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            优秀硕士英语论文范文十篇

            来源: www.zsalud.com 作者:lgg 发布时间:2018-05-26 论文字数:38596字
            论文编号: sb2018052421370521267 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
            本文是一篇英语论文,正确引用作品原文或专家、学者的论述是写好英语论文的重要环节;既要注意引述与论文的有机统一,即其逻辑性,又要注意引述格式 (即英语论文参考文献)的规范性。
            本文是一篇英语论文,正确引用作品原文或专家、学者的论述是写好英语论文的重要环节;既要注意引述与论文的有机统一,即其逻辑性,又要注意引述格式 (即英语论文参考文献)的规范性。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语论文,供大家参考。
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇一

             
            1. 引言
             
            本论文翻译部分选取伊朗•托雷斯创作的广告类畅销书 TranslatingPromotional and Advertising Texts 的第七章 Business-to-consumer(B2C):Creativeand emotional。伊朗•托雷斯曾在马切拉塔大学及地处意大利的弗利地区的博洛尼亚大学现代高级口译笔译语言学院教授英翻意。目前她仍在博洛尼亚现代高级口译笔译语言学院任教。伊朗•托雷斯研究发表的出版物包括对广告文本翻译的跨文化问题的研究。伊朗•托雷斯曾经担任过自由撰稿人和翻译,在推介和广告领域积累了大量的经验。Translating Promotional and Advertising Texts 这本书涉及多种领域,包括个人推介、公司对公司推介、机构与公司对消费者推介,包括广告。书中的例子大量来源于语言和媒体,是作者多年职业经验与生活观察的积累,具有实战性。本书可以用于课堂实践或是自学用途,适用于在校本科生、研究生、自由职业翻译人以及与此相关的各类推介与广告领域的从业人员。笔者选取翻译的第七章是关于创意性语言与鼓动人心的语言在推介广告文本中的应用及其对译者造成的挑战。文本中出现了较多的长句,成为了翻译中的难点。所谓英语长句,一般是指 20 个词左右或以上的句子(宋天赐,2007)。英语长句句子结构错综复杂,包含简单句、并列句和复合句。译文部分共一万字左右,长句共计 116句,句子最长的单词数为 74。
            世界上的语言大致可以分为两大类:综合型语言和分析型语言。在综合型语言中,词与词的关系是靠词本身的形态变化来表现的,如英语;而在分析型语言中,词与词的关系并不是通过词形变化,而是通过词序或虚词(助词)等手段来表示的,如汉语。英汉两种语言在经历了数千年的发展后各有特色,同时也存在着巨大的差异。英语重视语言结构;汉语注重意思的表达。正如著名语言学家尤金•奈达指出:从语言学角度来说,英汉语言之间最重要的区别特征莫过于形合和意合的区分。英汉两种语言的巨大差异为翻译造成了极大的挑战。对英汉两种语言进行对比研究有助于解决翻译中出现的难点问题,特别是长句的翻译。笔者根据英汉语言差异,力图使译文符合汉语语言规范,采用不同翻译方法翻译英语长句。
            ……………
             
            2.英汉语言句子结构的差异
             
            2.1 形合与意合
            英语是字母组成的文字,是逻辑思维的产物;汉语源于象形文字,是形象思维的产物。英汉语言千差万别,但同时又具有共性。这种共性为翻译提供了基础,使得人们可以进行各种交流。英汉语言互相渗透、互相借鉴却不可以互相取代。这种共性交织着差异性,使得英汉两种语言散发着独特的个性与魅力。英汉语言在句子结构方面的差异表现为形合与意合,集聚与流散,前焦点与后焦点三个方面。连淑能( 2012: 73) 认为:所谓形合, 指的是句中的词语或分句之间用语言形式手段( 如关联词) 连接起来, 表达语法意义和逻辑关系。英语造句主要采用形合法。所谓意合, 指的是词语或分句之间不用语言形式手段连接, 句中的语法意义和逻辑关系通过词语或分句的含义表达。汉语造句主要采用意合法。英语的造句几乎离不开关系词和连接词,注重显性衔接,以形显义。汉语造句少用甚至不用形式连接手段,注重隐性连贯,以意役形。下面笔者利用译文中的几个句子来进行说明。例 1.原文:Business-to-Consumer(or B2C) promotion is usually issued byprivate companies selling products or services, and addressed to individualprospective consumers who are not supposed to have in-depth knowledge about theobject of promotion.(31 words)参考译文:企业对消费者(或 B2C)推介通常由销售产品或提供服务的私人公司进行,面向那些对推介对象了解不够深入的潜在个体消费者。
            ……………
             
            2.2 集聚与流散
            Randolph Quirk把英语句型划分为7个基本句型:SV,SVC,SVO,SVOO,SVOC,SVA,SVOA。英语句子以主、谓为主轴,利用关系词、介词、分词等聚集其他宾、补、状等成分。句式呈“聚集型”。正如申小龙谈到的“英语句子往往以形统神,以丰满的形态变化制约句子的格局,规定句界,组合程式严谨规范,是一种以限定动词为核心,控制各种关系的空间树形构造。”英语句子先树起主句,即主句,然后利用这些关系词把各种成分往主干上搭,犹如一棵枝叶横生的大树,盘根错节,十分复杂。与英语相比,汉语的主谓结构要复杂的多。汉语主语谓语具有多样性、灵活性特点,因而句式呈“流散型”。汉语的句式结构犹如一根竹竿,没有主谓结构的语法限制,呈线性递进关系。笔者选取译文中的例子来加以说明。例3.原文:This accounts for more immediate, boastful, creative, and catchylanguage and tells translators that B2C translation is usually best approached withfunctional trans-creation than with the kind of close translation required by most B2Btexts or other texts where anchors make rewriting difficult or less desirable by theclient.(49 words)参考译文:这说明语言的应用应更直接、夸张、富有创意且更加吸引人;与大多数企业对企业文本或其他要求紧扣原文的文本翻译相比,企业对消费者推介文本的翻译最好选用注重功能等值的转创翻译方法,而在大多数企业对企业文本或其它文本中的翻译中,固定信息会使改写变得困难,或者不太为客户所接受。例 3 原文中的结构为 SVO,即“This accounts for language and tellstranslators that…”,谓语动词控制了句子的主要成分。 “language”前的四个并列形容词构成的定语,“that”引导的宾语从句,从句中由“require”的过去分词后置作定语以及“where”引导的定语从句,这一切完成了整句的空间构架。句子结构严谨,逻辑性强,具有“集聚型”结构特点。译文的主语变化较多,第一部分没有主语,第二部分的主语是“企业对消费者推介文本的翻译”,第三部分的主语为“固定信息”。谓语使用的动词有“说明”、“选用”、“变得困难”等。主谓变化频繁,句式结构松散,具有“流散型”结构特点。
            ……………
             
            ITranslating Promotional and Advertising Texts …………9
            II 英汉句子结构差异对比及英语长句汉译方法研究……………32
             
            3.英语长句汉译方法
             
            英语与汉语在句式方面存在形合与意合、集聚与流散、前焦点与后焦点等方面的差别,笔者依据众多专家的经验并结合翻译实践,总结了以下英语长句汉译方法:例 7.原文:Intersexuality is the reference to another text genre, either throughverbatim or modified quotation, or through the adoption of the stylistic convention ofthat genre. (25 words)参考译文:互文性是指另一种文本类型,要么逐字引用或修改引用,要么采用那种类型的文体传统。例 8.原文:For instance, when Levi’s launched an international TV commercialbased in lines from Shakespeare’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream, in fact, is not aspopular in Italy as in English-speaking countries, and the commercial did not featureany visual cues that might have helped viewers decode the reference, since the actorswere dressed and acted as contemporary young people in an urban ghetto. (62 words)参考译文:例如,利惠牌牛仔裤利用莎士比亚《仲夏夜之梦》的台词发布一则国际电视广告,事实上,这在意大利并不像在英语国家那样受欢迎,并且这些广告片没有提供视觉提示来帮助观众理解这一互文参照性,因为演员们都装扮成并出演生活在都市平民窟里的现代年轻人。例 7 和例 8 英译汉时基本按照原句的语序,原文中的“either…or…”和“when…,in fact,...,and…,that…,since…”分别译成“要么……要么……”和“事实上,……,并且……,……来帮助观众理解这一互文参照性,因为……”。其中例8 中“that…”引导的后置定语从句译成“来帮助观众理解这一互文参照性”用来补充说明,符合汉语语序的逻辑性。
            ………………
             
            结论
             
            综上所述,英汉语言在句子结构方面存在巨大差异,主要表现为英语句式重形合,汉语句式重意合;英语句式呈聚集型,汉语句式呈流散型;英语句式突出前焦点,汉语句式突出后焦点。在进行英译汉的过程中,特别要关注英汉句式的差异,特别是英语长句的处理,我们可以通过顺序法、逆序法、拆句法等方式灵活翻译,没有一种方法是一成不变的,有时需要结合起来进行处理。总之,如何找到一种行之有效的方法,即符合汉语语言规范的翻译方法,是每一位译者追求的终极目标。
            ……………
            参考文献(略)
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇二

             
            Chapter 1 Introduction
             
            1.1 Preliminaries about Garden Path Sentences
            Sentence ambiguity has long been under the investigation of many linguists andpsycholinguists. As a typical type of sentence ambiguity, garden path sentences areusually regarded as containing local ambiguities or considered to be temporarilyambiguous. They are sentences that “lead human sentence processors to construct aninitial syntactic structure, which turns out to be incorrect, and thus requires syntacticand semantic reanalysis" (Christianson, 2006).In fact, it was T.G. Bcvcr, a psycholinguist, who first recognized the existence ofgarden path sentences in English in The Cognitive Basis for Linguistic Structures(1970). The classic example given by Bever was as follows:The horse raced past the barn fell.A great deal of evidences from previous researches have indicated that humansentence processors tend to start the parsing operations by assuming that the sentenceis an ordinary active intransitive one and thus analyze the input string The horse racedpast the barn as a complete sentence with the VP raced past the barn as the main verband the NP the horse as its grammatical subject. Before suffering from a processingbreakdown when reaching the disambiguating region, the word fell, the misanalysiscontinues to be preserved by the processor. When the word fell appears at last, theyfeel obliged to go back and initiate a new round of analysis of the input string,aprocess termed as reanalysis. 
            ……………
             
            1.2 Aims and Significance of the Study
            The purpose of the study is to explore whether verbal type differences would exertan influence on advanced Chinese EFL learners' full interpretation of English DO/Sgarden path sentences. If yes, in what way will each verbal type's influence be like? In addition, we also want to get an overall grasp of advanced Chinese EFL learners'full comprehension of DO/S garden path sentences.By investigating advanced Chinese EFL learners' comprehension of garden pathsentences,this study will help to locate inadequacies of current theories of sentencecomprehension and to aid in the evaluation and refinement of those theories. Thereexists a controversy in current theories of sentence comprehension, which refers to theargument between whether sentence comprehension is an all-or-nothing process orthat partial comprehension is also permitted. Previous empirical studies on gardenpath sentences tend to argue for the existence of partial analysis. However, noempirical study on advanced Chinese EFL learners has been launched so far.Therefore,the results in our study will help complement the existing ones and enrichthe evidence pool for sentence comprehension.
            ……………
             
            Chapter 2 A Historical Review of Researches on Garden Path Sentences at Home and Abroad
             
            2.1 A Historical Review of Researches on Garden Path Sentences Abroad
            Researches on garden path sentences have gone through a period of more than fourdecades since its beginning in 1970, focusing on unveiling and then describing howhuman brain parsed garden path sentences during the last century, and on uncoveringwhat the ultimate interpretation formed by the human processor was like in the newcentury. To be brief, theoretical research was the locus of studies on garden pathsentences in the last century, whereas empirical study was the main story of the newcentury. Theoretical studies on garden path sentences can be categorized into two phrasesaccording to their research emphases. Studies from 1970s to 1980s were conducted onthe basis of psychology and psycholinguistics. Researchers advanced various sentenceparsing models in order to offer an explanation for this phenomenon. Later on, eversince the end of 1980s, researchers began to explore the causation of garden patheffect through grammatical and/or thematic analysis of those particular structuresthemselves. It was assumed at that time that garden path effect occurred becauseparsers violated certain syntactic principle.
            …………
             
            2.2 A Historical Review of Researches on Garden Path Sentences at Home
            Through retrieving, the author found that there were more than 30research articles published in various journals up to now, although researches in Chinaon garden path sentences are still in its early age on the whole. Those researches couldbe divided into three categories according to their research emphases: theoreticalresearches exploring the cause of garden path effect; empirical researches on gardenpath sentences; and researches on Chinese garden path sentences. Jiang Zukang (2000) had already introduced in detail the famous theoretical modelson garden path sentences proposed by foreign scholars; each with its own advantagesand disadvantages. Chinese scholars also attempted to explore the cause of gardenpath effect,mainly from the angle of cognition and sometimes grammar. Through literature reviewing, it was found that many Chinese scholars tried to usethe Relevance Theory in cognitive pragmatics to explain garden path effect (XuZhanghong,2004; Huang Birong,2007; Zhu Wenjing, 2010). They held the view thatthe understanding process of garden path sentences completely observed theRelevance Theory, and their studies showed the strong explanatory power ofRelevance Theory on the interpretation of garden path sentences. In the terms of theRelevance Theory, garden path effect originated from the pursuit of maximalrelevance. After the audience met cognitive insight, through his regulating amongostensive contents, contextual assumptions as well as cognitive effects, the audiencehad to turn back from maximal relevance to optimal relevance. The resultinginterpretation finally satisfied the expectations of relevance, and the audience got thecorrect interpretation of the utterance.
            ……………
             
            CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND PROCESS........... 41
            3.1 RESHARCi 1 QunS I IONS AND HYPOTI Il-StlS......... 41
            3.2 Method .........43
            3.2.1 Participants......... 43
            3.2.2 Stimuli .........43
            3.2.3 Procedures......... 44
            3.2.4 Design and Data Analysis......... 45
            CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION......... 48
            4.1 WILL VERBALTYPE DIFFERENCES EXERT .........48
            4.2 What Wiu,tiihThrkhVi:rbalTypes’ Influencls ......... 49
            4.3 On the Whole, What Will the Ultimate Interpre .........57
            4.4 Summary......... 60
            CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION......... 61
            5.1 Major Findings......... 61
            5.2 Theoretical and Practical Implications......... 63
            5.2.1 Theoretical Implications......... 63
            5.2.2 Practical Implications.........   64
            5.3 Limitations .........65
            5.4 Suggestion for Future Researches......... 66
             
            Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
             
            4.1 Will Verbal Type Differences Exert an Influcncc on Advanced Chinese EFL Learners' Final Interpretation of DO/S Garden Path Scntcnccs?
            Data of responses in the three different sub-conditions (optionally transitive verbs,RAT verbs and reciprocal verbs) arc analyzed through SPSS. The scores of fullrepresentation in each condition are shown in table 4.1. It clearly shows that participants' full interpretation oFsentences with reciprocal verbsis better than those with optionally transitive verbs and RAT verbs, though the means of full interpretation under all the three conditions are not so high, much lower in factthan we have hypothesized in the last chapter. Nevertheless, ANOVA indicates thatthere exist significant differences of performances on sentences with the three verbaltypes. Statistics from ANOVA shows, indicatingthat participants' full interpretation of sentences with different verbal types reachesthe significance level. That is to say, verbal type differences do exert an influence onparticipants' comprehension of English DO/S garden path sentences, which echoesour first hypothesis. Therefore, a Post Hoc Test is in need to further analyze therelationships among the three sub-conditions.
            ………………
             
            Conclusion
             
            By recruiting advanced Chinese EFL learners as participants to explore their finalinterpretations of English DO/S garden path sentences with different verbal types(optionally transitive verbs, RAT verbs and reciprocal verbs); this study has achievedsome major findings.First of all, verbal type differences were for the first time being proved to exert aninfluence on advanced Chinese EFL learners' comprehension of garden path sentences,as indicated by the results from the ANOVA which showed that the differences amongthe participants' performances on the three verbal types had reached a quitesignificance level"尸.000.Secondly,each verbal type was proved to have an influence on the subjects'performances to a different degree. Sentences with reciprocal verbs were the easiest tobe fully comprehended while those with RAT verbs were the most difficult, andsentences with optionally transitive verbs came in-between. However,all the threemeans were not as high as we have hypothesized and the difference betweensentences with the last two verbal types did not reach a significant level.
            ……………
            Reference (omitted)
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇三

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 The Research Method and Theoretical Basis
            Euphemism,as a rhetoric device,is often used by people to express them. Thestudy of euphemism focuses on the origin, formation, features,classificat,characteristics,translation, and the communicative functions of it. The author of thisthesis discusses the communicative functions of euphemism from the perspective ofthe Cooperative Principle. In the process of developing the thesis,the author will tryhis utmost to get detailed reference materials, to describe and explain the materialsfully and clearly, so that something new would be drawn out from the whole process. Theory and examples" is the main method of developing this thesis by way ofexplaining the features, classification and so on.Besides, induction and deduction will be applied comprehensively. In the part ofthe discussion of the relationship between euphemism and the Cooperative Principle,a wealth of euphemisms will be classified and analyzed, then we will be very clearabout in what way the euphemism has violated each maxim of the CooperativePrinciple. This process is right called induction, which is a process of discovering ageneral principle from a set of facts, frequently used in scientific research. In thediscussion of the communicative functions of euphemism, the author firstly offers hisown point of view; secondly proves it through concrete examples,this process iscalled deduction.Certainly, we can not use induction and deduction separately; research oneuphemism can go ahead only when these two methods are combined togetherscientifically.
            ……………
             
            1.2 The Structure and the Main Content of the Thesis
            Thesecond chapter shows us the research of euphemism at home and abroad In the thirdchapter, firstly, the author gives the general introduction of the Cooperative Principle;Secondly, there is an introduction of euphemism, including the definition ofeuphemism, the origin of euphemism, the classification of euphemism and thecharacteristics of euphemism, which are the updatability, the temporal spirit and theregional trait of euphemism. Thirdly, the author introduces the formation methods ofeuphemism. Fourthly, the author discusses the relation between euphemism and theCooperative Principle. There is incompatibility between these two, and there iscoordination between them as well. In the fourth chapter, the author will discuss thecommunicative functions of euphemism from the angle the Cooperative Principleafter a foregoing discussion of the relation between the communicative functions ofeuphemism and the Cooperative Principle. There are more euphemisms violating theQuality maxim and the Manner maxim than those violating the Relation maxim andthe Quantity maxim, correspondingly,the communicative functions of the former twokinds are more abundant than those of the latter two. The fifth chapter draws aconclusion for the thesis and makes a summary for its limitations and suggestions forfurther study of the euphemism.
            ……………
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 The Research of Euphemism at Home and Abroad
            Euphemism is not only a kind of linguistic phenomenon, but also is widelythought to be a kind of cultural and social phenomenon. Many scholars andresearchers at home and abroad have done a great many researches on euphemisms.Hugh Rawson also pointed out "Euphemisms are embedded so deeply in our language that few ofus,even those who pride themselves on being plain-spoken, ever get through a day without usingthem."(1981:73) Taboos have close relation with euphemisms. In china,the written materialsabout taboos can be dated back to the Spring and Autumn Period. Qian Daxin in QingDynasty was the first person to do systematic research on taboos. Not only did he docomprehensive research on taboos' objects, but he also made up some words orphrases in some ancient books for some words or phrases that were deleted for thereason of taboos by the means of taboo examples.The study of Chinese euphemisms has been systematically and
            ………………
             
            2.2 Summary
            Based on the above, we can safely make a conclusion that the present studies,both at home and abroad, have achieved a lot. but been mainly confined within thefollowing five areas: rhetoric, dictionary compiling, semantics, pragmatics, andsociology. In the aspect of rhetoric, euphemism has close connections with linguistictaboos, which is a figure of speech. At the same time,there are many scholars attachimportance to the dictionary compiling of euphemism. In the aspect of semantics,euphemism is employed to replace the unpleasant part of topics, so we can study theorigin,development and formation of euphemism from the angle of their semanticfeatures. In terms of pragmatics, we can explore different cultural connotation ofeuphemism from the angle of their pragmatics features. In addition, the sociologistsalso mention euphemism as an independent chapter in their writings. What's differentis that they pay much more attention to the social influences and causes in socialcommunicative activities. However, almost all researches or scholars are greatlyfocused on only one perspective, which is not enough for us to probe this importantlanguage and social phenomenon. The studies of the previous scholars and researchershave provided us with abundant and solid theoretical basis for our further study andresearch on euphemism. However, as time goes by,the society never stops itsdevelopment steps, and our language also has accordingly gained some changesgradually. Therefore, we can realize that the research on euphemism and its functionis far from being systematical and complete at all. We need to do more on the way tohave further study on English euphemism.
            ………………
             
            Chapter Three The Cooperative Principle and Euphemism.......... 10
            3.1 The Cooperative Principle and Violation.......... 10
            3.1.1 The Cooperative Principle.......... 11
            3.1.2 Violation of the Maxims.......... 13
            3.2 The General Understanding of Euphemism.......... 15
            3.2.1 The Definition of Euphemism..........   17
            3.2.2 The Origin of Euphemism ..........    18
            3.2.3 The Classification of Euphemism ..........18
            3.2.4 The Characteristics of Euphemism..........   19
            3.3 Formation of Euphemism..........20
            3.4 The Cooperative Principle and Euphemism ..........20
            Chapter Four An Analysis of Communicative Functions..........30
            4.1 The Motivation of Using Euphemism.......... 30
            4.2 Dialectical Relation Between the Communicative Functions..........  31
            4.3 The Communicative Functions of Euphemism.......... 33
            4.4 Summary  .......... 52
            Chapter Five Conclusion.......... 53
            5.1 Summary of the Study..........  53
            5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study.......... 54
             
            Chapter Four An Analysis of Communicative Functions of Euphemism under the CooperativePrinciple
             
            4.1 The Motivation of Using Euphemism
            “Human beings' behavior is a kind of action which is based on specific desire,choosing variable means to achieve a specific goals or purposes?”(伯茂雄,1985:33)The using of euphemisms is absolutely a kind of language behavior. And as akind of behavior, the abstract motivation of it is a certain desire. Specifically,it is themotivation to tend to get happiness and avoid bitterness, and get advantages and avoiddisadvantages. Judging from the function of behaviors, getting happiness andavoiding bitterness is the original motivation of all the behaviors. Euphemism isclosely related with the happiness experience and getting advantages: euphemismscan bring us happiness and benefits; help us avoid bitterness and disadvantages. Thenhow can euphemisms achieve this point? We believe that language behaviors bring ushappiness and bitterness, which are good results or expected communication resultsand bad results or un-wanted results. So the motivation of using euphemisms is toachieve expected or good communication results.In the language communication activities, we should avoid the language behaviorsthat lead to bad results or un-wanted results. There are some failures, social failuressuch as the low-level jobs, privation, failing to pass an exam, divorce, poorinterpersonal relation; personal failures such as physiological appearance. When theparticipants talk about these failures directly, the communication process will be alittle harsh, and the results will be accordingly not so good, so they will resort toeuphemisms to avoid harming others.
            ………………
             
            Conclusion
             
            With the wish to fulfill this thesis well (we dare not to say “perfectly"), by themeans of “theory and materials", on the basis of pragmatics, we apply obtainedmaterials, to describe and explain them in order to withdraw an idea conclusion. Firstwe make a conclusion of the research of euphemism at home and abroad, and then weintroduce euphemism and cooperative principle. And then in the third chapter of thethesis, we first make a study of English euphemisms in terms of their definition,origins, classification, characteristics, formation, and then analyze the relationbetween euphemism and cooperative principle. In the main body of the thesis, weanalyze the communicative functions of the euphemisms from the violating ofdifferent angles. During the analysis and discussion of the communicative functions,the author founds that, the amount of euphemisms violating the Quality and Marinermaxims are much more then those violating the Relation and Quantity. Andcorrespondingly, the communicative functions of the first two are more abundant thanthe latter two's. However, there is overlap between or among the functions, inconclusion, the functions including avoiding taboos, to avoid offending others, toconceal facts, to show respect, to protect others' faces and so on.
            ……………
            参考文献(略)
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇四

             
            1 Introduction
             
            1.1 The Background of the Research
            Reading plays an important role in language learning, especially in foreign languagelearning. Most of the information the foreign learners have learnt is from reading materialscompared with the native ones who can be exposed to the native language in a variety ofways, including speaking, listening and writing and reading. However, there are still avariety of ways to shorten the length if some measures are taken by both the teachers andstudents. How to make foreign language learners learn efficiently when they are reading?What are the obstacles that hamper their reading results? How can learners prevent orshake off these obstacles in foreign language learning environment?It is known that there are many factors affecting the reading results, such asbackground knowledge, cognitive, metacognitive factors and the text types and difficultyof the texts. Since the mid 1980s, the past three decades has witnessed an explosion ofresearches into the topic of foreign language anxiety. Until now a lot of researchers putforward a variety of theories about language learning and anxiety. There are two differentfindings of the correlation analysis between language learning and anxiety. Bailey (1983);Krashen, (1985b); Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, (1986); Aida(1994); Ganschow &Sparks(1996); Mactntyre & Gardner(1991a, 1994); Young(1991) and Horwitz (2001) hadconsistently yielded moderately negative correlations between foreign language anxietyand foreign language performance. However, there still exist different findings that thereis a positive correlation between language learning and anxiety. But the former pointmakes the trend. The author would like to seek out the correlation between languagereading scores and anxiety.
            ……………
             
            1.2 The Significance of the Research
            Concerning the significance of the study, the author would like to talk about it intwo perspectives: the theoretical terms and the practical aspect.Firstly, it is known that many factors affect reading comprehension and results, one ofwhich was second language anxiety. Second language anxiety was most vastly studied inwestern countries and second language environments. There were also a large number ofresearches concerning this point in china. But few studies were carried out from theperspective of different genres which may cause anxiety as well. So, this article is acomplement to gradually replenish the relevant theory.Secondly, lots of the current reading anxiety studies in China were conducted throughthe questionnaire Foreign Language Reading Anxiety Scale by Satio, Garza and Horwitzin 1999. Despite its high validity and reliability, it is more suitable to use a more specificscale to measure the anxiety caused by reading the different genres. Therefore, in thisstudy a questionnaire named State-Trait Anxiety Scale designed by Wang Xiaodong, WangXinlin was used. Such a study of anxiety with a specific anxiety scale will make theresearches richer on the language reading anxiety and genres.Thirdly, the research results can be used into pedagogy so that teachers can use thegenre-based teaching method and the teaching of strategies to improve students’ readingefficiency and reduce anxiety.
            ……………
             
            2 Literature Review
             
            2. 1The Anxiety
            The term “anxiety” was first appeared in Psychology. Spielberger (1972:482) definedanxiety as “an unpleasant emotional state or condition that was characterized by subjectivefeelings of tension, apprehension, and worry, and by activation or arousal of the autonomicnervous system”. Scovel defined it as an emotional state of “apprehension, a vague fearthat is indirectly related to an object”. Leary (1982) comprehended that” Anxiety refers toa cognitive-affective response characterized by physiological arousal and apprehensionregarding a potentially negative outcome that the individual perceives as impending”.It can be seen that anxiety is an unpleasant inner sense when people suffer fromtensions and apprehension.As the researches go deeper and deeper and the ever-increasing interdisciplinarysubject appears, a lot of new space is explored, so does the anxiety. The primary study onanxiety and foreign language learning began with the oral learning. Satio (1999) stated“foreign language learning anxiety is most clearly associated with the oral aspects oflanguage use: listening and speaking”. He thought that listening and speaking is aninteractive activity. The listener has to listen to the speaker and response quickly. If not,the discourse can not to be gone on.
            ……………
             
            2.2 Genre
             
            2.2.1 The Definition of Genre
            “Genre” is a French word that derided from the Latin word “genus”---a type ofcountry landscape painting cried up by French academy. With the advances of textlinguistics and discourse analysis, linguists are no longer satisfied with surface-leveldescription, but turn to deeper social-cultural rationales for text construction andinterpretation. There are three schools giving its definition, with each one sighting it fromtheir particular sights.Within the field of English for Special Purposes (ESP), John Swales is the pioneer inthe study of genre. Drawing on insights from various disciplines, he defines genre as of:communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicativepurposes. These purposes are recognized by the expert members of the parent discoursecommunity, and thereby constitute the rationale for the genre. This rationale shapes theschematic structure of the discourse and influences and constrains choice of content andstyle. Communicative purpose is both a privileged criterion and one that operates to keepthe scope of a genre as here conceived narrowly focused on comparable rhetorical action.In addition to purpose, exemplars of a genre exhibit various patterns of similarity in termsof structure, style, content and intended audience. If the high probability expectation isrealized, the exemplar will be viewed as prototypical by the parent discourse community.The genre names inherited and produced by discourse communities and imported byothers constitute valuable ethnographic communication, but typically need furthervalidation. (1990:58)
            …………
             
            3 Research Design..... 17
            3.1 Research Questions......... 17
            3.2 Subjects......... 17
            3.3 Instruments.... 17
            3.3.1 The Choice of Reading Material...... 18
            3.3.2 The Difficulty Measurement of the Genres........ 18
            3.3.3 The Question Difficulty Dimensions..... 21
            3.3.4 Questionnaire..... 21
            3.4 Research Methods....... 22
            3.5 The Procedures of Research......... 22
            4 Results and Discussion of the Study.... 25
            4.1 Results of Research Question 1.... 25
            4.2 Results of Research Question 2.... 27
            14.3 The Correlation between Genres and Gender....... 33
            4.4 Discussion of the Results...... 38
            5 Conclusion....... 45
            5.1 Major Findings..... 45
            5.2 Pedagogical Implication......... 46
            5.2.1 Genre-Based Teaching Method......... 46
            5.2.2 The Teaching of Reading Strategies........ 47
            5.3 Limitations...... 48
            5.4 Recommendation for the Future Research..... 48
             
            4. Results and Discussion of the Study
             
            4.1 Results of Research Question 1
            In order to explore whether foreign language reading anxiety is related to the genres,Pearson product-moment correlation was conducted. The Pearson correlation coefficientshowed a negative correlation between reading genres and anxiety.To examine whether there is any relationship between English reading genre and thecandidates’ reading anxiety, to begin with, the participants finish English readingcomprehension test. After collecting the papers, the author distributes the English readinganxiety scale at once. The two classes use the same reading material and finish it at class. The statistics in Table 4-2 show that the mean scores from the highest to the lowest arenarration, exposition and practical writing. That is to say, the students perform best innarration, then in exposition and practical writing (6.9429>6.2571>4.7143). However, thestandard deviations from the highest to the lowest are practical writing, exposition andnarration (2.59399>2.35714>2.27708).Another descriptive table is concerned with the anxiety. Table 4-3 describes that boththe minimum anxiety and the maximum anxiety occur in the narration. The anxiety marksfrom the highest to the lowest are practical writing, exposition and narration. That is to say,the practical writing arouses highest anxiety, then the exposition and narration(46.4857>45.3857>9.10951).The range from the highest to the lowest is anxiety ofexposition, anxiety of narration and anxiety of practical writing.
            ……………
             
            Conclusion
             
            This study attempted to explore the correlation between language reading anxiety andreading scores. It was conducted by the means of quantitative research and qualitativeresearch. Findings in this research provide clear answers to the three questions designedfor the purpose of this study.The reading test consisted of three different genres, that is, narration, practical writingand exposition. Before doing the test, the author used two tools named Lexical Frameworkand Range to make sure that the three genres were nearly at the same difficulty level.Altogether 70 students were selected to do a text and questionnaire. Then three studentswere chosen to do TAPS. They were a high-score male student, an intermediate-score malestudents and a low-score female student.The first question concerned whether there was any significance difference betweenlanguage reading anxiety and reading scores of the test. It was found that there exists asignificant correlation between anxiety and reading genres (0.005<0.01) and there was amoderately negative correlation between the English reading anxiety and scores with thePearson Correlation being -0.329.That is to say, the higher the anxiety was, the lower thereading score was.
            ……………
            Reference (omitted)
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇五

             
            Chapter 1 Literature Review
             
            1.1 Studies of Advertisements
            Advertisement plays an important part in modern society; we could see manykinds of advertisement everywhere. It is very necessary to study advertisinglanguage, for we need to understand this special linguistic phenomenon in detail,and to help advertising companies to make better advertisement which is morelikely to be accepted by common people in limited time and space. The word “advertising” derives from the Latin word “adventure”, whichmeans to catch the public’s attention and lead them to certain direction, the advertisement becomes popular since the end of the17thcentury. According toWikipedia, advertising is “a form of communication for marketing and used toencourage, persuade or manipulate an audience (viewers, readers or listeners;sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new actions. Most commonly,the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercialoffering, although political and ideological advertising is also common”. Anotherwidely accepted definition is “the non-personal communication usually paid forand usually persuasive in nature about products, services or ideas by identifiedsponsors through the various media” (Zhao Jing, 1991: 1). The object of study inthis paper is cosmetic advertisement. It includes foundation makeup, sun screen,puff cake, toner, lotion, cream, facial cleanser, body cleanser, perfume, etc.Because of the special quality of cosmetic advertisement, there are certaindifferences between cosmetic advertising language and other types of advertisinglanguage.
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            1.2 Previous Studies on Advertising Language and Cosmetic Advertisements
            The advertising industry flourished in England at the end of the 17thcentury,scholars became very interested in this field since then, and studies from differentperspectives mushroomed in western countries. The research about advertisinglanguage at home appeared in the late 1980s. The English linguist Leech (1972)studies the characteristics of advertising language from the perspective ofsemantics, pragmatics and stylistics. In China, Qin Xiubai (1986) studiesadvertising language from stylistics. Vestergaard and Schroder (1985) studiesadvertising language in a macroscopic perspective, which can be classified intosociolinguistics. Cook (1992) and Huang Guowen (2002) see advertisement indiscourse level. There are also scholars who study advertisement in economic areaor psychological point of view. Nowadays most linguists accept the idea that language is a dynamic process,and advertisements are not merely a matter of meaningful words and sentences. InAustin’s view, language is not only used to inform somebody or something, tomake statements or to describe things, but it is also used to do things, to performacts or to bring about effects. As for advertisements, there are two main functions,namely information and persuasion. Informative function is the basic one which isused to present the effect, service and idea of the advertised product and persuasivefunction is to encourage the potential consumers to make decisions and then takeactions. There are certain scholars who believe that these two functions are not ofequal importance.
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            Chapter 2 Theoretical Framework and Research Methodology
             
            2.1 A Brief Review of Presupposition
            Presupposition is a very important concept in linguistic, but in fact theconcept was first proposed by philosophers. This topic in pragmatics originateswith debates in philosophy, particularly those debates about the nature of referenceor referring expressions. These problems are the main concern in logical theory,and arise from the consideration of how the restricted logical language wastranslated from referring expressions in natural language. In the history of philosophy, the German philosopher Gottlob Frege was thefirst one who dealt with such problems in his paper On Sense and Reference. Asthe architect of modern logic, he proposed plenty of issues which turned to be thecentral considerations of presupposition. He wrote:( ) Referring phrases and temporal clauses ( for example) carry presuppositionsto the effect that they do in fact refer.( ) A sentence and its negative counterpart share the same set of presuppositions.( ) In order for an assertion or a sentence to be either true or false, itspresuppositions must be true or satisfied. In other words, a sentencepresupposes that all the proper name or definite description has a referent, ifthe proper name or definite description has no referent, then the sentence as awhole has no referent let alone truth value.
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            2.2 Theoretical Framework: Pragmatic Presupposition
            It is not enough for the researchers to study presupposition in semantic viewand there will be certain problems. From 1973 onwards there have been a lot ofresearches on pragmatic presuppositions, some scholars try to study presuppositionfrom the concrete speech activities, the sentences and composition in use of humanbeing, such studies are considered as pragmatic researches of presupposition. Thepresupposition analyzed from pragmatic perspective can be called pragmaticpresupposition which is totally different from semantic presupposition. Scholarslike Stalnaker (1974), Kempson (1975), Wilson (1975) and Boer & Lycan (1976)prefered to abondon semantic theories of presupposition. And different definitionsof presupposition thus have been made.
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            Chapter 3 A Pragmatic Analysis of Presupposition in EnglishCosmetic Advertising Language........19
            3.1 The Relationship between Pragmatic Presupposition and CosmeticAdvertising Language.......19
            3.2 Presupposition Triggers in Cosmetic Advertising Language .......20
            3.2.1 Presupposition Triggers in Lexical Form.....21
            3.2.2 Presupposition Triggers in Syntactic Form........23
            3.3 Classification of Pragmatic Presupposition in CosmeticAdvertising Language.........27
            3.4 Functions of Pragmatic Presupposition in English CosmeticAdvertisements .........37
            3.4.1 Strengthening the Conciseness of Cosmetic AdvertisingLanguage..........37
            3.4.2 Making the Advertising Language more Persuasive .....38
            3.4.3 Making the Cosmetic Advertising Language moreInteresting ........39
            3.4.4 Making the Cosmetic Advertising Language moreEuphemistic ...........40
             
            Chapter 3 An Analysis of Pragmatic Presupposition in English Cosmetic Advertising Language
             
            3.1 The Relationship between Pragmatic Presupposition and CosmeticAdvertising Language
            In the first part of this chapter, the author is going to explain the relationshipbetween pragmatic presupposition and cosmetic advertising language, then basicprinciples and classification of presupposition triggers will be discussed. In thethird part, the author will analyze the five types of pragmatic presupposition incosmetic advertising language based on the the psychology of the potentialconsumers. The last part is the conclusion of the functions of pragmaticpresupposition in cosmetic advertising language. Pragmatic presupposition is the preestablished information which is impliedin the current utterance. In order to achieve successful communication, pragmaticpresupposition is presented as essential information which is accepted by both thespeakers and the hearers, related to current utterance and promotes discourseunderstanding. Pragmatic presupposition is a kind of inference, besides the literalmeaning, the hearer can infer the implied information. Then the speaker and thehearer could build up consensus to keep the information complete meanwhile thehearer would be impressed.
            ……………
             
            Conclusion
             
            The rapid development of cosmetic advertisementa demand systemic andin-depth researches in this area. The author chooses the topic, through theoreticalresearch, psychology analysis and qualitative study the author finds out howpragmatic presupposition classifies in cosmetic advertising language and howpragmatic presupposition functions in cosmetic advertising language. The majorfindings and implications will be discussed first in this part, following thelimitation of the present study and suggestions for further study. First of all, according to the studies on the application of pragmaticpresupposition on cosmetic advertisement, the presupposition triggers are found ofgreat importance in triggering a presupposition in cosmetic advertising language.Secondly, from the psychological perspective, pragmatic presupposition areclassified into existential presupposition, factive presupposition, beliefpresupposition, state presupposition and behavior presupposition, which is in closerelationship with the inner feeling of the potential consumers, this kind ofclassification of pragmatic presupposition helps to clear up the complexpsychology of the potential consumers, especially the psychology of the cosmeticsconsumer. Thirdly, from the analysis in chapter three, we find that the employmentof presupposition in cosmetic advertisement makes the language concise,interesting, more informative and euphemistic. Those aspects are the embodimentof the functions of pragmatic presupposition in cosmetic advertising language,with which the language could be more persuasive and attractive.
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            Reference (omitted)

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇六

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 Research background
            Acquiring lexicons is always an indispensable part of learning a language. DavidWilkins (cited in Lewis, 2000), one of the pioneers indicating the significance ofvocabulary, pointed out that receivers could get little information without grammar. Inaddition, receivers could get nothing without vocabulary, which demonstrated the crucialstatus of vocabulary. Canadian scholar Qian (1999) stated that vocabulary consists oftwo main parts: the breadth and the depth. The distinction between the breadth and depthof vocabulary is that the former lays stress on the size and growth of the lexicon whilethe latter pays attention to the collocation, syntactic restrictions and meaning of thewords. So the depth of vocabulary is equal to its corresponding word’s collocationalcapacity.For word use, knowing a word means knowing the grammatical functions of wordsand word combinations such as collocations as well as the constraints on use such asword frequency and appropriateness (Nation, 2001). McCarthy (1990) declared the studyof the relevance of collocation is elementary in the field of vocabulary; it is an intimatebond between words, on some occasions, certain words affiliate themselves with otherstightly. Alexander (1984) proposed a three C theory: collocation, context, andconnotation, which are requisite for the process for improving the second languagecompetence. Such a theory has been further explained by Chinese scholar Qian Yuan(1997), who further verified the collocation, to a higher degree, that collocation is centralamong the 3 ones. Nattinger and DeCarrico (1992) commented mastering a word’s usageof collocation would help the learners get twofold results with half the effort and amplifytheir lexical recourses. Prodromou (2003) presented the knowledge of the collocation isthe premise of the native speakers outputting their mother tongue fluently and naturally.
            ………………
             
            1.2 Significance of the study
            Despite the study of collocation having great impact on the second languageacquisition, there is not any systematic study, especially using the raw materials,addressing such an issue. Most of the studies, based on the corpus (Wei, 2002), contrastall of the collocational errors such as the noun-noun collocation, noun-verb collocation,adjective-noun collocation, etc, aiming at finding out the differences and relationsbetween different types of collocational errors committed by the students (Wei, 2001;Deng & Xiao, 2005; Sun, 2008). Previous studies show the corpus-based approach is aprevalent way to analyze the problems occurring in the collocation. The author foundedher own corpus The previous study, such as the study based on CLEC, which holds that verb-nouncollocation grades to be the highest among all the collocational errors, only definedverb-noun collocation from the perspective of semantics without rigorous restriction justas an applicable verb plus a noun, to some extent, cannot reflect the learners’ realcompetence on collocation. Therefore, the author adopts a more rigid restriction toclassify the verb-noun collocation based on the linguist—Nessalhauf’s way ofclassifying the verb-noun collocation, in order to get a rather precise data collected fromthe raw materials—the students’ free output—writings. Besides the writings, the authoralso gets data from the questionnaires which were designed to get further informationabout their daily study of English collocation and the teachers’ ways of teachingvocabulary, especially the collocation.
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            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Review of the types of analysis in SLA research
            The following researchers like Fries and Skinner, etc, compared the native languagewith the target language in the hope of finding out its similarities and differences inorder to seek out a more valid method to predicate the learners’ errors and explain thedifficulties of acquiring the target language. For a further purpose and long-term vista, itis expected to offer the rationale for the option and graduation of the instructionalguideline and for the formation and excogitation of the curriculum.However, CA gradually lost its frame because of its flaws becoming obvious. Itholds that the interference of one’s mother tongue is the main obstacle of learning asecond language or target language. Overtly, it is far from adequate to demonstrate thedifferences between the two languages can be responsible for all the problems arisingfrom the target language. When CA predicts errors, sometimes, it is under-predicted;moreover, it is over-predicted that many predicted errors do not actually occur. Scholarsgradually found out the Difference and Difficulty are not the equal concept. And itsheyday was replaced by the following error analysis. However, CA cannot be neglectedbecause it highlights the importance of the mother tongue exerted in the process ofacquisition and does become a factor that hindering the learning. So it still plays asignificant part in the SLA.
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            2.2 Review of collocation
             
            2.2.1 The definition of collocation
            It has been fifty years that the conception of collocation becomes the prevalenttopic, but until now there isn’t a universally accepted formal definition (Lewis, 2000;Grant & Bauer 2004), which gives rise to a plethoric diverse terms such as fixedexpression, word combination, idiom, phrase and prefabricated pattern.Chinese scholar Wei Naixing (2003) published the paper titled fifty years ofcollocational study—conceptual changes and methodologies developments, whichretrospected the primary standpoint of the research of the field of collocation in the pastfifty years (from 1953 to 2003) comprising the Firthian lexical approach, Mitchell’sintegrated approach, Halliday and Hasan’s concept of collocational cohesion, andBollinger’s concept of institutionalization. The following review of collocation is basedon Wei’s study.There are traces that researchers can reverse back to the 1950s, when the termcollocation was first defined by British modern great linguist J.R Firth (1957), who gavebirth to the collocation in the field of linguistics that you should know the word by thecompany it keeps. He held that there is a certain mutual expectancy between theassociation of the co-occurring linguistic items, which can be rather strong or weak,greatly relying on the cooperative words. In Firth’s opinion, collocation focuses on thecontent words neglecting the roles grammatical words playing (Wei, 1999). However, itis within reason to say that Firth’s definition and explanation of collocation is an infinitefortune to the following researchers. To some extent, it provides a theoretical foundation.
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            III. Theoretical Framework..... 17
            3.1 Language transfer ...... 17
            3.1.1 The definition of language transfer .... 17
            3.1.2. Manifestations of language transfer ....... 18
            3.2 Interlanguage theory ....... 18
            3.2.1 The definition of interlanguage ..... 18
            3.2.2 Characteristics of interlanguage .... 19
            3.3 Chunks theory....... 20
            3.4 Dichotomy models of language..... 23
            3.4.1 Idiom and open-choice principles ...... 23
            3.4.2 Formulaic and creative uses of language...... 24
            VI. Research Design..... 25
            4.1 Research questions .... 25
            4.2 Subjects....... 25
            4.3 Research instruments...... 26
            4.3.1 Writings ...... 26
            4.3.2 Validity and reliability .... 26
            4.3.3 Questionnaire and interview..... 29
            4.3.4 SPSS 19.0 ........ 30
            4.4 Research methods...... 30
            4.4.1 Error analysis approach ....... 30
            4.5 Research procedures....... 31
            4.6 Summary..... 34
            V. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Errors ……36
            5.1 Quantitative analysis of the overall distribution of verb-noun........ 36
             
            Chapter Five Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of the Errors on Verb-NounCollocation
             
            5.1 Quantitative analysis of the overall distribution of verb-noun
            There should be 148 pieces of writings, however, the author did collect 143 piecesof writings. The reason is that there were 5 missing pieces of writings in the third test (Ithas already been pointed out in the fourth part), and the detailed information is that 5students of class one attended the English contest in Xi’an, so they had to give up thistest. The author has roughly classified the main types of the collocations produced by thesubjects according to the previous ways of classifying. With such a rigorous way ofcollecting the data, altogether, there were 1731 verb-noun combinations extracting fromthe four times of writings (There is one point should be focused on is that only 298different verbs were used in all the 4 times writings. Directly speaking, each verb wasused for near 6 time on average, which is further explained and discussed in thefollowing part. The verbs are listed in appendix 4). Of all the 1731 verb-nouncombinations, 348 verb-noun combinations were regarded as collocations (RC or RC?),1366 as free combinations (F) and the left (and the least) are the idioms, only occupying17 (I), accounting for 1 percent of all the verb-noun combinations. The following chartswould show the general information about the collocations. The table 5.1 shows theoverall distribution.
            …………………
             
            Conclusion
             
            This paper has studied the present situation of verb-noun collocation errorscommitted by sophomore English majors from Yan’an University. It truly reflectslearners’ study on verb-noun collocation. In the present study the author not onlyclassified all the verb-noun errors committed by them but also found the reasons forcommitting those errors. Beyond that, the author also made a clear statement that there isa great relationship between the verb-noun collocation errors and learners’ Englishproficiency levels. In the last part, the author would make a summary of the study andgive some pedagogical implications. At the same time, the limitation of this study shouldnot be ignored because of the author’s limit efforts. At last, the author gives hersuggestions to further researchers by overcoming the present difficulties.
            ……………
            Reference (omitted)
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇七

             
            第一章绪论
             
            随着中国经济的强势崛起,全球都刮起了汉语学习风。美国人出于了解中国这个崛起的经济大国的目的,对学习汉语兴趣浓厚,并得到了政府的大力支持;在拉丁美洲,巴拿马议会立法将汉语列为学校的必修课,阿根廷许多学校都进行汉语试点教学;欧洲人为了在未来在对外幵放的广阔的中国市场中占有一席之地,也幵始学汉语。但是由于师资不足及学习本身的种种原因,许多学习者并没有机会走进传统的汉语课堂,接受正规系统的汉语教学。随着网路信息时代的迅猛发展,网络学习的优越性日趋凸显。它突破了时间与空间的限制,极大地缓解了“师资短缺”这个燃眉之急。近年来海内外投身网络汉语教学资源开发的机构与个人数量激增,各种各类的网络汉语学习资源也如雨后春笑般层出不穷。在对外汉语教学中,汉语拼音是学习的起点,是其他语言要素学习的基础,其重要性不言而喻。汉语拼音由于具有国际性、易学性等特点,受到世界各地汉语学习者的广泛认同与欢迎。目前网上的汉语拼音学习资源可称海量,但是这些资源的质量如何?资源设计是否科学规范?学习者对这些网络学习资源是否认同,这些学习资源是否切实地帮助学习者?带着以上疑问,笔者借助科学的计量统计手段,运用定量与定性相结合的方法,对当前的网络汉语拼音学习资源做了基本的调查研究。
            第一节网络拼音学习资源的界定
            为了使研究对象与研究范围更加明确,有必要在一幵始对相关的一些概念做出准确的说明。目前学术界较普遍认同的观点认为:“学习资源是指在教学系统和学习系统所创建得到学习环境中,学习者在学习过程中可以利用的一切显现的或潜隐的条件。学习资源通常分为两大类:一类是专门设计的学习资源,如参考文献、语言学习机等等;一类是非专门设计的学习资源或可利用的学习资源,如文化古迹、博物馆等等。本文探讨的网络学习资源属于第一类,即专门设计的学习资源。网络学习资源所指的是学习者利用计算机网络手段开展网络化学习活动的网络信息资源的总和,值得注意的是这里所指的“学习者”指的是利用网络学习资源进行网络化学习的人,,与我们平常所说的"网民"(一切利用网络获取知识和交流信息的人)是有区别的两个概念。
            目前的网络学习资源大体上可分为自主型学习资源、合作型学习资源、网络课堂教学三种形式。其中,自主型学习资源在目前应用得最为广泛,合作型学习资源次之,网络课堂教学应用的范围相对较小,这种状况很大程度上是由网络学习资源的特点及优越性造成的。早在古时候,我国著名的教育家孔子就提倡“因材施教”的个性化教学,但是受到传统课堂教学的条件制约,因材施教和个性化教学并没有办法落到实处。传统课堂教学多年来釆取以教师为中心的教学模式,学习者根据自身需求特点进行个性化的自主学习没有可行性。而随着网络时代的飞速发展及网络学习资源的日渐丰富和完善,这些问题得到了良好的解决。一方面,互联网把世界各地的学校、研究院、图书馆、出版社、书店和其他各种信息资源联结起来,编织了一张分布广泛的巨大知识网;另一方面,世界各地的优秀教师或专家可以通过网络从不同的专业角度对分布在世界各地的学习者提供同种知识的学习素材和教学指导,这样便形成了多对多的教学模式。这样,通过现代化的计算机网络技术,学习者在时间上、空间上和学习内容上有了自主选择权,使自主学习成为必然的高效率求知形式。然而,网络学习以学生为主的学习模式有一个很大的弊端就是容易放任自流,许多优秀的网络教学平台都采取了 BBS、Email、留言箱、设置小游戏等等方式在获得学习者学习信息反馈的同时给多个学习者创造合作学习、交流讨论的机会。这样一方面,教师在获得学生反馈信息的时候促进了教师的“教”,学习者在获得各个教师对同一知识点的回复指导的时候促进了学习者的“学”,笔者认为这是十分行之有效的办法。学习者在利用合作型学习资源进行汉语学习的时候一方面因为与其他学习者的合作而有了更大的积极性和学习动力,另一方面,多位学习者之间多向的信息交流传播也极大地扩大了学习信息量的输出与输入。网络课堂教学在目前来说,使用率并不高。究其缘由,通过笔者在本次对20个资源样本的调查中也可以看到,很大一部分课程类的学习资源是需要收费的,或者只是提供短时间的免费体验,在学习中途还是需要收费。网络课堂教学类的学习资源建设虽需要较大的资金与人力投入,但其教学效果还是不容小觑,所以免费的网络课堂教学类资源的建设还需要政府和相关组织加大支持力度。
             
            第二章网络拼音学习资源现状的调查
             
            第一节调查研究对象
            首先,笔者从两个基本点出发,明确调查研究的大范围。一是网络学习资源面对的学习者人群,另一个是网络学习资源的主体内容。本文调查研究的网络学习资源面向的是母语为英语的学习者,因此在抽样调查时,笔者选择了 google和yahoo这两个英语国家中使用率最高的搜索弓I擎来获取调查样本。此次调查研究的网络学习资源的主体内容是汉语拼音这一特定知识点。笔者在google和yahoo这两大搜索引擎中分别输入Chineselearning、pinyin、study online这几个关键词,并在之后的一个月内进行两次重复抽样,去掉重复资源,去掉网页失效、无法登陆、不符合调查对象要求的资源,得到的资源样本为292个。笔者按照点击率排序,取其中前20个资源作为此次调查研究的样本。(具体参见附录I)
             
            第二节调查依据及参数
            对网络拼音学习资源进行调查统计,必须对资源的基本构造有一个清楚的认知,必须确定一套科学的统一的调查依据。笔者基于网络学习资源的基本属性特征,立足于学习者母语为英语和资源功能是拼音教学两大基本点,参考前人的研究成果与相关文献,拟从基本信息、资源内容、远程教学理论标准三个大的方面为切入口考察已得的20个资源样本。在此基础上,再细化为若干相关参数,从而得到详细的调查分析所依据的各项参数。
             
            第二章 网络拼音学习资源现状的调查............... 21-39 
                第一节 调查研究对象............. 21 
                第二节 调查依据及参数............. 21-23 
                第三节 资源样本的调查研............. 23-39 
            第三章 资源调查的总结与评价............. 39-49 
                第一节 对资源基本信息的调查结果的............. 39-41 
                第二节 对资源内容的调查结果的............. 41-47 
                第三节 对资源远程教育质量的调............. 47-49 
            第四章 结语 .............49-51 
                第一节 研究结论............. 49-50 
            第二节 研究前景展望............. 50-51
             
            结论
             
            本文通过对针对英语国家学生的网络汉语拼音学习资源的抽样调查,从基本信息、资源内容、远程教育理论标准三方面对学习资源的现状进行分析,得出结论认为,针对英语国家学生的网络汉语拼音学习资源的现状与存在的问题有:
            1、资源的数量与需求量还有距离,尤其2010年以后资源建设力度有减弱的趋势。
            2、资源种类多限于学习辅助资料范围内。课程类、工具类、互动类的相对较少,相当一部分课程类和互动类的学习资源都是收费的。学习辅助资料类的学习资源多数的信息传播都是单向的,资源内容的呈现方式多数也只限于文本一种,因此学习效果有限。政府和相关机构应加强各类型的网络学习资源建设,加强技术支持的同时加大资金投入,让更多的学习者能免费享用优质的网络学习资源。
            3、学习资源对学习者的一般特征关注不够,针对学习者一般特征的资源内容设计亟待加强。网络学习资源可以采取要求学习者注册登记基本信息、设计调查问卷、按一般特征的基本项划分板块等方式,为学习者提供个性化、自主化、专业化的学习体验。
            4、资源内容的呈现方式单一。多数都釆用文本的形式,而拼音仅仅是会认会写是不够的。拼音属于语音学这个大类,学习者需要通过学习语音进而幵口说汉语,听辨汉语,所以音频、视频。动漫flash在这个主题的学习资源里尤为重要。
             
            参考文献
            [1] Brown.H.D. Teaching by principles:An interactive www.51lunwen.org/yybylw/  approach to languagepedagogy.Englewood Cliffs,NJ:Prentice-Hall,Inc, 1994
            [2] Brumfit?C.and Johnson,K.The Communicative Approach to Language Teaching[M], New York:Oxford University Press, 1979.
            [3]崔继馨、李丽、白梅,网络课程内容的媒体呈现形式设计[N].天津电大学报,2003 ( 6).
            [4]陈时见,王冲.论网络学习资源的意义、功能与类型[J].电化教育研究,2003( 10).
            [5]董政,远程对外汉语教学的学习者特征分析及应对策略[D].北京师范大学.2004
            [6] 丁兴富,远程学习圏[J],中国远程教育,2001 (7)。
            [7]黄伯荣,廖序东.现代汉语[M].高等教育出版社.1991
            [8]刘涛,汉语拼音在对外汉语教学中的应用研究[J],现代语文,2006 ( 11 ).
            [9]林君芬,佘胜泉,关于我国网络课程现状与问题的思考[J].现代教育技术,2001(1).
            [10]李林,网络学习环境中基于教学设计原则的有效性交互研究[N].四川文理学院学报.2009 (3 )
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇八

             
            第一章绪论
             
            1.1研究背景
            尽管中国各个层次的英语教学将写作的重要性提到极高的位置,但是在实际的教学和测试中仍然存在很多问题。尤其对于大学英语议论文,它评估的不仅是学习者的语言表达能力,同时也是逻辑思维能力。怎样引导大学生掌握好英语教学中的议论文写作,使他们自如地面对标准化测试,是众多教育者和研究者探讨的问题。山于写作是一个长期积累、厚积薄发的过程,写作中存在众多问题不足为怪。由于屮西方文化和思维的差异,学了数年英语的大学生普遍在议论文的论点构思、谋篇布局、遣词造句等方面存在很多问题。论点句是议论文写作的关键,找准了角度,写好了论点句就写好了议论文的一半。但是,在目前的众多对议论文写作的研究中,针对论点句的实证研究凤毛麟角。
             
            1.2研究意义
            对英语写作的研究是近年来二语研究的热点,对英语议论文语料的研究也为数不少。但目前的研究主要集中于语料的错误分析以及很概括的语篇分析,对具体的细化的研究也主要从议论文主题句方面进行分析,而对于论点句的实证研究几乎没有。为填补这一空白,特进行本研究,本论文将进一步探讨中国ESL (English as Second Language)大学生英语议论文写作,以期为英语写作理论的完善贡献一份微薄的力量。在实际教学和标准化测试中,议论文是大学英语写作中最常见的体裁,而论点句的写法又是议论文的精髓所在。因此,对大学生英语议论文论点句的写法及其特征的研究,将对大学英语教学产生重要的影响,也将指导学习者更好地应对标准化测试中的议论文写作。
             
            1.3论文结构
            本论文共分为六个部分。第一部分为论文的简介,对本论文的研究背景、研究意义和论文结构进行简要介绍。第二部分为文献综述,对二语写作和英语议论文的相关研究进行回顾、总结及简要评价。第三部分为理论框架,为本论文的数据收集及分析提供理论指导。主要从语言迁移和语篇分析等方面进行。第四部分为研究设计。首先阐述了本研究的几个研究问题,然后说明了本研究语料的数据来源,接着较详细地说明了对议论文论点句特征进行数据收集的各方面。本研究主要从语篇结构、句法特征两个方面分析论点句的特征。在语篇结构方面,主要从议论文是否有论点句、论点句的位置、论点句的提法、论点句的功能四个方面来研究;在句法特征方面,将论点句分为单句和多句,分别分析论点句特征。随后,对本研究数据分析的程序进行了简要的说明。第五部分为结果与讨论。通过图表等方式,从语篇结构及句法特征方面,展现了上述研究的结果,并进行了相关的讨论。第六部分为结论与启示:先得出本研究的结论,再论述了本研究对大学英语教学及标准化测试的启示,并指出此研究的不足,以期能对后继的研究提供参考及建议。
             
            第二章文献综述
             
            2.1 二语写作相关研究
            对于二语写作语篇特征的研究,很多是通过对比分析来展开的。Kaplan(1966 )最早提出了对比修辞的概念,并认为二语写作者通常会受他们母语所固有的语篇模式的影响。受之启发,自二十世纪八十年代以来,国外研究者纷纷从宏观和微观两个层面开展二语写作研究。从宏观层面上,Kirkpatrick(1997),Kubata(1992)等人分析 了文章的整体结构,Bicker 和 Peyasantiwong (1988),Ostler(1987)等人分析了段落发展;从微观层面上,Ferris(1994)及Simpson(2000)等人从连贯和衔接等语篇特点进行了分析。Scollon (2000,转引自蔡基刚,2003)将英汉篇章结构进行对比,得出结论:典型的英语篇章结构为演绎式的;而典型的汉语作文(包括汉语议论文)为归纳式的,即把中心思想放在文章的末尾,读者很难在文章的JT头看出作者的真正意图。在这方面,国内的实证研究始于上世纪90年代,也进行了类似的研究。蔡基刚(2001)对英汉议论文进行了对比分析。分析显示:英语议论文明确提出中心思想的比例大约为90%,而汉语议论文仅为60%左右。山于受到汉语思维模式的影响,学生在英语议论文写作中也常采用迂回式的写作手法,使得文章往往篇章冗长,观点阐述不充分。吴婧(2003)通过对68名大学生的英语作文进行抽样,从篇章主题句和段落主题句的特点及运用方面进行篇章结构分析。分析后发现:大约46%的文章使用了 “文首型”的英语语篇模式;其余的则使用了 “灵活型”的汉语式语篇模式。同时她还发现,与英语段落的直线型发展模式不同的是,绝大多数作文不善于运用段落主题句。
             
            2.1.2错误分析
            根据对比分析假设,母语干扰导致了错误的发生。但是随着二语研究的发展,到上世纪六十年代末,对比分析的局限性円益凸显:即它并不能预测所有的错误,且母语干扰也只是导致错误的原因之一。因而,研究者急需系统地研究学习者的错误以找出影响其发生的其它原因。由此,错误分析应运而生,并在上世纪70年代取代了对比分析。Coder(1974,转引自Ellis,1999:48)阐述了错误分析的五个步骤:⑴选择某种语言的语料库;(2)标识语料库中出现的错误;(3)将已标识的错误分类;(4)解释错误的原因;(5)将错误分级,并评估其严重性。
             
            第三章 理论框架................. 16-21 
                3.1 语言迁移(Language transfer)................ 16-18 
                3.2 语篇分析(Discourse Analysis)................ 18-21 
                    3.2.1 对比修辞理论................ 18-19 
                    3.2.2 衔接与连贯................ 19-21 
            第四章 研究设计................ 21-24 
                4.1 研究问题................ 21 
                4.2 数据来源................ 21 
                4.3 数据收集................ 21-23 
                    4.3.1 是否有论点句 ................21 
                    4.3.2 论点句的位置 ................21-22 
                    4.3.3 论点句的提法................ 22 
                    4.3.4 论点句功能................ 22 
                    4.3.5 论点句句法结构 ................22-23 
                4.4 数据分析程序 ................23-24 
            第五章 结果与讨论................ 24-47 
                5.1 语篇分析................ 24-34 
                    5.1.1 论点句数量................ 24-25 
                    5.1.2 论点句位置................ 25-27 
                    5.1.3 论点句的提出方式 ................27-31 
                    5.1.4 论点句的功能................ 31-34 
                5.2 句法分析................ 34-37 
            5.3 讨论................ 37-47
             
            结论
             
            中国ESL大学生英语议论文写作的特点是,语篇结构及论点句的句法特征受母语迁移的影响较大,具体表现如下:
            (1)大部分文章都有论点句,但其功能不强,且论点句的提出方法比较单一。
            (2)论点不鲜明,论证不充分,喜欢绕弯子;
            (3)语篇的衔接与连贯不足;
            (4)中式英语数量很多;
            通过对比中国英语专业与非英语专业大学生所写的英语议论文,我们发现了其中的异同。相同的是,两者都受到母语迁移的影响;不同的是,两者受影响的程度各异。英语专业大学生所写的英语议论文能明确提出论点的比例更大,语篇结构也更合理,衔接和连贯也更好,论述也较充分;在句法方面,它们使用的句型句式也相对多样和准确。
             
            参考文献
            1Aronoff & J.R.Miller(Eds.). The Handbook ofwww.51lunwen.org/universityenglish/ Linguistics,Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press.
            2Crystal, D. 1985. A Dictionary of Linguistics and Phonetics[Z\. New York: 
            3BasilBlackwell.Ellis, H. 1965. The Transfer of Learning[M]. New York: Macmillan.
            4Ellis, R. 1994. The Study of Second Language Acquisition\M\ Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.Ellis, R. 1999. 
            5The Study of Second Language Acquisition\M]. Oxford: OxfordUniversity Press.Faerch, C. & Kasper, G. (1986). Cognitive dimensions of language transfer. In E.
            6Kellerman & M. Sharwood Smith (Eds.), Cross-linguistic influence in secondlanguage acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Gass,S.M. &Selinkgber,L.? 1994. 
            7Second Language Acquisition: An Introductory Course.Hillsdale, New Jersey, Hove and London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
            8Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, Ruqaiya. Cohesion in English[M]. Longman Group Limited,1976.
            9Kaplan, R.B., 1966, “Culture Thought Pattern in Interlanguage Learning”. In LanguageLearning: 1-20.
            10Lado. R.,1957, Linguistic across Cultures: Applied Linguistics for English Teachers,Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan.
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇九

             
            1绪论
             
            1.1 选题的背景和意义
            笔者在2012.6至2013.6被派至泰国宋卡王子大学北大年校区支教一年,在此期间,发现泰国学生(HSK三级以上)在学习汉语语法时出现了很多偏误,而最多的就是定语和状语与中心语之间的语序偏误,其中最为复杂和最有研究意义的是多层定语和多层状语的偏误,而且通过调查分析可以看出这两种偏误之间也存在很多异同,如偏误类型、偏误成因方面都有类似的地方,所以选择此题作为研究对象。本文的研究对象是泰国留学生汉语多层定语语序和多层状语语序偏误分析,调査对象主要云南大学的部分泰国留学生,运用对比分析理论、偏误分析理论、中介语理论等对所收集到的第一手语料和问卷调查进行分析,探讨泰国留学生在学习汉语多层定语语序和多层状语语序方面的偏误,并分析其偏误成因,以期探索出相应的教学策略。
            …………
             
            1.2 研究的基础
            关于汉语多层定语方面的研宄成果主要包括:国内最早专文论述多项定语语序问题的是周亚生(1982)。他把汉语中的偏正结构分为两类,一类是以名词为中心词的,称为偏一类;一类是以动词、形容词为中心词的,称为偏二类。然后,又把偏一类和偏二类再各自细分为自由式、半自由式和限制式三种,并分别对三种形式中多重修饰语的词序进行了描写。这篇文章是我们目前见到的最早分析汉语多项定语语序的专文,尽管周先生自己所言描写得“很粗略”,但在当时进行的拓荒性的探索实属可贵,文中提到的许多语法现象以及首位、中位、末位的观点也为后来的相关研究提供了有益的借鉴。朱德熙(1957)和刘月华(1984)都把定语的修饰意义分为限制性和描写性两大类。按朱德熙先生的观点,我们应把汉语多项定语的语序规律概括为“描写性+限制性”或“限制性+描写性+限制性”;按刘月华先生的观点,我们可以把汉语多项定语的语序规律概括为“限制性+描写性”。陆丙甫(1988)则直接采用了 “粘合式定语”和“组合式定语”的说法,并最先提出“同组合式、粘合式相对应的意义区别是“非称谓性”(包括限制性和描写性)和"称谓性”。马庆株(1995)对多重定名结构中性质形容词、区别词和状态形容词及其小类共现时的语序进行了详尽考察,最后得出结论:“总之关系由疏到密都是:描写性的一一大小新旧类一一颜色类一一形状类,不同点在于音节数目所起的作用不同,英语一般是音节少的在前面,音节多的在后面;而汉语一般是音节多的在前面,音节少的在后面。”邢福义(1996)将定语的语义类型划分为两大类八小类,邪先生的分类中有一点尤其值得我们重视,就是他把指别定语和数量定语明确分成了两类,并在多项定语的排列位序中给予了二者独立的地位,而以往的研究中大多把“指别”与“数量”混在一起统称为“数量词语”。张卫国(1996)依据修饰语与中心语之间的语义关系将定语划分为区别性定语、描写性定语和限制性定语三类,区别性定语中又细分为领属、范围、数量、远近、特征五小类,总称为“三个槽位、七个位置”。
            ………..
             
            2多层定语的偏误类型
             
            2.1两层定语的偏误类型
            在偏误句D3*中,泰国学生把中心语“摩托车”放在了两层定语的前面,把领属性词语“我”和动词性词语“买的”依次放在了中心语的后面,这种语序是错误的。出现这类偏误的原因在于受到母语负迁移的影响,因为在泰语中,中心语是第一位的,排在多层定语的前面。同时,又由于泰国学生在学习了一定时间的汉语之后,知道了在汉语中,领属性词语应该放在动词性词语之前,因此才会把领属性词语“我”和动词性词语“买的”依次放在了中心语的后面。正确的语序应该是:D3我买的摩托车。在偏误句D49*中,泰国学生把中心语“石头”放在了两层定语的前面,把形容词性词语“奇奇怪怪的”、“黑色”依次放在了中心语的后面,这种语序也是错误的。出现这类偏误的原因在于受到母语负迁移的影响,因为在泰语中,中心语是第一位的,排在多层定语的前面。同时,在泰语中,形容词或形容词性词语也是排在中心语后面的,因此会出现这类偏误。正确的语序应该是:D49奇奇怪怪的黑色石头。在偏误句D55*中,这类偏误和D3*中的偏误类似,泰国学生把中心语“消息”放在了两层定语的前面,把非领属性词语“他”和动词性词语“到来”依次放在了中心语的后面,这种语序也是错误的。出现这类偏误的原因在于受到母语负迁移的影响,因为在泰语中,中心语是第一位的,排在多层定语的前面。同时,在泰语中,非领属性词语是紧随中心语之后的,而且动词或动词性短语是排在非领属性词语后面,因此出现了这类偏误。正确的语序应该为:D55他到来的消息。
            ……….
             
            2. 2三层定语的偏误类型
            在偏误句D81*中,泰国学生把中心语“方法”放在了三层定语的前面,把形容词“新”、领属性词语“我”、动词性短语“学习汉语的”依次放在中心语的后面,这种语序是错误的。出现这种偏误的主要原因是受到母语负迁移的影响,把中心语放在了三层定语前面。同时,在泰语中,形容词或形容词性词语、动词或动词性词语、领属性词语同为定语时是依次排列的,这刚好跟汉语多层定语的语序相反,因此出现了 D81*这类偏误。正确的语序应该为:我学习汉语的新方法。在偏误句D90*中,泰国学生把中心语“老师”放在了三层定语的前面,把数量词“一位,,、领属性词语“我们”、形容词性词语“最可爱的”依次放在中心语的后面,这种语序是错误的。出现这种偏误的主要原因是受到母语负迁移的影响,把中心语放在了三层定语前面。同时,泰语中没有数量词这个概念,只有数词,没有量词,学生在遇到数量词的时候就容易放错位置。又由于泰国学生对汉语多层定语句中领属性词语和形容词性词语排列语序的认知度不够,因此出现了 D81*这类偏误。正确的语序应该为:我们最可爱的一位老师。在偏误句D98*中,泰国学生把中心语“嘴唇”放在了三层定语的前面,把形容词“红红的”、指示词“那”、领属性词语“妹妹”依次放在中心语的后面,这种语序是错误的。出现这种偏误的主要原因是受到母语负迁移的影响,把中心语放在了三层定语前面。同时,在泰语中,形容词或形容词性词语、指示词、领属性词语同为定语时是依次排列的,这刚好跟汉语多层定语的语序相反,因此出现了 D98*这类偏误。正确的语序应该为:妹妹那红红的嘴唇。
            ………
             
            3多层状语的偏误类型........... 24
            3. 1两层状语的偏误类型.......... 24
            3. 1.1中心语第一位偏误.......... 24
            3. 1. 2中心语中间位偏误 ..........24
            3. 1. 3中心语最后位偏误.......... 26
            3. 2三层状语的偏误类型.......... 27
            3. 2.1中心语第一位偏误.......... 27
            3. 2.2中心语中间位偏误.......... 27
            3. 2.3中心语最后位偏误.......... 28
            4偏误成因探析.......... 30
            4.1母语的负迁移.......... 31
            4. 2有限的目的语知识的干扰 ..........33
            4. 3学习或交际方式、态度的影响.......... 34
            4. 4教师或教材的因素.......... 34
            5教学策略探析 ..........36
            5.1对比教学法 ..........36
            5. 2扩展教学法.......... 36
            5. 3合理选择教材.......... 36
            5. 4加强课堂教学和训练.......... 37
             
            5教学策略探析
             
            5.1对比教学法
            加强汉语和泰语两种语言多层定语与多层状语排列顺序异同的比较分析,尤其是差异方面的比较分析,帮助学生正确把握两种语言各自多层定语、多层状语语序的特点,一方面有意识地去克服母语的负迁移影响,另一方面充分利用两种语言的共同点,发挥母语的正迁移作用。比如在教学生关于汉语多层定语和多层状语的语法知识前,教师应该先明确地从理论的角度告知学生汉、泰语中这两种句子语序的排序存在的异同。如在教汉语多层定语时,就可以先做一个类似于本论文13页的汉、泰语多层定语的排序比较表,然后再举例进行分析,让学生逐步体会到汉、泰语在多层定语的排序上存在的不同之处。语言学习的过程是从简单的结构逐渐过渡到复杂的结构,在教泰国学生汉语课的时候特别是翻译课时,教师应该有意识地采用扩展教学法,先让学生掌握好单层定语和单层状语,然后在此基础上进行扩展,这样能让学生循序渐进地掌握好两、三层定语和状语,甚至是更多层的定语和状语。以教泰国学生汉语多层定语为例,D1 “我最后的运告。”先教会学生运用单层定语“我的忠告、“最后的忠告”,这也是最基本的,因为泰语中中心语是先行的,按照他们的表达习惯应该是“忠告我的”、“忠告最后的”,只有先教会了学生如何分清中心语的修饰语的位置关系,才能更好地进行两层甚至三层定语的教学。在学生掌握《单层定语和中心语的位置关系后,再根据汉、泰语多层定语排序的镜像关系,进行扩展教学,让学生循序渐进地掌握两、三层定语的正确语序。
            ………
             
            结论
             
            加强多层定语和多层状语的课堂教学与训练,根据教学的不同阶段和学生的汉语水平与接受能力,有系统、分层次地介绍汉语多层定语和多层状语的构成和语序排列以及修饰语同中心语的语义关系等方面的特点,有针对性地通过组词造句和句式变换等各种练习方式指导学生正确使用汉语多层定语和多层状语,并将这方面的练习与汉语听说读写的技能训练有机结合起来,在语言交际中不断巩固和深化学生对汉语多层定、状语用法的认识和掌握。鉴于现在泰国的汉语教育教材缺失和部分教材实用性不强的现状,教师能否选择一本好的教材就显得十分重要。在选择教材之前,教师就应该充分了解学生的学情,选择一本难易适度而又相对完整合理的教材。针对本文研究的多层定语和多层状语的教学,部分学校的教师选择的是汉英双语语法教材,笔者认为最好能选择一本汉泰双语语法教材进行教学,因为英语对于泰国学生而言也是一门外语,还需要在头脑里翻译成泰语再和汉语对照,
            …………
            参考文献(略)
             

            优秀硕士英语论文范文篇十

             
            1. 引言
             
            阅读作为一种思维理解过程存在于人类语言学习活动中,具有积极性和能动性,是语言学习者在学习语言和运用语言的过程中独立自觉地获取相关知识与社会文化的重要途径。从认知理论出发,研究者们认为阅读概括起来是一种自下而上、自上而下和相互作用这三种模式。在进行阅读的过程中,人们一方面从阅读材料(书本、媒体等)中单纯获取到信息和新知识,另一方面在人们接受到信息的同时也会通过运用已有的知识,打开自己的“心理词典”将新旧信息重新提取、归纳和组织分析,进一步将所得到信息的理解程度达到最优化最大化,实现阅读的目的。 语言学习者在进行文字阅读时,首先通过视觉获取阅读信息,再通过大脑对得到的信息进行加工处理,最后才能理解和判断之前所读到的文字信息内容。在这样一个加工过程中,要想提高阅读的速度并保持阅读的效果,最简单直接的方法就是缩短阅读者最初视觉获取信息的时间。在汉语阅读过程中,汉语句子通常都是以字词之间没有明显分词界限形式逐字呈现的,这种情况与逐个单词之间必有空格的拼音文字不同,汉语是表意文字,所有的汉字独立存在,不同的汉字之间通过语法规则或约定俗成的法则组合成词,词语又连词成句,再形成段落篇章。每句之间有标点分隔,字词之间连接紧密没有空格或特定的符号进行分隔,在遇到不熟悉的词语时,或是容易产生误读的句子时,会给一些汉语目的语学习者造成理解阅读材料的困扰,特别是以拼音文字为母语的学习者,在这种“似懂非懂”的情况下可能会出现对句子意思理解有误或是反复回读的情况。这就造成了阅读的负担性,不仅降低了阅读的效率加重学习者的学习负担,还在一定程度上对汉语学习者的学习积极性起到消极作用。而要想提高视觉获取信息的效率,适当改变文本呈现形式是阅读效率实现的方法之一。本文主要讨论的是词切分这种文本形式,其一是讨论通过对句子中词语的切分,在词组之间加入字间距的文本形式对来华留学生汉语阅读活动的影响;其二是讨论汉语拼音分词连写与汉语拼音声调对来华留学生汉语阅读的影响。陆丙甫(1996)提到,在没有歧义的情况下,分词连写也能因减少“边读边猜”的程度而提高阅读速度。对于初学中文或者中文程度不高的人,这种分词连写的效果也许会很明显。
            汉语初学者在汉字习得的最初阶段往往需要借助汉语拼音的帮助,汉语拼音的出现给汉语学习者提供了许多方便,汉语初学者特别是那些母语为拼音文字的人群在学习初期可以借助汉语拼音实现母语与目的语之间的过渡。根据现行 GB/T 16159-2012《汉语拼音正词法基本规则》②中制定原则:1.在《汉语拼音方案》确定的音节拼写基础上,……;2.以词为拼写单位,……;3.按语法词类分节规定分词连写规则。汉语拼音的分词连写形式逐渐被大部分汉语教材接受使用。而汉语拼音与拼音文字不尽相同,声调是汉语拼音的一大特点,同时也是汉语学习者学习的一个难点,在我国《汉语拼音方案》中,音节拼写规则专门提到声调符号的用法规定。现代汉语普通话音节的结构特点之一就是“汉语音节必须有声调。”那么汉语拼音声调与汉语拼音分词连写形式哪一种文本形式对汉语学习者的影响更大呢? 如果将词切分的方法用在对外汉语教学中,比如来华留学生在学习新 HSK阅读题型时,若是这样的方法起作用,那么也不失为一种帮助提高留学生汉语阅读能力的好途径。
            ……….
             
            2. 问题的提出
             
            以南昌大学的留学生为例,他们中的大多数来自第一语言是拼音文字的国家,如印度尼西亚、俄罗斯、刚果(金)、乍得、荷兰、印度、约旦、法国、爱尔兰等国。在对外汉语教学过程中发现,留学生在汉语学习初期普遍对汉语拼音有依赖性,并且是有很大的依赖性。通过对现行《汉语拼音正词法基本规则》的了解,现在使用的大多数初级汉语教材普遍采用了拼音的分词连写形式,例如“苹果”的拼音形式是“píngguǒ”而并不写成“píng guǒ”。留学生可以轻松地根据“拼音词”的边界信息判断各个词语之间的界限,从而读懂或猜测出全句信息。对留学生来说,特别是母语为拼音文字的留学生,在学习汉语时由于其母语的正迁移作用能够快速掌握汉语拼音音节,却不能够很好把握拼音声调,那么声调的有无与拼音是否分词连写对他们的汉语阅读的影响如何呢? 那么当汉语学习者的阅读汉语教材,也采用词切分的文本呈现形式把句子切分开,能否起到缩短阅读时间提高阅读效率的作用呢?此外,在 HSK 课堂上,如果阅读题型若是采用词切分的形式出现,会不会提高留学生做题的速度和准确率呢?留学生在进行此类的汉语阅读时又会有什么心理反应呢?本文根据这些问题设计出了一些实验调查。
            ………
             
            3.文献综述
             
            3.1 关于国内词切分的概况
            学界有许多有关词切分的观点论著,各学者在文章中研究的词边界信息、分词连写、词间距等都是词切分的相关内容。陆丙甫《现行汉字文本优、缺点及其改革设想》一文中提到,有些学者也已经在汉语文本的分词排版方面做了些积极的尝试,如彭泽润、李葆嘉(2002)主编的《语言理论》,整本书采用分词排版。可惜其中的空格是半个汉字的空档,即 1/2 格,似乎嫌大了一点,读者较难适应。中国第一本全部采用分词文本的杂志《语言应用研究与教学》(吉林人民出版社主办、中国语文现代化学会协办)于 2006 年创刊,其中的词间空格比较小,看起来就舒服得多。可见,语言学界对于词切分文本呈现形式是做出过一些大胆尝试的,虽然现今社会的汉语文章主流还是没有词切分形式的文章,但是既然前人做出过尝试,并且也得出了词切分存在的优点益处,也就说明继续研究和实验是有意义和价值的。陆文中还提到,现行汉字文本完全没有采用分词排版,在精确反映语言结构方面就有很大的缺陷。如果汉语文本实行分词排版的话,排除了过渡阶段的不习惯等等因素,从长远看,其阅读效率必然会有进一步的提升。此外,彭泽润(2007)《词和词式书写》一书是一部整本书均采用词切分文本呈现形式的著作。此举是词切分形式的一个代表,书中提到“正词法”,认为汉语正词法的实践是伴随汉字拼音化的实践出现的。正词法中的词应该是“自由”又“最小”的形式的内结合单位。正词法不是为了区分同音语素,也不是为了区分同音词,也不是为了分化歧义,而是把词之间的界限全部体现出来,便于从词这个语言单位的角度处理语言信息。
            ……….
             
            3.文献综述 ..........4
            3.1 关于国内词切分的概况 .......4
            3.2 关于词切分的实验 ........5
            3.3 词切分与对外汉语教学 .......6
            4.本文研究的问题 ............7
            5.实验研究 ..........8
            5.1 实验一 ..............8
            5.2 实验二 ............13
            5.3 实验三 ............24
            6. 实验结果小结 ............29
             
            7.词切分在对外汉语教学中的运用
             
            7.1 关于新 HSK 阅读
            HSK 是“汉语水平考试”的拼音缩写,常被人称作是“汉语托福”。来华留学生大多青睐通过参加 HSK 考试来检测与证明自己的汉语水平和能力。近年来国家汉办根据汉语学习者的普遍汉语水平和能力等因素,将原 HSK 重新划分为包括有 6 个等级新 HSK,从 1 级到 6 级难度逐级递加。用 6 个等级替代并优化原有的初级、中级和高级三个汉语水平等级。从汉办的“汉语水平服务网”可以找到与新 HSK 等国内有关汉语考试的信息。点击新HSK 的介绍可知,新 HSK 对各个级别的考试对象的要求不同,出现的试题样式和类型也不相同。   从本文被试学生学习汉语的时间和实际汉语水平分析,本文被试学生的汉语水平大致在新 HSK4 级至新 HSK5 级的范围,所以本文主要测试题目均选取自新 HSK4 级与新 HSK5 级的真题及模拟题。从汉语水平服务网上即可获知有关新 HSK4 级和新 HSK5 级的相关信息如下:新 HSK(四级)共 100 题,分听力、阅读、书写三部分。新 HSK(四级)主要面向按每周 2-4 课时进度学习汉语四个学期(两学年),掌握 1200 个常用词语的考生。从阅读部分在新 HSK 的试卷中所占的比重不容小视,那么在新 HSK 课程教授中,除了关于新 HSK 阅读题型的解题技巧的讲解和保证充分的阅读训练外,还有什么有效的方法能够进一步帮助留学生学习阅读题型呢?本文的词切分方法如果运用在阅读题型中就会不失为一种良方。在留学生学习更高一级汉语水平的阅读题型是,教师若能在阅读教学或是课堂测试的初期将个别难懂的词,用词切分的形式分隔出来,而学生能够读懂的其他部分并不切分,依旧保留原有的文本形式,用以帮助学生阅读理解甚至是词义的猜测。笔者在讲授新 HSK5 级辅导课程时,曾尝试将课堂测试题中难懂的词语用 1/2 字间距进行切分,试图帮助学生理解句子。随堂考试结束后,当即询问参加考试的 22 名学生是否发现有空格,只有 2 人发现了有空格的存在,大家都表示有不认识的词,但“题目不太难”,可见词切分形式对帮助学生解决阅读题型还是有积极意义的。
            ……….
             
            结论
             
            首先,就被试学生来说,由于就读于南昌大学的留学生人数有限,所以调查的工作也就不能够全面。本文写作时,南昌大学的初级班非汉语专业留学生的汉语水平仅仅在刚学完汉语拼音,只认得个别汉字的水平,所以他们人数虽多但实验一和实验二涉及到汉字部分在他们没有办法开展,只作为了汉语拼音分词连写实验的被试者。在中高级汉语水平的留学生中,从横向来看,有的留学生的汉语水平在中级,个别留学生的汉语水平又已达到高级,所以在被试学生的选取上又多了一些限制,导致被试的人数不够多。就未来的研究方向而言,本文呈现的试题是选取了纸质试卷,那么是否也可以用屏幕,通过改变屏幕的大小来进行测试分析?另外,本文测试试题仅仅是选取了新 HSK4 级和 HSK5 级的真题与模拟题,以及从报刊中选取的段落和文章标题句。在以后的研究中,单从从选取的材料上来看,还可以有中文经典名著、外文译著、网络语言和专业书籍文章等材料能够被选取用作试题,但是这些材料的难度肯定比新 HSK 试题的大,对被试学生中国文化的背景知识要求也高,所以对被试学生的选取也需要相应的调整,调查的过程不会轻松,但是这样的调查还是会很有趣的。   
            …………
            参考文献(略)

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