. Third，the NAC is interpreted as a full finite clause in our mind whenever onetries to comprehend or use it. Moreover，the NAC is the reduction of a finite clause toachieve language economy. In the process of reduction, less prominent information isreduced and then the explicitness of the NAC is reduced accordingly too. Fortunately,context and gestalt perception play a significant role in the recovery of the reducedinformation in its interpretation. As a result，the NAC maintains almost the sameexpressiveness but with fewer words, which makes it favored in literary works. To sumup，the NAC is defined as: a kind of nonfmite or verbless subordinate clause reducedfrom the correspondent finite clause to achieve language economy with the help ofcontext and gestalt perception. It has its own subject expressed by a Noun in thecommon case or a personal pronoun in the nominative case，and usually functions as anadverbial clause.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Considering present writing situation and teaching conditions, the author begins with herresearch depending on the practical investigations of writing as in the followings:On the one hand, the first point is how much attention of the students’ and teachers’ is paidto writing. On the English class, students learn new words, natural expressions, various syntaxesand then how to use them, but actually they get lack of enough practices of what they havelearned, and the feedbacks from their teachers. In general, a lot of work needs to be donebetween the students and their teachers. Indeed, practical writing ability is an important part ofEnglish comprehensive ability for vocational college students. For no particular reason in theworld, English writing needs to be focused and paid much attention. However, the concentrationis far from what it ought to deserve from the present situations.On the other hand, the language they have formed in their mind is different from theirmother language, and also not the same with their target language, English. In Selinker’s opinion,he calls this language “Interlanugage (IL)”. In his book, Interlanguage, he gives it a definition as“Interlanguage refers to the separateness of a second language learners’ system, a system that hasa structurally intermediate statue between the native and target languages” (Selinker, 1972).
1.2 The Purpose and Significance of the Study
Students, who are in the process of learning a second-language, always feel hard andconfused in a particular period of psychology of learning second-language, or in terms of ‘latentlanguage structure’ called by Lenneberg, pointed out by Selinker in his book Interlanguage.Selinker, in his book, acknowledges that perhaps mere 5% learners of second-language learning,who somehow reactivate the latent language structure which Lenneberg describes, can achievenative-speaker ‘competence’. Actually for almost majority learners of second-language learning,it is obviously happening that they will be coming into the inevitable trouble during the‘attempted learning’ period if they want to get real definite native-speaker ‘competence’. Whatthe students need to know is some mistakes happened in their process of learning are natural andinevitable, and is how they try hard to live up with those, and then eventually to find ways tohelp them out.With the acknowledgements of Interlanguage, students’ mistakes happened in theirconversations or writings are virtually natural. Actually, in the field of methodology, there aretwo schools of thought in respect of learners’ errors. The first one school which maintains that ifpeople were to achieve a perfect teaching pattern the errors would never be committed in the firstplace, and then the occurrence of errors is mere a mark of the present inadequacy of teachingtechniques. The point or philosophy of the second one is that people now are living in animperfect world and consequently errors will often occur in spite of people best efforts.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1The Inte language Theory
At the beginning of Selinker’s work, Interlanguage, which is written from the learningperspective, he admits that “This paper discusses some theoretical preliminaries for researchersconcerned with the linguistic aspects of the psychology of second-language learning” (Selinker,1972). In this statement, we understand that the relevant data Selinker devotes his attention to isreferring to a certain kind of psychology, especially the psychology of second-language learning.In the learning perspective, the relevant behavioral events would constitute thepsychologically-relevant data of second-language learning. However, out of the greatconglomeration of second-language behavioral events, one set of these behavioral events whichhas caused considerable interest is the regular appearance in second-language performance oflinguistic phenomena, some of which are thought to be eradicated in the performance of thelearner. In the meantime, a correct understanding of these phenomena can lead to the postulationof certain theoretical constructs, which play an important role in both in the formulation of apsycholinguistic theory of second-language learning and an identification of relevant data.
2.2 Error Analysis in Linguistics
2.2.1 The Significance of Learners’ Errors
Language learning is a skill like most other human learning techniques in which the mistakesor errors constitute a major aspect. Research has demonstrated or the daily life experience hasproved that children learning their native language do make countless mistakes or errors incomparison to adults. Similarly, adults will inevitably make mistakes in second languagelearning. That is to say, these mistakes or errors are inevitable in the process of learning a foreignlanguage. Although, the terms mistake and error have the same meaning from their appearances,they are different. It pays to distinguish mistakes from errors, which is the prerequisite for theresearcher to explore the investigation on how to make good use of EA. Just like Miller puts it,“It would be meaningless to state rules for making mistakes. On the contrary, it will be useful torefer to the systematic errors of the learner from which the learners are able to reconstruct theirknowledge of the target language, i.e. their transitional competences” (Miller, 1966). To tell thetruth, error analysis distinguishes errors, which are systematic, from mistakes, which are not.What’s more, mistake refers to a kind of performance error which results in the second-languagelearner using the language incorrectly. However, an error, reflecting a kind of competence error,is deviant or irregular structure from the standard language indicating the interlanguage ability ofthe learner.
Chapter Three Research Methodology ...... 21
3.1 Research Questions ....... 21
3.2 Participants ........ 21
3.3 Research Instruments .... 21
3.4 Research Steps ......... 22
3.4.1 Pre-test ........ 22
3.4.2 Procedures of Error Analysis .... 30
3.4.3 Post-test ...... 41
3.5 Interviews .... 42
3.6 Data Collection ....... 43
Chapter Four Results and Discussion ......... 45
4.1Statistical Description and Analysis of the Pre-test and Post-test .... 45
4.2 Results and Discussion on Post-Questionnaires ..... 48
4.3Results and Analysis of the Interview .... 50
4.4 The Analysis of the Results of Data Collection ...... 51
Chapter Five Conclusion ...... 53
5.1 Major Findings ........ 53
5.2 Pedagogical Implications of Error Analysis...... 54
5.3 The Limitations of the Study ..... 58
5.4 Suggestions for Future Research..... 59
Chapter Four Results and Discussion4
.1Statistical Description and Analysis of the Pre-test and Post-test
The data from the pre-test and post-test were collected and analyzed through SPSS 17.0 toinvestigate whether there was any significant difference between them after using Error Analysis. From table 4.5, we can see that the mean scores of control group between pre-test andpost-test are almost in the same level. In the Table 4.6, the t =-0.432, Sig. (2-tailed) =0.668,P>0.05. It means that there is no significant difference between pre-test and post-test in thecontrol group.Experimetal Group:From table 4.7 and table 4.8, the scores of EG in pre-test and post-test are tested. From theresults, we can see that the mean score in post-test is increased by 3.2429. The t=-12.085, Sig.(2-tailed) =0.000, P<0.05. The result shows that there is significant defference between pre-testand post-test. The students of experimental group have made great improvements after usingError Analysis.
This dissertation has concerntrated attention on the application of error analysis to Englishwriting and talked about its effect on writing of college students. Based on data analysis anddiscussion in Chapter four, major findings of this study can be concluded into the followingpoints:
(1) Through the study, the statistic analysis has proved that error analysis does lead toimprovements in college students’ writing.
(2) Through the analysis of students’ writing, the attitudes towards errors have changedgradually. As has been mentioned above, it is inevitable to make errors in the process ofacquiring the second language. In the other words, errors are quite normal in theacquisition of the target language. According to the above contents, not all errors areneeded to be corrected. The most appropriate way is to distinguish different categories oferrors and to give them right treatment respectively. Some errors must be correctedimmediately in avoidance of fossilization; while others, to some certain, can beoverlooked. Therefore, students have to understand the types and causes of errorsstudents make in English compositions. At the same time, when they finish their firstdraft, they may be asked to check their writing carefully and find the writing errors andcorrect them by themselves.
1.1 The Background of the Research
Since George Lakoff and Mark Johnson firstly brought the metaphoric theories into SLAin Metaphors We Live By in 1980, the traditional view was almost outdated to regardmetaphor as figurative decoration and it is confirmed that metaphor is ubiquitous in language,as a thinking way.In the conceptual metaphoric theories, metaphoric competence provides a cognitive basefor learners’ language as a symbol of conceptual fluency, which is a high cognitive mode withfew thoughts of learners’ native language. What’s more, metaphoric competence also has thestatus as same as linguistic competence and communicative competence, reflecting thecognitive level. (Gardner & Winner, 1978) In China, few second language learners usemetaphorical language in their writing according to the research by Shen Li (Yan Shiqing,2001). Here are some explanations for these phenomena: a. limited vocabulary storage; b.non-confidence to use the metaphorical expressions; c. the inappropriate rememberingmethods.Many researchers have widely accepted that metaphor can facilitate second languagelearners’ vocabulary cognitive ability. Then, it is quietly significant to study whether there is acertain relationship between metaphor competence and vocabulary level.
1.2 The Purpose and Significance of the Research
In many empirical studies, metaphoric theories have attracted more attention fromresearchers of SLA at home or abroad since the early 1980s. From the macroscopic view,more metaphoric researches gave added concerns to corpus, especially comparison betweenChinese corpus and English corpus or the application in other fields; while from themicroscopic view, researches focused on mechanism of production and development ofmetaphor and so on. In this case, the thesis intends to find out one effective way to acquirevocabulary with metaphoric methods. The research questions are illustrated by the following: To investigate the current phenomenon of SL learners’ MC in non-English major innormal colleges. We intend to see what extent the learners has acquired metaphoriccompetence To examine whether MC is effectively improved through classroom teaching and howto improve. According to the past studies, we conclude one teaching method to explorewhether it is beneficial to the improvement. To find out the relationship between MC cultivation and vocabulary level and to judgewhether MC cultivation has significance in vocabulary learning, positive or negativesignificance. If the empirical study was succeeded, what kind of cultivation aspects can helpmetaphor improve vocabulary acquisition? Or if not, how will they improve?Based on those questions, the present study will take further sight into the relationshipbetween MC cultivation and vocabulary level from the quantitative and qualitative view andexamine whether the MC cultivation can enhance learners’ vocabulary learning. Throughsystematical analyzing the data from the experiment, this research aims to improve learners’cognitive strategies and make them pay more attention to the MC cultivation in the future andincrease their overlaying ability among the strategies, which will give certain enlightenmentfor English vocabulary learning.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Studies on Metaphor at Home and Abroad
Since ancient Greek, Aristotle had studied the metaphor to some extent. Along with themetaphoric researches in depth, domestic and foreign linguists and scholars gradually realizedthe importance of metaphor in language. Therefore, by introducing the metaphoric views oropinions from experts and scholars at home and abroad, this chapter is mainly allowed to givethe origin, definition, classification, characteristics, and function of the metaphor, so as toguide efficiently vocabulary teaching and learning. In the western countries, researching process of metaphor has taken a very long way andmetaphoric theories were divided into two main parts: traditional theories and contemporarystudies on metaphor. The former part is mainly from the Aristotle’s "comparison theory" inrhetorics to the "comparative theory", "interaction theory" of Richard and Black in semantics,and to Lakoff′s metaphoric studies in cognitional theories; the later part discusses the currentdevelopment of metaphoric theories from multiple disciplines. Of course, any theories can notexist independently for a while, these theories has laid a solid foundation for future metaphortheory's development.
2.2 Metaphoric Competence
2.2.1 Definition of Metaphoric Competence
The domestic and foreign scholars alsohad recognized the importance of metaphoric competence. The research of MC has beencarried through for more than 30 years and because of the different paraphrases of MC, it isconceived that there is still no clear and unified definition. Based on the different purposes,various versions of theories on MC had been adopted in the experimental researches, bringingabout the different results. In this part, through the review of the historic researches, mostscholars gave their definitions of MC in different periods and expounded the basic theories inthis experiment.Gardner and Winner (1978) regarded the MC as the vital part of conceptual fluency，which is "the capacity to paraphrase a metaphor, to explain the rationale for the metaphor’seffectiveness, to produce a metaphor appropriate to a given context, to evaluate theappropriateness of several competing metaphoric expressions" (Sacks,1979:126-127). MC isto understand metaphor, to interpret metaphor, to use metaphor at the proper context and toevaluate in the same context of multiple metaphoric expressions of the relative ability. (Wang,2004:14)
3.1 Research Questions .....17
3.2 Participants ......17
3.3 Instruments ......18
3.3.1 MC Test ...... 18
3.3.2 Vocabulary Level Test........ 19
3.3.3 Interview..... 20
3.3.4 Statistic Tools ......... 20
3.4 Validity and Reliability .....20
3.5 Procedure of Experiment ........ 20
3.5.1 The Pilot Study ....... 21
3.5.2 The Main Study ...... 21
3.5.3 Cultivating Arrangement .... 23
3.6 Teaching Materials...... 25
4. Data Analysis and Discussion ....... 27
4.1 Data Analysis of Pre-test......... 27
4.2 Data Analysis of Post-tests...... 33
4.3 Results of the Interview .... 41
4.4 Discussion ....... 42
4.4.1 Major Findings ....... 42
4.4.2 Pedagogical Implications .... 43
5. Conclusion........ 45
5.1 Limitations of the Research .... 45
5.2 Suggestions for Future Research......... 45
4. Data Analysis and Discussion
As mentioned before, the two tests were carried out respectively before and after thecultivating process for the EG. Both pre-tests and pro-tests have the metaphoric competencetest and the vocabulary level test. Then, the scores of those tests will be input into thecomputer. Through the statistical method in the software SPSS17.0, consisted of theindependent-samples-test, paired sample test and correlation analysis, which will explicitlyprovides the numeric and narrative evidence in tables. At last, with referring to the pastempirical studies and theories reviewed in the chapter two and three, the discussion will givethe explanations for the results by analyzing the data thoroughly.In the pre-tests, independent-samples-test of MC test and VL test for experimental groupand control group was used before the experiment, so that the important difference betweenthe EG and CC in the whole MC and VL are tested, paired sample test of MC test and VL testbetween before and after the cultivation. In addition, the correlation between the cultivation ofMC and VL will be discussed. In other words, the testees’ performance will be measuredwhether MC cultivation has played effective roles in the vocabulary learning. At last, from thequalitative view, this part will discuss the testees’ vocabulary learning strategies. The statisticsof the pretest and protest is showed in Tables.
The present study inevitably has its own limitations constrained by objective conditionsand personal academic attainments as follows:Firstly, the numbers of the samples in this research was very small. There are only 100testees participating in this experiment and their language knowledge is in a low situation.Moreover, the experimental time is limited in 13 weeks, which should last a longer time forthe better effects. It is said that the metaphoric studies should play positive roles on thevocabulary learning.Secondly, there is no denying that metaphor is not the only element that can influencestudents' vocabulary learning for non-English majors. The other factors, which are notincluded, also caused the results, such as motivation, context and testees’ language knowledge,which may lead to the negative transferring of target language. Because those factors are notthe objects the thesis studies, the thesis has tried to avoid the influence of these factors.Thirdly, due to the limited time, those tests employed in this paper are less different thanthose in the other thesis although achieving some main purposes, which still ensure the thesisintegrity. For the experimental conciseness, the author ignored the weaknesses existed inthese tests. For example, only the breadth of vocabulary competence was tested. Besides, thetime between pre-tests and post-tests is so short that it is not clearly available to apply thesame tests for twice.
1.1 Background of the Study
Much attention has been paid to the learning of English language in the globalized world,which exactly explains the phenomenon that many universities and colleges are setting upEnglish major in recent years. However, it seems that less attention has been drawn to theresults of this behavior. As a matter of fact, EM graduates' future is not so optimistic as peoplehad expected and they are less competitive than students of science and technology. Thisharsh fact demonstrates that there is a big gap between what the society expects from EMsand what EMs leam in the university. On the other hand，many EMs complain that they arenot very satisfied with the present curricula, as the curricula can not equip them with muchadvantageous edge compared with the non-EMs in the employment market.The universities of science and technology usually put their emphasis on science students,which leads to enough attention paid to their language learning needs. At the same time, thelearning needs of EMs are neglected, who really need to be competent in language aspect. Wefind that much research has been done to investigate non-EMs about their learning style,learning needs, reading, writing, etc. Therefore, it is high time for us to consider the situationof EMs situation in the fast changing and demanding society. Though some researches havebeen done about EMs, they are not extensive or not related to universities of science andtechnology. This study tries to fill this gap and hopes to help improve the situation of coursedesign, EMs' future and job market.
1.2 Significance of the Study
1.2.1 Theoretical Significance
Much importance has been attached to learners with the emergence and development ofhumanism and cognitive psychology. Since needs analysis is an integral and indispensible partof curriculum development, it is of prime importance to study learners' needs. John Munby isone of the earliest scholars abroad to engage in this field of study, and he also has proposed amodel for needs analysis，but due to immature theoretical basis and some difficultiesencountered in the empirical study, much of today's research is based on the model providedby Hutchinson&Waters.While at home, studies on needs analysis is at an initial stage. But many people havecontributed to this field of study with various focuses. Some have studied the motivation，concepts and strategies of English learners; some have tried to work out a solution for theproblems existing in current English postgraduate education concerning academiccompetence and needs; while others have discussed the innovation of curriculum design ofEM in colleges based on needs analysis. Achievements have been made through previousstudies and problems have been dug out together with possible solutions. However, it is notenough as most researches are preliminary. We have to continue this survey in a deeper andmore detailed way.
2 Literature Review
2.1 Learner-oriented Language Teaching Theory
Four theoretical developments contribute to the appearance of learner-oriented languageteaching. These four theories are humanistic psychology, cognitive psychology,constructivism and course development centered on learners.Learner-centered teaching is increasingly being encouraged and introduced in today'shigher education. When the focus sets on student learning, colleges can attain higher degreesof student retention and have better prepared graduates than those students who are trainedin a more traditional way Weimer has described five practice areas focusing on learner，which need to change to achieve leamer-focused teaching. The five areas are the function ofcontent, the role of the instructor, the responsibility for learning, the processes and purposesof assessment, and the balance of power ⑶.How the four theories contribute to the abovefive elements are introduced and explained in the following.
2.2 Needs Analysis Theory
2.2.1 The Definition of Needs
In common sense, need, means a motivating force that compels action in order to gainsatisfaction. Need has a wide scope. It includes basic survival needs from the bottom whichare common to all human beings, satisfied by necessities, to the lop of intellectual and socialneeds, which are satisfied by necessaries. While in second language teaching (SLT), needs arerelated with language. By now, scholars and researchers have not reached a consensus on thedefinition of needs in SLT. Berwick puts forward a basic definition of needs that a need is ‘‘agap or measurable discrepancy between a current stale of affairs and a desired future state”His definition is very general and shows no direct implication for language teaching andlearners" needs. An even more simple definition is given by Brindley, according to his opinion,needs analysis shows “the gap between what is and what should be" Kemp argues thatneed is “a gap between what is expected and the existing conditions” The above threedefinitions share one thing in common: they all point out that need is a gap. Mountford holdsthe view that need means what being regarded as necessary or desirable by the user (whetheran institution or a society) to be learnt from a language program His definition is relativelynarrower, because he mentions language program this particular field. In Widdowson'sdefinition, need is “learners’ present study and future job requirements, that is, what they haveto be able to do at the end of the course”.Widdowson's definition is narrower and moreconcrete. He connects needs with job requirements, which means learners have to meet thequalifications of their future job by being involved in the present study.With so many different ways of interpreting needs，a great deal of disagreement betweenresearchers thus emerged and it leads to different classifications of needs from differentperspectives.
3 Methodology.......... 21
3.1 Research Description.......... 21
3.2 Research Questions.......... 21
3.3 Participants.......... 22
3.4 Instruments of the Study.......... 22
3.4.2 Interview.......... 23
3.4.3 Text Analysis.......... 23
3.5 Data Collection and Treatment.......... 23
4 Results and Discussions..........25
4.1 Data from the Graduates.......... 25
4.2 Data from Teachers.......... 29
4.3 Data from Students.......... 32
4.4 Data from the Interviews.......... 44
5 Conclusion ..........52
5.1 The Findings.......... 52
5.2. The Implications.......... 53
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions ..........54
4 Results and Discussions
4.1 Data from the Graduates
First we should look into graduates, opinions according to their learning and workingexperience, through which educators can know the social needs for English graduates. It alsohelps enlighten the current curriculum design. The questionnaire concerning information fromgraduates contains three parts: (1) English skills that are often used in workplace; (2) socialexpectations for English major graduates; (3) problems in current curriculum and suggestions. This research investigates graduates of many occupations in different companies. Theyhave to use some basic English skills in work. Table 4.1 demonstrates graduates' occupation.From the table, we can see that graduates have a wide choice of job comparatively, but somework may not have high requirements for English skills，such as sales personnel，management,and clerical work. Graduates do not have much room to demonstrate their advantages, whichis a waste of human resources.
Through the questionnaires and interviews, there are some findings concerning thefollowing aspects.Firstly, students have some problems in their study. It can be reflected in several aspects.(1) Most students do not have a strong motivation to leam English because they were justfamiliar with English or they followed their parents' advice when they choose the major.There are some students who were transferred to English major from science majors, becausethey just want to enter that university. These students also plan to transfer to other majorswhen the chance comes. The reason for choosing English major directly influences students'purpose of studying English. In the interviews with students, most of them do not know whatthey are going to do after graduation or they don't have a clear purpose of learning English.Some juniors have clear goals because they are interested in English and want to be involvedin English-related work in the future. (2) In terms of the after-class learning, students,sophomores in particular, lack the spirit of autonomous learning, and they still want teachersto supervise over them. The cramming method of education still exists, because students haveto face the end-term exams, TEM4 and TEM8. This kind of education method may lead themnowhere, not even mention what they want to leam in class or what they want to gain aftertaking the courses. They lack self-evaluation senses and creative thinking.