Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research background
As we all know that reading, listening, writing, speaking are four basic skillswhen learning a language. That is also true to the study of English. With thedevelopment of globalization, English has become the most popular language used inall kinds of international communications. Therefore, we realize the importance oflearning English. However, English is a foreign language in China and it is mostlyspoken in the English class due to lack of language environment, which leads to thefact that chances of English acquisition are few in daily life. That is also the reasonwhy reading is so important when learning English. Therefore, reading is put in a vitalplace in the college English teaching. One of the objectives clearly stated by CollegeEnglish Teaching Syllabus is to improve students’ reading ability and it also furtherstressed that reading is a tunnel, through which we can have better languageknowledge and lay a solid foundation for further language learning as well as getmore information. What’s more, reading also occupies an important role inEnglish-related examination. Generally speaking, reading is not only the best way tolearn language knowledge but also the efficient way to get the world information,enrich students’ thinking and improve their communication ability.To sum up, it is sure that most students will benefit from their good readingability. Reading comprehension, as the main standard of good reading ability, can bedivided into different levels, each of which impose different cognitive demands on thereader and require varying levels of interaction with the text. (Herber,1970;Snider,1988; McCormick,1992; Pearson & Johnson,1978). The theory of levels oftheory (Herber,1970) indicated that reading comprehension have generally threelevels of literal, inferential, and evaluative comprehension. Literal comprehension, thefirst level of comprehension, requires that a student be able to extract information thatis explicitly stated in a passage (Carnine et al., 2010; Lapp & Flood, 1983;McCormick, 1992).
1.2 Aims and significance of the thesis
Faced with the reading problems mentioned above, many scholars tried to findways to solve them. This thesis is also such an exploration. Based on genre-basedapproach and former teaching models based on genre, this thesis tried to build a newteaching model by taking reference of John Rothery’s teaching cycle and apply it intoteaching practice. An experiment will be conducted to find whether this genre-basedmodel can improve students’ reading comprehension into a higher level, that is,discourse comprehension competence. Discourse comprehension competence can bereferred to the ability to comprehend the implied meanings of words, and the intentionof the discourse’s authors when taking the three levels of comprehension intoconsideration.This study has its significance on theoretical and practical aspects. Firstly,genre-based approach put genre and genre analysis into the teaching practice. It putsthe focus on how a text puts together and creates meaning in its particular context ofuse, therefore, it enriches the teaching methodology by viewing the teaching andlanguage learning from the perspective of social-cultural factors. Secondly, the newmodel based on genre-based approach promotes the practice of this new method incollege English reading field. It helps improve the reading comprehension of collegeEnglish students and cultivate genre awareness and improve reading speed.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Reading and reading teaching in the second and foreign Language abroad
Reading and reading teaching have been researched by many scholars and it hasfruitful results. In the first part, the most basic teaching models of bottom-up model,top-down model and interactive model will be reviewed. Besides the basic threemodels, some other explorations about teaching which may bring benefits will also beintroduced. Based on TG grammar，structural linguistics and behavioral psychology, bottom-upmodel formed in 1960s and it was regarded as the traditional teaching model. Carrel (1988:2)defines the bottom-up model as “a decoding process of reconstructing the author’smeaning by recognizing the printed letters and words, and build up the meaning forthe textual units at the bottom (letters and words) to the larger units at thetop(phrases, clauses and inter-sentential linkages).” Bottom-up model takes aninductive approach to reading comprehension processing, in which, students dependon letters, words and sentence structures for the construction of meaning, in otherwords, students learn English according to a strict order of lower level to a higherlevel.
2.2 Current application of genre-based teaching approach abroad and in China
Originally, the word genre comes from Latin genus which means “kind” or“type” of anything. As a French word at first it refers to “a type of small picturerepresenting a scene from everyday domestic life” (Swales, 1990:33). Traditionally,the concept of genre belonged to the category of literature, sociology and rhetoricstudy. However, it mingled with linguistic in these three decades and “it quite easilyused to refer to a distinctive category of discourse of any type, spoken or written, withor without literary aspiration. (Swales, 1990:33) ”Although the genre theories havedeveloped in so many fields and schools, they can mainly be divided into threeschools: ESP Genre Studies, New Rhetoric Studies and Australian Genre Studies”(Hyon, 1996: 89).The ESP school, represented by Swales (1990) and Bhatia (1993) give the mostauthorial definition of genre. Swales (1990: 58) gave that: “A genre comprises a classof communicative events, the members of which share some set of communicativepurpose.” On the basis of Swale’s work, Bhatia’s view is different from Swale’sbecause it comprises the cognitive aspect of genre. Bhatia (1993: 79) gave that “Genreis a recognizable communicative event characterized by a set of communicativepurpose(s) identified and mutually understood by members of the professional oracademic community.”
Chapter Three Theoretical Foundations........ 13
3.1 Labov’s narrative framework.... 13
3.2 Hassan’s generic structure potential........ 14
3.3 Martin’s register theory...... 15
3.4 Genre-based teaching model..... 16
Chapter Four An Experiment on Genre-based Teaching Model ........19
4.1 Brief introduction about narrative.... 19
4.1.1 The characteristics of a narrative text ......... 19
4.1.2 Paths of development of narrative ....... 20
4.2 Sample activities in different stages........ 26
4.3 Sample lesson plan...... 38
Chapter Five Research Methodology..... 43
5.1 Research design .......... 43
5.2 Data analysis of English test ..... 45
5.3 Data analysis of interview......... 48
5.4 Discussions .......... 49
Chapter Five Research Methodology
In the one-term experiment mainly narrative genre was chosen to teach thestudents, if needed, genres of argumentation, description and exposition were taken tocompare with narration. Since this thesis focuses on narrative genre, we take thenarrative teaching as the example. In the control class, traditional method was adopted.That is to say, grammar-translation is the main way to teaching. Reading teaching wasstarted by the explanation of unfamiliar words, phrases. Complex sentences will bedeconstructed in detail and the whole texts will be analyzed sentence by sentence.However, in the experiment class, genre-based teaching approach will be adopted.In other words, the teaching model ‘Negotiating field- Deconstruction-Jointreconstruction- Independent construction’ will be applied into the reading teaching.The detailed teaching process has been given in the part of ‘Sample Lessonplan’. Aims of the thesis are to find whether students’ reading comprehension can beimproved into a higher level through training by genre-based model. An experimentand individual interview will be conducted for data collection.Based the genre theory and the former studies as well as the teaching practice,the thesis puts forward the hypothesis that genre-based teaching approach is helpfulon improving their reading comprehension and cultivate genre awareness.
The findings from the research demonstrated that the experiment had promisingresults:
1) Through comparison students’ test scores in control class and experimentalclass, it finds that students in experimental class have better performance, especiallyon indirect questions which need grasping main ideas, making judgment and makinginferences from given passages. That is to say, their reading comprehension level issignificantly improved.
2) The results of individual interview also reveal that students have cultivatedgenre awareness and they began to employ reading strategies to help their learning.Many students reflect that when they read they have formed the habit of figuring outthe text’s genre firstly. It could help them find the text structure with ease and then thestructure helps them understand the text more quickly and rightly. Again, they find itis normal to meet unfamiliar words and sometimes they can ignore them.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
As is well known, the essential fimction of language lies in its communicativeroles，which contains two dimensions; verbal statement and written expression. As animportant integrated English skill, English writing，to a large extent, can reflect thelearners' ability of using English. From ancient time to the present, no matter whatlanguage might be taught, written expression has always been placed in aconsiderately vital position, especially since it has become a permanent subject testedwith a comparatively big percentage ranging from the original 15 points to 25 pointsup to now in the National Matriculation English Test，and the words limit hasincreased from around 100 to 100-120 or 120-150.However, such a predicament emerged in the domain of senior English writingteaching; it is both time and energy consuming for the teacher to correct thecomposition, and students spend a large amount of time practicing writing, but withendless errors going against the intended aim. Moreover, teaching time and cost haveimposed great restrictions on the internalization of teaching English writing. As aresult, writing turns out to be a weak link in English teaching.
1.2 Significance of the Research
It is necessary to change the traditional roles of teachers and students so as tocater to the requirement of the new curriculum reform and provide a beneficialsupplement for the existing assessment method. In terms of this，peer feedback in awriting class has a vital significance to the practical exploration of a new classroomteaching pattern.The majority of the peer feedback researches abroad were carried out in the ESLenvironment, and the participants in most of the domestic studies were tertiary L2learners. Only a limited number of researches concerning peer feedback wereconducted in senior high schools. The present thesis attempts to make aninstructional design and case study on peer feedback for an English writing class, inorder to enhance learners' interest and improve their writing ability, and to anotherextent, provide certain reference for senior English teachers on the issue of how toapply peer feedback into English writing teaching.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Feedback and Peer Feedback in Writing
Feedback is an important component of language learning. In process writingapproach，input is provided to the author by the reader with the purpose of offeringinformation for the author to correct his/her composition. According to differentsources, feedback can be divided into 3 types: peer feedback，as well as teacher andself feedback (Wang 2006).The issue of whether it is proper to offer feedback to the errors of learners iscontroversial. Behaviorism language learning theory voiced approval of the view togive immediate feedback to language mistakes. However，because of the concernsthat too much attention over the language errors would increase the apprehension oflearners (Long 1977), some teachers refused to correct or even point out the errors instudents' compositions. Whereas in the application process of the process writingapproach, it has been revealed that language errors may not reduce, or even furtheraffect the expression of the thought if a piece of timely feedback information isfollowed; in other words, errors without corrected feedback is likely to be petrifiedso as to hinder the development of language learning.
2.2 Previous Studies of Peer Feedback in Writing
The central area of peer feedback research concentrated mainly on 3 followingaspects. They are respectively learners' attitude towards peer feedback，the effect ofpeer feedback and the types of peer revision. Firstly, just as its name implies,whether peer feedback is accepted by students depends on their perception. Secondly，the effect of peer feedback falls into 2 dimensions: accuracy of peer feedback and the adoption of the revision, and the latter one refers to the issue whether the providedfeedback from peers will be taken into account while learners are dealing withself-correction in the final stage. Finally，types of revision consist of form-focusedchanges and text-focused changes. The former one covers the revision includinggrammar (tense，concord, third person singular etc...), spelling，choice of vocabularyand punctuation. And the latter one refers to textual adjustment containing adding,deleting, changing or shifting details, replacing words or phrases, and using linkingdevices (Dheram 1995). Since both dimensions are expected to emerge in the realoperation, this aspect is going to be conducted in the training before writing, askingstudents to make assessment concerning the two dimensions rather than beinganalyzed as a research question. Scholars abroad do admit the effect that peer feedback produced. A contrastbetween teacher feedback，peer feedback and self-evaluation has been made byZhang (1995) in his experiment, which reveals that "peer feedback is better thanself-evaluation，and there might be some small mistakes in peer feedback, but on noaccount does it mean that teacher feedback is more effective than peer feedback".Zhao (2010) uncovers learners' passive acceptance of teacher feedback and thefacilitative role of first language use in peer interaction.
Chapter 3 Methodology.......... 19
3.1 The Purpose of the Research......... 19
3.2 Participants......... 20
3.3 Instruments......... 20
3.3.1 Questionnaire......... 21
3.3.2 Semi-structured Interview......... 22
3.4 Setting (Group formation)......... 23
3.5 Instructional Design of Writing Teaching......... 23
Chapter 4 Results and Analysis......... 40
4.1 The Analysis of the Questionnaires......... 40
4.2 The Analysis of the Interview.........44
4.3 The Rate of Accuracy and Utilization of Peer Feedback.........45
4.4 Discussion......... 47
Chapter 5 Conclusion.........50
5 .1 Findings .........50
5.2 Pedagogical Implications for English Writing.........51
5.3 Limitations of the Research.........53
Chapter 4 Results and Analysis
4.1 The Analysis of the Questionnaires
Because all the students of the subject class were involved in the peer feedbackactivity, questionnaires were issued to all of them at the end of the writing course totest students* attitudes towards peer feedback. 18 drafts, together with thecorresponding peer feedback forms were selected to discover the rate ofappropriateness and utilization of the provided peer feedback by comparing the peerfeedback points presented on the first and second drafts. The results of questionnaires showed that 32 students which represented morethan 60% of the total number of students strongly incorporated into peer feedback，and 13 students which accounted for about 25% of the 53 students basically endorsedpeer feedback. Moreover, 46 of them, which proposition was about 87%，indicatedthat they did not feel uncomfortable when taking part in peer feedback activities.Besides，19 students, accounted for about 36%, strongly agreed and 24 students, which represented over 45%, mainly agreed that peer feedback helped them set astrong motivation and intense interest towards writing. In addition, all of the 53students recognized that they would take peers' suggestions into considerations whilewriting. As is shown above, the overall recognition of peer feedback generallyachieved the respected high level.
This study explored peer feedback in an English writing class of Senior Twostudents from one of the key senior schools in Shuozhou city. It attempted todiscover learners' perceptions towards peer feedback and the effect of it through theimplementation of the instructional design concerning peer feedback，and measurewhether peer feedback can be widely introduced into English writing teaching insenior high school. The major 2 conclusions were as follows:In the first place，the majority of senior high school students held a positiveattitude for peer feedback activities. Compared with teacher feedback，peer feedbackwas deemed to be able for peers to have an equal exchange so as to grasp thefeedback suggestions clearly，which was conducive for the adoption and correctionof the feedback suggestions. In addition, reading peers' compositions can not onlyenrich the content and leam some better ways of expression，but also helpful to avoidmaking similar mistakes. Although students also slightly concerned about theirability of peer feedback，as they expressed in the interview that they would neveraccept the suggestions unless they had been verified by grammar book or teacher，others elaborated that it was this repeatedly verification process that deepened theunderstanding of the knowledge.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Since 1970s, studies on second or foreign language classroom interactions,especially on teacher-student interaction has been of considerable interest to secondlanguage acquisition (SLA) researchers. Teachers' CF which accounts for asignificant part in classroom teaching receives increasing attention.There are various opinions on the effectiveness of teachers' CF in classroom whichrefers to teachers' response to or evaluation on students' incorrect language output.According to behaviorists, language acquisition is a process of habit formation.Errors could be reinforced and become learners' habit if they are not corrected timely.Therefore, traditionally teachers may try to directly correct all the errors made bystudents. While, Krashen (1982) and Ellis (1994) argue that CF is of little use tolanguage learning and it may impair students' enthusiasm in the class，or inteirupt the flow of communication. Thus, they hold that errors are common and inevitableduring the process of learning, so teachers should be tolerant of students' errors.However，some researchers(Long，1996; Swain，1985; Schmidt，1990) insist that CFdoes play a role in promoting language learning as it can help students to realize thedifference between their learner language and the target language. Therefore, CF isuseful for language learning, but there are still some questions to be discussed.
1.2 Significance of the Study
Long's Interaction Hypothesis, Swain's Output Hypothesis, and Schmidt's Noticing Hypothesis all prove the importance of teachers’ CF in SLA. Plenty ofresearchers (Lyster& Ranta 1997; Hendrickson 1978; Ellis 1994; Carroll& Swain1993) conduct empirical and theoretical studies about teacher's CF and learner'suptake. Although, there are still controversies about error correction, the researchersadmit the role of teachers' CF in language teaching. These studies, however do nottake the factor，error type into consideration. Therefore it is necessary to investigatethe relationship among error types, corrective feedback types，and learner's uptake.In china, there are some researchers (Hu 2004; Qin 2008) focusing on this topic, butmost of them choose college students as participants. All in all，more studies areneeded to achieve a better understanding of corrective feedback. Thus，the authorconducts a study in high school aiming to find out teachers and students’ opinionsabout CF and teachers' behavior of error correction in class so as to provide somesuggestions for teaching and learning.In order to find the answers, a classroom observational research and aquestionnaire survey are carried out in Chinese senior high school English classes.Following Lyster and Rnata，s analytic model, on one hand，the present studyprovides empirical evidence to relevant theories, on another hand，it intends toprovide some pedagogical implications for teachers to follow.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
Researchers hold different views on the definition of student's errors. Corder(1967) defines errors as inappropriate utterances which result from learners' lack ofL2 (second language)knowledge. As a pioneer in defining errors, Corder contrastserrors with mistakes which refers to inappropriate language production that resultsfrom processing failure such as carelessness or lapse in memory. Dulay et al (1982)argue that errors are deviations from the norm of language performance. Accordingto Chaudron (1986)，an error refers to a deviation from the target language. Brown(1994:205) treats errors as noticeable deviations from adult grammar of a nativespeaker. Brown also distinguishes errors from mistakes. He believes a mistake is aperformance error which is either a random guess or a slip. In other words，a mistaketakes place as a result of failure to use the known language knowledge correctly. Inthe present study，errors mean learners' utterances deviating from the proper use ofthe native language.
2.2 Corrective Feedback
When it comes to teacher feedback, there are several ways to classify it. As asignificant part of teacher-student interaction，teacher's feedback can be classifiedfrom different perspectives. According to Cullen(2002), there are two types ofteacher feedback. One is evaluative feedback which means teacher's evaluation onthe language form of students' utterances. The other feedback is discourse feedbackwhich refers to teacher's feedback on the content of student' utterance in class. Basedon the function of feedback, Nunan (1991) divides it into two groups: positive feedback and negative feedback, which is the simplest classification. The former isidentified as teacher giving students positive approval of student's performance oroutput in class，whereas the latter normally refers to teachers' negation on student'sutterances or negative evaluations about student's errors. Furthermore，in view ofdifferent degree of explicitness of feedback，some researchers such as Long(1996)and Carroll & Swain (1993) subdivide negative feedback into explicit and implicitnegative feedback. Studies on teacher feedback mainly focus on negative feedbackwhich is also called corrective feedback by researchers and teachers.With respect to the definition of corrective feedback, researchers maintain diverseopinions. According to Chaudron (1977)，CF means "any reaction of teacher whichclearly disapproves or demands improvement of the learner utterance. In Panova andLyster's study(2002), they employ Chaudron's definition. As for Dulay，et al. (1982)，CF is provided by native speakers in response to what they perceive to be errorsmade by non-native speakers. Ellis (1994:250-319) defines CF as the informationprovided by teachers upon learner's erroneous utterances indicating the incorrect useof target language. Besides corrective feedback and negative feedback mentionedabove, several other terms are used to refer to teacher's error correction in classroom,such as negative evidence, and negative input.
Chapter 3 Theoretical Frameworks..........14
3.1 Input Hypothesis........14
3.2 Interaction Hypothesis........14
3.3 Output Hypothesis........15
3.4 Noticing Hypothesis........17
Chapter 4 Methodology........18
4.1 Research Questions........18
4.3.2 Classroom Observation........20
Chapter 5 Data Analysis and Discussion........22
5.1 Questionnaire Results........22
5.2 Classroom Observation Results........25
Chapter 5 Data Analysis and Discussion
5.1 Questionnaire Results
In order to know students, opinions about CF，the questionnaire survey isconducted. The procedure of questionnaire survey is already discussed in chapter4.Altogether 90 questionnaires are distributed in the two classes, 88 validquestionnaires are collected because there is one student absent in each class. Basedon the collected questionnaires, the author first counts participants' s answers foreach item and calculate the overall distribution of options for each one. As is stated in chapter 4，the questionnaire is designed on the basis ofHendrickson's five questions about whether, which errors, who, when, and how tocorrect errors. As this study only focus on the ‘whether，，'which，，and 'how' question,this questionnaire just covers the three parts. The first 3 items are intended to learnabout students' attitudes or general conceptions of error correction. The distributionof the first 3 items are displayed here. The 3 items are to find out students and teachers' attitudes towards the question:whether errors should be corrected? Data of iteml show that majority of students(nearly 90% ) agree that teacher should correct students' errors in class. Comparedwith item 1，item 2 and 3 are too reverse questions. Data of the two questions displaythat only a small number of students do not like the teacher correcting their errors.
By analyzing the distribution of student errors made in class，it is found that of thefour types of errors, students are most likely to make lexical and phonological errorswhich are also the first two types of errors that induce teacher's corrective feedback.However, according to the questionnaires, students want the teachers to correctgrammatical errors most which are not often made by them in the 10 lessons.Based on the transcripts of the audio-recordings，93.4 % errors are corrected bythe teachers which is much higher compared with Lyster and Ranta's study. Of all theerrors corrected by teachers in this study, some errors are responded with more thanone feedback move. Among the 6 types of CF, the teachers obviously prefer explicitcorrection more than any other types. Next to explicit correction that the teachers prefer to use is metalinguistic feedback，elicitation or clarification request. While asfor students' preference for feedback type, the most preferred three are explicitcorrection, elicitation，clarification. Therefore, the teachers' choice of feedback typeaccords with students' preference except that elicitation is not used so frequently asthe students expected.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background for the Present Research
China is a country with 56 ethnics and each of them possesses their ownlanguage. Apart from Han nation, the population of the rest minorities has reached8%, which is big and should not be neglected. The minorities maintain a certaindegree of autonomy. Currently, of the over 80 languages spoken by the 55 minorities,30 have written forms. For the children of these minorities, they often receive theeducation of three languages; apart from their own language, to master Chinese andEnglish (or other foreign languages) becomes a necessity for them. For all theseminorities, the level of trilingual education is relatively weak.The constitution of the Korean Chinese population of China is the combinationof the offspring of Korean immigrants as well as new immigrants in recent years. ForChinese people, this group of minority is familiar as Chaoxianzu, as one of the 55minor ethnics in China. In recent years, the population of this group grows to 1.8million (2010). Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture is where most ethnicKoreans live.For Korean immigrants, the history of coming to China has lasted for hundredsof years. The earliest record of Korean immigration began in the 17th century, andthe population enlarged obviously in the 19th century. The exodus of Koreanimmigrants several hundred years ago is mainly due to natural disasters. The faminewas severe at that time, and in order to survive, many Korean people came to Chinaand settled in China since then. Another exodus of them occurred when Japaninvaded Korea and many local people rebelled. At present, most of the Koreans inChina have been concentrated in Yanbian Korean Autonomous Prefecture in easternJilin Province.
1.2 Purpose and Significance of this Research
Yanbian Korean autonomous prefecture in Jilin province is the mostconcentrated area of Korean Chinese. Due to its geographical feature, ethnicdistribution, language, culture, and many other factors, the education there for a longtime has implemented the bilingual and double culture policy. Although people’slevel of Chinese varies, in most cases the two languages are used. Although thisunique bilingual, double cultural environment enables the Korean nationality to haveconsiderable language advantage, a two-way language interference phenomenonoccurs in Yanbian bilingual area. A mixture of bilingual interference not only hindersthe normal communication, more seriously, the Korean young generationunconsciously accept a non-standard language system. Compared with other ethnicminority areas, English education in Yanbian Korean autonomous prefecture startedlate. Until in the late 1990s, Korean students’ first foreign language is Japanesegenerally. But the advantage of Japanese obviously decreased in recent years withthe increasing use of English. But the study of Korean students’ English educationhas not reached a certain level, and now is still in its beginning stage to some extent.To solve these problems, we must carry out practical research.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Bilingual First Language Acquisition (BFLA)
The research on how to acquire two languages has a long history since its birth.The early BFLA case studies contributed greatly on how to acquire two languagesand how child’s cognition is influenced because of BFLA. The findings of the studyhelp to promote “the development of a general theory of language acquisition”(Genesee, 2005).The studies of BFLA can be classified based on the different areas of interest:(1) language competence and language performance, (2) unified or separate languagesystems, (3) the phenomenon of adopting at least one language within and acrossutterances, and (4) the languages constraints when there is phenomenon ofcode-switching. In the four areas mentioned above, the phenomenon of adopting atleast one language within and across utterances and issues related with languageconstraints are not related with the study and therefore will not be discussed. As is known, bilinguals generally makes a mixture or switching between twolanguages. From a communication perspective, this shows the certain competencethat requires the combination of two linguistic systems and the skills on whom andwhen the language to speak to (Ksenija, 2011). In order to distinguish bilingualspeakers from both monolingual counterparts, two keys are necessary: thecompetence in utilizing at least one language in communications and the competenceto function in separate language systems.Trilingual competence requires the competence to function in mono-, bi- ortrilingual contexts, which enables the speakers to make creation on their ownlinguistic means so as to be competent under particular situations forcommunications (Hoffmann, 2001b:11).
2.2 Third Language Acquisition and Trilingual Education
The most distinguished difference between these two concepts lies in the pointthat third language acquisition focuses on the third language, while the subjects oftrilingual education are three languages. In the following paragraphs, the author will use L3 torepresent English which is learned by the Korean Chinese students, and use L2 forChinese that they are learning almost at the same time with their L1 Korean. Itshould be pay attention to L3 is not inevitably equal to language number three insequence of acquisition. It is common for many children to receive the teaching oftwo languages which is bilingual teaching. Since the children have already learnedtwo languages, the foreign language should be the third one. In middle schoolteaching, English teaching has been dominant due to its wide application. Since theL1, L2 and L3 are interrelated to some extent, the learning experiences which takeplace in the second language acquisition will support the acquisition of a thirdlanguage. The experiences include: to understand the language learning processes, todevelop the foreign language learning strategies, and to acquire a new languagesystem.The third language can be acquired on the basis of previous experiences oflearning other languages. Therefore, the acquisition time for L3 is supposed to bebriefer, for the experience is available. The previous experiences will be extremelyhelpful in the situations that common points and differences between the oldlanguage and new language are obvious.
Chapter Three Theoretical Foundations ..........19
3.1 The Acquisition-Learning Hypothesis.......19
3.2 Input and Output Hypothesis ....22
3.3 Overview of Language Transfer........24
3.5 Error Analysis ...........29
Chapter Four Methodology .....31
4.1 Research Questions ...........31
4.2 Research Methods .....31
4.3 Subjects .....32
4.4 Data Collection .........34
Chapter Five Data Analysis and Discussion ...........37
5.1. Analysis of the Errors in the Compositions......37
5.2 Analysis of the Interview and Questionnaire ....55
Chapter Five Data Analysis and Discussion
5.1. Analysis of the Errors in the Compositions
It is a controversial topic that what is mother tongue playing in the process ofsecond language learning for a long time. However, it is obvious the mother tongue’simportant state and effect on all parts of interlanguage during the second languagelearning process. In the process of language transfer, it will be inevitable influencedby its mother tongue positively or negatively, on the target language study.Nowadays, most Chinese students study English as the foreign language, alsoincluding the Korean Chinese minority students. English belongs to Indo-Europeanlanguage family, Chinese belongs to Sino-Tibetan, and Korean belongs toagglutinating language; therefore, Korean (L1) and Chinese (L2) will cause negativetransfer in students’ English study. Negative influence of L1 and L2 is still being oneof the main difficulties in Korean Chinese English learning. English writing skillrepresents the students’ synthetically capacity of mastering English. Negativeinfluence on L1 and L2 hinders students’ promotion of writing ability.This paper supposed to do a research on the negative influence on Korean andChinese students’ English study. After the collection of the 132 compositions, theauthor identifies the errors from the aspects of intralingual error and interlingualerrors. Korean Chinese students usually make mistakes at the time of arrangingEnglish sentence structures, on account of their internal thinking.
Most Korean Chinese people in Yanbian area are bilinguals under theenvironment of Korean ethics living together and being exposed to the Korean andChinese languages. This bilingual ability causes more complex language backgroundthan the singular language users in studying English. In this thesis the author choosesthe Korean Chinese middle school students in Grade Two and Grade Three as thesubjects, analyzes the errors in their English compositions that might be caused byKorean or Chinese influence, namely the dual negative transfer. The author alsoanalyzes the students’ questionnaire and teacher’s interview. From the analysis thefollowing findings can be concluded.First, according to the third language acquisition theory, when language learnersdon’t have sufficient third language skills, they will express their communicativeintention through the languages they have already mastered. When the targetlanguage (English) information shows deficiency, the language learners’ alreadymastered languages will be activated, and even compete with each other (Korean andChinese). Because the subjects are used to using the two languages, when they don’tknow much about English, they often get help from their already learned language(Korean and Chinese).
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Teacher feedback, as an important element of teacher talk, has aroused a lotteachers’ and educators’ interest. What’s the current situation of teacher feedback? Howto improve the quality of it? There are still a lot of problems that we are facing in thedaily teaching process. That’s why the author tries her best to do the research on thecurrent situation and exerts herself to find some strategies to improve it.With the development of New Curricular reform, teachers are asked to pay moreattention to the students’ emotion development. Therefore, teacher feedback, as aneffective way to enhance the relationship of teachers and students, are getting more andmore popular. As we all know, English, as a second language in China, is studied bymost of the people. But our mother tone is Chinese and we lack the real background toget enough input and output. English classroom is the main place for students to learnEnglish. Some studies show that most middle schools nowadays are often limited to theteacher-centered teaching mode, in the class, the English teacher focuses more on theresult than on the process. The final marks of the students become the only standard injudging whether he or she is a good student or not. During the class, the teacher hardlyraises a question, thus students rarely get the chance to put forward their opinions, theteacher also loses their opportunity to give the student a feedback, which is a very goodchance to encourage the student and promote their relationship.
1.2 Significance and Purpose of the Study
Teacher feedback, which is also called teacher evaluation by some scholars, mainlyrefers to the response of teachers to students’answers by various expression forms, suchas approval, denial, error correction or silence (Zhang Qiang, 2008). The teacherfeedback, as an integral part of classroom communication, plays a crucial part inoptimizing teaching process and creating a harmonious atmosphere between the teacherand students. Teacher feedback includes written and verbal forms. In this study, theauthor mainly takes the verbal forms of teacher feedback into consideration.The purpose of the study is to give some advice to the English teachers through thesix research questions. The significance of this study is to conduct a comprehensive andsystematic observation and record through the observation of the 8 teachers of No.2Foreign Language Middle School and to explore the rules of the junior middle teacherfeedback. The study can provide some valuable suggestions to the teachers’professionaldevelopment and to improve the junior middle school English teaching quality in future.
Chapter 2 Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 Definition of Teacher Feedback
Weinstein pointed out that learners’ interest, activeness and even the learningefficiency have a great relationship with the quantity of teacher feedback and how theteacher use it. Therefore, teacher’s feedback can involve the learners’ participation tothe classroom activities and inspire them to be active in class so as to enhance theirlanguage capacity.Teacher feedback, which is also called teacher evaluation by some scholars, meansany comments or information which the learners receive from their teachers on theperformance of the learning task, either oral or written in classroom learning. From thedifferent angles of concern, different researchers give the definition of feedback indifferent ways.In Oxford Advanced Learner’s English-Chinese Dictionary (the sixth edition),feedback is defined as the advice, criticism or information about how good or usefulsomething or somebody’s work is.①That means feedback is aimed to comment onsomething or somebody’s work. In Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics, feedback isdefined as “comments or other information that learners receive concerning theirsuccess on learning tasks or tests, either from the teacher or other persons.”①This is ageneral concept which contains all the evaluations taking place in the classroom..Ellis (1985) gives teacher feedback the definition from the angle of communication:the effort through which the learners try to achieve the purpose of communication, it hasvarious functions in classroom interaction.Psycholinguist Cook (2000) proposed that teacher feedback is the process thatteachers evaluate students’behavior.
2.2 Classification of Teacher Feedback
Many researchers classify teacher feedback in the classroom into different typesaccording to different criteria, some related classifications are introduced in this part.Vigil and Oller (1976) classified teacher feedback into cognitive feedback andaffective feedback. Cognitive feedback is a kind of follow-up responses that teachersgive to students after they answer their teachers’ questions, and affective feedback is akind of nonverbal feedback, for example, eye contact, smiling, gesture, posture and soon.①In short, cognitive feedback is verbal feedback, and affective feedback is aboutnon-verbal feedback.Meanwhile, Lyster and Ranta (1997) put forward a more specific classificationaccording to the learning problems in language classroom including six types: explicitcorrection, elicitation, repetition, recasts, requests for clarification, metalinguisticfeedback.②Schwartz and White (2000) proposed that there are two types of teacher feedback:summative feedback and formative feedback. Formative feedback refers to theinformation about students’ thinking and behavior that the teacher give to the learnerduring the learning process, which aims to facilitate students’ learning; summativefeedback assesses students’ assignment or task with the aim to give them a grade.
Chapter 3 Research Methodology.......22
3.1 Research Questions.........22
3.2 Participants....... 22
3.3 Instruments....... 22
3.4 Data Collection........24
Chapter 4 Results andAnalysis....26
4.1 General Situation of Teacher Feedback from Teachers’Aspect....26
4.2 Distributions and Types of Teacher Feedback..........31
4.2.1 Classification Based on the Characters of Teacher Feedback.......... 31
4.2.2 Classification Based on the Function of Teacher Feedback......39
4.3 Current Situation of Teacher Feedback from the Students’Questionnaire.........44
4.4 Students’Attitude and Evaluation toward the Two Kinds of Classifications.....46
4.5 Major Findings........ 49
Chapter 5 Pedagogical Implications and Suggestions..........52
5.1 Pedagogical Implications.......52
Chapter 5. Pedagogical Implications and Suggestions
5.1 Pedagogical Implications
The New Curriculum Standard requires that we should establish an all-sidedmulti-assessment system. Teachers should make full use of teacher feedback’s diagnoseeffect and promotion effect. Also English teacher feedback should make studentsmonitor their learning process and adjust their learning objectives and strategies, whichcan increase the learners’ confidence so that they are able to make more progress.According to what the author has found in the current study, several advice that canmake the teacher feedback more proper, reasonable and agreeable with the NewCurriculum Standard are presented. The New Curriculum Standard makes a clear request that teachers should incitestudents to speak English bravely and leave students some time to conductcommunication, which indicate that teachers should create more chance for students toutter more output. Meanwhile, teachers should encourage students to speak less Chinesein English class and provide more chances for students to communicate with each other.What’s more, teachers should place students as the center of the classroom teaching andencourage them to take part in classroom interaction frequently and actively.
The limitations in the current study should be paid attention in future studies.Firstly, the samples in the current study are confined to 50 English teachers and 300students in 3 junior middle schools in Luoyang. The representativeness andpersuasiveness of the study is not strong enough. The results in the current study can notrepresent the whole picture of all English classes for junior middle school students.Secondly, the current studies mainly focus on verbal feedback instead of non-verbalfeedback. Therefore, non-verbal feedback should be explored in the future. Thirdly, thecurrent study ignores teachers’ background knowledge, personality and teachingconcept, which also have a great effect on teacher feedback. It is worth pointing out that the findings in the present study can provide someempirical evidences for understanding the features of teacher feedback and students’preference, which can give teachers some guidance when they use feedback and remindthem of reflecting on their feedback in the teaching process. In future researches, theinstruments such as micro-camera can be used because data can be collected morenaturally, exactly and conveniently. At the same time, more schools, teachers andstudents should be involved. Besides, learners’ non-verbal feedback, teachers’background knowledge, personality and teaching concept should be taken intoconsideration in the future studies.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
It is obvious that English is the most significant and popular language all over theworld. It is taught for the purpose of helping learners to keep the pace with thedeveloping society and the progress in terms of science and other aspects. An increasingnumber of good English textbooks are badly in need now.The NECS (2011) sets up a good many of goals for the learners to learn English.The effective means to achieve these goals are the learning and teaching materials.Textbooks play a key role among those teaching and learning materials. Consistent witha number of experts, ELT (English Language Teaching) textbooks are the crucialelements in ELT methods and also the most extensively instructional materials inschools in nowadays. Benevento (1984) emphasizes that “Whenever foreign languageteachers meet each other, the first words after ‘how do you do?’ are usually ‘whatcoursebooks do you use?”. In addition, Dubin Olshtain (1986) states that “the tangibleelement that gives language course face validity to many learners and teachers is thetextbook. ”①Byrd (2001)points out that ELT textbooks refers to two kinds of content:the first is the topic content which includes family, school and some other aspects. Thesecond is linguistic content which includes grammars, vocabularies, and skills.②TheEnglish Language Teaching textbooks are for the purpose of training learners’ skillsability of speaking, listening, reading and writing in a second or foreign language. Withthe help of the ELT textbooks, learners engaged with the substance of the document toaccomplish the linguistic knowledge for the purpose of communicating in a second orforeign language.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
With the curriculum reform of elementary education put into practice, “Onesyllabus, one textbook” was changed. In the leading of the NECS (2001), different typesof textbooks were compiled and used all over China. The textbook of GFI and PE arethe most popular editions of textbook among the large numbers of textbooks and thesebooks were used in 26 and 13 provinces and various regions respectively so far. The twoeditions of textbooks of GFI and PE have received numerous praises for concerning therequirements of learners, being up-to-date, attaching importance on language use and soon. But in the mean time, they also have some shortcomings like the grammar is toomuch and messy, lack of recycling in vocabulary, and the Task-Based LanguageTeaching method proposed by National English Curriculum Standards (2001) can notfully executed as they can’t play a leading role in the classroom teaching and learning.In accordance with the problems emerging in the past ten years, NECS (2011) was putin use in December, 28thof 2011. Textbooks have to be revised according to the revisedrequirements in NECS (2011). The purpose of the study is to provide a reference toschools and teachers to choose the fit textbook for their students; a reference to teachersto evaluate their textbooks in use objectively and to provide reference to textbookcompilers to adapt textbook for the purpose of meeting the demands of teachers andstudents better.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 English textbook studies Abroad
The author consults a large number of foreign literature about study on Englishtextbooks, summarizes the research has four characteristics: First, a large number ofliterature research mainly about English as a foreign language and compiled intoEnglish textbooks; Second, some experts have focused on the textbook problem indeveloping countries, the focus is on the effectiveness of textbook and the use of it inthe classroom, as well as the textbook content.①Third, the researchers in the criticalanalysis of the textbook of race, gender, such as ideological bias. In recent years, thefourth foreign pays attention to the study of foreign language teaching evaluation.The book of Essential English is mainly on the basis of spoken language, Ex putforward that in the process of the compilation and designing should pay more attentionto students’ interests against the fragments from the classical literature works as ateaching material, with a lot of daily life language as the content of the textbook. Thenaudio-visual media materials appeared. The New Concept English arises and uses theteaching method of the audio-visual of English writing and design, in the use of voiceimages and other multimedia teaching method to cultivate students’ ability in listening, speaking and writing. At present the relatively popular textbook in junior high schoolare Look Ahead was published by British Longman press, On Target was published byOxford university press and Interchange which published by Cambridge press. Thesetextbooks are based on the analysis of the characteristics and needs of students, bycreating real and authentic language situation, emphasizing the communicativefunctions of language learning, and designing different learning tasks and activities tocultivate students’language application ability.
2.2 English Textbook Studies at Home
After the new curriculum reform it emerged a large number of academic papers,writing about the English education in China. Based on the existing generalizationsabout junior high school English textbook research, the author found that most of thesestudies involved in junior high school textbook of domestic theory of writing,compilation principle, analysis and evaluation, the problems existing in the use process,and with the introduction of the teaching material of a version, etc. These are the studyof junior high school English teaching materials itself. But has not been collected onGFI and PE in China. Wang Jinjun (2010) introduces the development of English teaching material,especially how to come out which is mainly composed of vocabulary teaching from thetraditional teaching mode and attach importance on carrying out the new idea to givingprominence to the English as training ability as the main function of the new textbookstyle.①Zeng Yingchan (2002) in his master’s thesis since the founding of the ordinaryhigh school English textbooks of historical development, the development of highschool textbook is comprehensively, this paper summarized the experiences and lessonsfrom the ordinary high school English textbook, and is significant for the middle schoolEnglish curriculum reform.
Chapter Three Theoretical Basis.....19
3. 1 The Textbook.........19
3. 1. 1 Definition of the Textbook....... 19
3. 1. 2 Role of the Textbook.......19
3.2 National English Curriculum Standards........21
3. 3 Research Method...........23
Chapter Four Comparison of Surface and Deep Structure.........25
4. 1 Comparison of the Surface Structure...25
4.2 Comparison of the Deep structure.........33
Chapter Five Conclusion...........43
5. 1 Major Findings of the Study..........43
5. 2 Suggestions....45
5. 3 Implications of the Study......49
5. 4 Limitations of the Study........50
Chapter Four Comparison of the Surface and DeepStructure
4.1 Comparison of the Surface Structure
GFI and PE are widely used in many junior middle schools, and they have distinctcharacteristics in terms of surface structure and deep structure. This part is mainly aboutthe comparison and analysis of these two sets of English textbooks from four aspects onthe surface structure, including the compilation system, the content selection, the columndesign and the illustration. The compilation of GFI is based on the NECS (2011). “Advanced educationideas and reasonable introduction of foreign language, adapt to the actual situation ofEnglish education in China” is the purpose of compiling textbooks. It includes topics,communicative functions and language structures for the purpose of constructing aprogressive and dynamic learning process. In the new edition of GFI, according to theNECS (2011) the editors make some adjustments in structure and content which addreview unit, culture background knowledge, learning strategy, task-based learningelements and discourse input.
This study has established a connection between the NECS (2011) and these twoeditions of textbooks. Based on the previous comparison and discussion between GFIand PE, the study makes conclusions of the advantages and disadvantages of these twoeditions of textbooks. The major findings about these two editions of textbooks aresummarized and discussed as follow.First of all, both of the two editions of textbooks meet the essential requirementsspecified in the NECS (2011). The fundamental aim in junior high school curriculum isto help students further clarify learning objective and improve their ability ofautonomous learning and cooperative learning with others. All these purposes are wellreflected in daily teaching and learning by using any of these two editions of textbooks.Secondly, materials in these two editions of textbooks are all close to students’real life. The information and knowledge students have learned in each edition oftextbooks reflecting their thoughtfulness, modernity, authenticity and many otherprecious characters.Thirdly, the selection and arrangement of the materials in those exercises allconsider comprehensively arousing students’ interests and meeting their requirementswhen they are studying new knowledge.
1.1 Background of the Study
With the rapid development of economic globalization, the contact andcommunication of different countries’ language and culture become more widely. Asone of the most powerful countries in the world, the frequency of communicationbetween China and other countries is increasing by leaps and bounds undoubtedly.Under this social background, Chinese foreign language learners have to improvetheir intercultural communicative competence (ICC) to keep pace with our nation’sdevelopment and meet the requirements of intercultural communication. Ourcountry’s designers of English syllabus also had explicitly stipulated that we shouldcultivate students’ ICC in the 2000 edition of English Teaching Syllabus for EnglishMajors and the College English Curriculum Requirements which was published in2007 as well as the English curriculum standards of compulsory education whichcame into effect in 2011.The structure mode of college students' ICC is a comprehensive structureframework which is made up of awareness, knowledge and practical ability. Thesethree levels complement each other, namely awareness is premise, knowledge is thefoundation, and practical ability is the key. These three aspects contain differentelements respectively. The level of awareness contains the cross-cultural awareness,the cultural relativism awareness and the awareness of concern of reality.Cross-cultural awareness is the college students’ sensibility and consciousness to thetarget culture and the native culture factors as well as their differences. Culturalrelativism awareness refers to the attitude of abandoning ethnocentrism andeliminating the prejudice of culture. That means culture should not be divided intogood culture or bad culture as different cultures have their own features.
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Study
This study tries to make a research of the native culture in our country’s “TwelfthFive-year Plan” college English textbooks, especially aims to figure out the nativeculture distribution in these textbooks and compare it with students’ native culturepreferences and finally provide some effective suggestions for culture theme selectionin college English textbook compilation and native culture teaching to improvestudents’ ICC.This research has much significance not only in individual perspective, but alsoin nation’s perspective. First of all, the subject of this research is abundant whichcovers ten kinds of college English textbooks, thus the data collected is more reliableand representative. Second, the research of native culture in these textbooks is carriedout in three aspects which can well reflect native culture distribution in our China’spresent college English textbooks. Third, questionnaires will reflect students’ andteachers’ evaluations of native culture distribution in the textbooks they use and theirnative culture preferences, and will highlight the differences in comparison with thetextbook analyses of native culture distribution. Fourth, after the textbook analysesand users’ culture expectations being taken into account of, some suggestions forcollege English textbook compilation on culture theme selection and classroom nativeculture teaching will be provided. All these factors belong to the individualperspective which aims to improve our Chinese students’ ICC and relieve Chineseculture aphasia. What’s more, this research will have a great significance in nation’sperspective. That is, faced with the cultural globalization, making a research of thecollege English textbook’s native culture can be one way of the language strategy inforeign language teaching to avoid our Chinese culture becomingAnglo-Americanization.
II Literature Review
Culture is a very extensive concept. It’s difficult to define it precisely. Lots ofphilosophers, sociologists, anthropologists, historians and linguists have been tryingto define it in their own multidisciplinary perspectives. However, there is nodefinition of culture which is satisfactory and accepted.Chinese discusses culture much earlier than westerners. In Ci Hai, in a broadsense, culture refers to the sum of material wealth and spiritual wealth created in theprocess of human society’s practice. In a narrow sense, culture refers to the ideologyof society and its corresponding system and organization. (夏征农, 陈至立，2009) Inthe Contemporary Chinese Dictionary, culture refers to the sum material and spiritualwealth which is produced by human beings in the process of social and historicaldevelopment, such as literature, art, education, science and so on. (江蓝生, 2012)In western countries, there are three influential points of views of what culture is.The American famous cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is the representative ofthe first point of view. He thinks culture is a mode of thinking and act that appearthrough a nation’s activity and makes this nation different from others. (Ruth Benedict,2006) The second one is in terms of the theory of process which thinks culture is theprocess of learning and producing tools and emphasizes the evolution of humans’intelligence and creativity. As the representative of the third point of view, Britishanthropologist Edward Burnett Tylor defined culture in his book Primitive Culture. Inhis opinion, culture is the complex system which includes knowledge, belief, art,moral, law, custom and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as amember of the society. (Edward Burnett Tylor, 2010)
2.2 Relationship between Language and Culture, between Culture Teaching and English Language Teaching
Around the early 1920s, some anthropologists began to make studies of therelationship between language and culture. The American famous anthropologistEdward Sapir expressed his idea in Language that “there is something behindlanguage and language can’t exist without culture” (Sapir, 1999). In An introductionto modern linguistics, the well-known American linguist Gary B. Palmer once pointedout that the history of language and the history of culture supplement with each other,and they can assist each other as well as being inspired by each other. (Palmer, 1936)In general, we can use the word “bilateral interaction” to describe therelationship between language and culture. To be specific, the relationship betweenlanguage and culture can be understood in three aspects as follows. First, language isa very important element of culture just as the relationship of language and culture. H.Goodenough expressed in Cultural Anthropology and Linguistics, the language of thesociety is one aspect of the social culture. The relationship between language andculture is the relationship between part and whole. As the component of culture,language’s specific characteristic is reflected on its function as a tool of learningculture. Human beings acquire culture by learning and using language. (Goodenough,1957) Second, language is a mirror. It reflects a nation’s culture and shows the contentof the nation’s culture. Through a nation’s language, one can know the nation’scustoms, life styles, thinking features and other cultural characteristics. According toXing Fuyi, language is the symbol of culture while culture is the tube rail of language.
III Theories of the Study .... 13
3.1 Theories of Culture Teaching ....... 13
3.2 Theories of Intercultural Communicative Competence.......... 14
3.3 Theories of Textbook Evaluation......... 15
3.3.1 Methods of Textbook Evaluation......... 15
3.3.2 Criteria of Textbook Evaluation .......... 17
IV Research Methodology ......... 19
4.1 Research Questions ........ 19
4.2 Research Subjects.... 19
4.2.1 “Twelfth Five-year Plan” College English Textbooks ..... 19
4.2.2 Students and Teachers ..... 20
4.3 Research Instruments...... 22
4.4 Research Procedures....... 244
V Results and Discussions ......... 27
5.1 Results and Discussions of College English Textbooks’ Native.... 27
5.2 Results and Discussions of Questionnaires ....... 34
V Results and Discussions
5.1 Results and Discussions of College English Textbooks’ Native Culture Distribution
As mentioned in 4.4.1, all the ten kinds of college English textbooks areinvestigated carefully and 848 passages in those 40 books are checked three times inorder to make sure the accuracy. In terms of different countries, culture is classifiedinto five typical types. They are the target language’s culture, native culture,international culture, comparative culture and other country’s culture. Targetlanguage’s culture is the English culture; native culture is Chinese culture andinternational culture is the common culture shared by all people in the world. In termsof this classification of culture theme, all the passages are classified.With the help of the software SPSS, we get table 5.1.1 1 which is the descriptivestatistics of culture theme according to five types of culture. This table clearlypresents the frequency of those five types of culture. The details are as follows. In 848passages, there are 480 passages related to target language’s culture and 228 passagesthat describe international culture. The number of passages related to targetlanguage’s culture accounts for 56.6 percent which is the top one and the number ofpassages related to international culture takes up 26.9 percent which is less than thenumber of target language’s culture. In addition, there are 43 passages whichintroduce two or more countries’ cultures and 69 passages describing other countries’cultures.
The purpose of this paper is to make a research of native culture in 10 types of“Twelfth Five-year Plan” college English textbooks. Based on the investigations ofsome specific domains in the previous parts, questions listed in part 4.1 can beanswered as follows.
(1) Among 828 passages in 10 types of “Twelfth Five-year Plan” college Englishtextbooks, 480 passages are related to English culture and 228 passages are aboutinternational culture. Forty three passages introduce two or more countries’ culturesand 69 passages talk about other countries’ cultures. Only 28 passages are relevant toChinese culture and the number of passages related to native culture accounts for 3.3percent.In each kind of college English textbook except for TNCE, the number ofpassages related to target language’s culture is the biggest and accounts for 50% ormore than 50%. Compared with it, passages related to native culture are extremelyfew in number and the range is from 0 to 9.
(2) In terms of Byram’s categorization of culture theme, those 28 passages whichare about native culture are classified. The highest rank of culture themes both infrequency and percentage is social identity and social group (frequency=9, 32.1%).Top two is socialization and the life cycle (frequency=6, 21.4%), belief and behavior(frequency=4, 14.3%) and national geography (frequency=3, 10.7%). The frequencyof social and political institutions as well as national history is two which accounts for7.1% while the rest are social interaction (frequency=1, 3.6%) and stereotypes andnational identity (frequency=1, 3.6%).
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Since Holec’s Autonomy and Foreign Language Learning was published in 1981,the study of autonomy has gradually become a hot issue for language teachers andresearchers.The increasing attention on teacher autonomy and learner autonomy has greatlypush forward the related explorations in language teaching field in western countries,and it also arouse the deep thinking and discussion on English teaching in China.Learner autonomy is a higher requirement for students based on the newcurriculum and teacher autonomy is a higher requirement for teachers based on therapid development of the society. To explore learner autonomy is the need of futureeducation and also the need of deepening the teaching reform. And modern educationtheory holds the opinion that school education should focus on how to activate andcultivate the autonomous awareness and ability for both teachers and students.The autonomous learning ability is the foundation and backbone of learners’sustainable development. It is a kind of learning method, which is also a type of highquality learning for students. As English teachers, they take on great responsibility forfostering high quality foreign language talents, so they can’t simply focus on themastery of language knowledge, they should also be able to help students shape positivestudy attitude, initiative thinking, bold practice and autonomous learning ability.
1.2 Necessity of the Study
High school is a very important period for students’ learning and living. If teacherscan guide students to form autonomous learning habit, it will be a great help infurthering their English study and strengthening their lifelong learning ability. In orderto adapt to the rapid change and fast development of the society, it is an urgent task forresearchers to study on teacher autonomy and learner autonomy. The New English Curriculum Criteria (2001) states that developing learnerautonomy in EFL learning is one of the main goals. The New English CurriculumCriteria for High Schools (2003) clearly states that teachers should offer guidance tostudents to adjust their learning styles, enhance their abilities of autonomous learningand cooperative learning, and make them have the ability of lifelong learning. In thethird principle of the basic idea in the New English Curriculum Criteria for HighSchools (2013), it states that the design and implementation of high school curriculumis beneficial for students to optimize their learning styles. They can fully release theirlearning potential by active learning methods like observation, experience andexploration. So that it could form effective learning strategies and improve learners’autonomous ability. And it can also broaden the ways of learning through multi-mediaand information resources.
Chapter Two Literature Review
It has been proved that there are some interaction effects among the factors aslearner autonomy, teacher autonomy, language proficiency, learning motivation, attitude,and learning environment in students’ English learning process. Among which, learnerautonomy, teacher autonomy, language proficiency are relatively close with each other.Because of the ways scholars view learner autonomy, teacher autonomy andlanguage proficiency are different, the definitions of them are not consistently defined. Learner autonomy can be regarded as both a kind of capacity and activity. It is amodern learning style compared with traditional reception learning and contains threespecific processes—self-observation, self-judgment and self-reaction.The concept of learner autonomy was introduced to the field of TESL (teachingEnglish as second language) in the 1980s by Henri Holec. After that, Dickinson andLittlewood did extensive researches on that. The core of it is the ability of taking chargeof one’s own learning. That is, students control and adjust their learning materials andinformation autonomously by themselves so that to enhance the learning efficiency.Holec (1981) states learners can be responsible for their learning in the learningprocess. That is to say, they make decisions for the problems they encounter whilelearning, such as determining learning objectives, choosing learning methods and skills,deciding the rate of learning and monitoring learning process. Allwright & Bailey (1991)defines learner autonomy as a balance between independent development andinterdependence.
2.2 The Relations between Teacher Autonomy and Learner Autonomy
As we already talked about the clarification of definitions on teacher autonomy and learner autonomy, and now it’s necessary to figure out the correlations between them.With deep research on learner autonomy and teacher autonomy, people come torealize that the strengthening on learner autonomy doesn’t mean the weakening ofteacher autonomy. According to the New English Curriculum Criteria, it is clearly stated“treat teaching the primary content of teachers’ assessment”. Therefore, in terms ofTEFL (teaching English as a foreign language), researches on teacher autonomy shouldcombine with researches on learner autonomy, namely, to establish autonomousteaching mode which is beneficial to improve the capacity of learner autonomy.Little (1995) observes that the cultivation of learner autonomy is bound up withteacher autonomy and it is dominated by the nature of the conversations betweenteaches and students in class. Smith (2000) first comes up with the idea that teachersshould act as the learners’ in participation the process of autonomous learning andpropose the concept of teacher-learner autonomy. Voller (1997) says that teachers serveas facilitators, counselors and managers of learning resources in the process of fosteringstudents’ autonomy. Little (2000) confirms that the links between learner autonomy andteacher autonomy is interdependent. Thus, in order to promote learner autonomy, it is anecessity to improve teacher autonomy in the process of teaching training. Scholars likeLittle (2000), Shu Dingfang (2004) and Qian Xiaoxia (2005) generally think that learnerautonomy is decided by teacher autonomy to a large extent.
Chapter Three Research Design..... 23
3.1 The Research Question and Hypotheses .......... 23
3.2 Reseach Subjects .... 25
3.3 Reseach Instruments ...... 26
3.4 Research Procedures...... 28
Chapter Four Data Analysis and Discussion...... 30
4.1 Analysis of the Questionnaires .... 30
4.2 Analysis of the Interview...... 48
4.3 Analysis of the Observation Process ......... 49
4.4 Analysis of Teacher Autonomy Based on the Data ........ 51
4.5 Analysis of Learner Autonomy Based on the Data......... 53
4.6 Analysis of the Correlations between Teacher Autonomy....... 54
4.7 Analysis of the Correlations between Learner Autonomy.......... 55
Chapter Five Conclusion.......... 63
5.1 Major Findings ....... 63
5.2 Limitations of the Study ....... 64
5.3 Suggestions for Further Research....... 65
Chapter Four Data Analysis and Discussion
4.1 Analysis of the Questionnaires
Questionnaire can be divided into two parts. One is the questionnaire about learnerautonomy which is completed by 213 students. The other is the questionnaire aboutteacher autonomy which is completed by 15 English teachers. According to the statistics, there are 213 students in total, 115 male students and 98female students, accounting for 53.99% and 46.01% respectively. Their ages range from16 to 20. 5 students are 16 years old which account for 2.3%. 103 students are 17 yearsold which account for 48.4%. 83 students are 18 years old which account for 39.0%. 20students are 19 years old which account for 9.4%. 2 students are 20 years old whichaccount for 0.9%. 15 students start to learn English before primary school whichaccounts for 7.0%. 125 students start to study English at primary school which accountsfor 58.7%. 70 students start to study English at junior high school which accounts for32.9%. While there are still 3 students who are quite different from those 210 studentswhich accounts for 1.4%.
Learner autonomy not only affects students’ academic performance but also affectstheir life-long development. The original reason for the cultivation of learner autonomyis the requirements of economy, technology and culture. The cultivation of learnerautonomy is a long-term process; it depends on the common endeavor of both teachersand students. In the practical teaching process, teachers should be in accordance withthe requirements of the new curriculum reform and get rid of the bondage ofexam-oriented education. Teachers not only pay attention to students’ learning effect,but also put stress on the autonomous learning process. Teachers ought to learn toappreciate students, be kind to students, create harmonious classroom atmosphere andmake all the students and teachers enjoy the happiness of teaching and learning.Teachers are supposed to encourage students, praise and stimulate their potential, makethem fully experience the joy of success so that they can transform the fun of learningEnglish into their motivation. It is an indispensible part of teachers’ responsibility tofind out students’ individual differences, carry out hierarchical teaching and mobilizetheir enthusiasm. They ought to teach students some learning strategies and autonomouslearning ability so as to improve the learning efficiency and reduce learning burden andyield twice the result with half effort. One of teacher autonomy is to set up questionscarefully, trains students’ abilities of querying and innovation consciousness in order toget them into the habit of learner autonomy.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
The teachers devote themselves to teaching. They exert their best to teach thestudents knowledge; they are always compared as the candle who sacrifices themselvesto light the others. But the teachers seldom pay attention to their own professionaldevelopment which is visible in the countryside. Deng Xiaoping said that the teachersshould have responsibility to cultivate the personnel with interdisciplinary knowledgeand well-rounded abilities, interdisciplinary talents. The teachers have an effect on theeducation reforming, improving the quality of education and cultivating high qualitystudents. Nowadays, with the education reforming and the society development, peoplehave realized that without the teachers’ professional development, the students can notget the chance to develop themselves and our education is destined to fail (DengTao,2005). The high quality education depends on the teachers’ professional developmentand the teacher themselves can get the benefits from the professional development. Theteachers’ professional development will promote the education reforming.In the 19th century, Ushinsky said that any advanced teaching theory and perfectbooks can not replace the teachers which just help the teacher to teach the students. Inthe 21st century, the competition between various countries for the quantity and qualityof talents is becoming increasingly intense. The personnel’s training depends on theeducation. What is more, the teacher plays an important role in the education reforming.The teacher must learn all of their life to improve them. The teachers’ professionaldevelopment is the guarantee of the high quality of the education. Constructing highquality teachers is the fundamental guarantee of quality education. The fullimplementation of quality education and the new curriculum reform need the teacherprofessional development. T
1.2 Research Purpose and Significance
Facing to the changing society, the modern teachers should have the outstandingquality. They ought to love their students and have the active attitude towards everystudent. And they should be patriotic to the country, adapt themselves to the societyquickly. At the same tine, the teacher should have the ability to study all life long, havethe ability to deal with the information keenly, to develop the research actively and soon. The teacher should have the consciousness to cultivate the students of all aspects tobuild a harmonious relationship with the students. The teachers should lead the studentsto learn by themselves. In a word, the modern teacher should pay attention to knowingthe correctly methods to teach the students. They should seize the opportunity todevelop themselves and have creative ability so that it is necessary that the teacherdevelop their profession. There are several aspects that we can know about theimportance of the professional development. Firstly, the teachers’ professionaldevelopment is the necessary part of the society development. Secondly, the nation’sprosperity depends on the education. The high quality education needs high levelteachers. The countries’ comprehensive strength and the international competitiondepend on the education development, technology progress and the creation of theknowledge. The teacher’s moral level, their knowledge level and their quality andability affect the student.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Connotation of Teachers’ Professional Development
The research about the teachers’ professional development derives from the 1960s,flourishing in the 1980s in the Europe and the United States (Xiao Liping, 2002). Inthe1960s, the UNESCO published Suggestions for Teachers’ Status emphasizes thestatus of the teachers. In 1971, the professors of Japan pointed out that the teacherprofession places emphasis on high level of professional requirements (Liu Xingu, LiuFang, 2010). In the 1980s, all countries played attention to the life-long educationsystem and many developing and developed countries build the study society. In the1990s, Jack Richards David Noonan (1990) published the Second Language TeacherEducation marked the new stage of English education. In the 21st century, because ofthe economic globalization, English becomes more and more important so that theEnglish teaching has been paid much more attention than before. The English educationplays an important role in the country development and the internationalcommunication.The level of the English education depends on the comprehensivequality of the English teachers. It is obvious that the English teachers’ professionaldevelopment is much more important than before. When it comes to the teacherprofessional development, there are two different opinions. E. Hoyle thought that theteacher professional development was a process in which teachers are expected tocommand the skill about teaching and the necessary knowledge.
2.2 Connotation of English Teachers ’Professional Development
The English teachers’ professional development meant the continuous developmentof the English teachers. The English teachers should keep on learning to developthemselves. There were some similarities with the general teachers’ professionaldevelopment. There were not evident disparities with the general teachers’ professionaldevelopment. Teachers regarded the professional development as a permanent goal(Pennington, 1990). Jia Aiwu (2003) pointed out that English teachers’ professionaldevelopment was a process that the teacher kept on learning. They developedthemselves through the lifelong education. There were two concepts about the Englishteachers’ professional development. One was the teachers’ profession was developedduring the teachers’ personal teaching career. The other one referred to the process thatthe teacher got the opportunity to participate in the training to get higher development.In order to develop themselves, the English teachers took part in the training activitiesactively. An excellent English teacher should master the teaching skills, the languagetheory and they should master the methods to do the research on English education.Reference to the training, there some English teachers want to cultivate their highconsciousness of social responsibility, some want to improve their teaching ability;some teachers want to integrate their professional knowledge. All in all, Englishteachers’ professional development is rather important for the English teachers’ wholelife. In order to promote the English teachers’ professional development, they shouldengage in the continuous learning and learn to be responsibility for their ownprofessional development.
Chapter Three Methodolody ....... 30
3.1 Research Contents ..... 30
3.2 Research Instruments......... 30
3.3 Data Collection and Discussion......... 31
Chapter Four Results and Suggestions....... 64
4.1 Results ....... 64
4.2 The Suggestions......... 67
4.2.1 Making a Correct Judgments on Themselves and Enhancing Teachers’Cooperation ...... 67
4.2.2 Taking Teaching Notes to Record Their Teaching Behaviors andEnhancing English Teachers’ Educational Confidence .... 68
4.2.3 Taking Specific Measures to Promote Their Professional Development 70
4.2.4 Taking Appropriate Strategies to Promote the Teachers’ Professional.... 71
Chapter Five Conclusion...... 72
Chapter Four Results and Suggestions
The professional development, the constructivism and the English teacherprofessional development are the main concepts in this paper. The theory of the lifelonglearning and the constructivism provide the theory brace in this paper and Englishteachers professional development means the human development as well as teacher’sautonomy development which can show us the English teachers’ profession knowledge.From the thought of life long learning, we can know that English teachers’ professionaldevelopment is not a short-term process and it is a long term process which means thatthe teacher study knowledge all of his life. The thought of life-long learning providesthe opportunities for the teachers to choose the learning contents and seize theopportunities to develop themselves.Constructivism advocates that the process of constructing the knowledge should notneglect the social factors which believe that learning is the learner constructs theknowledge based on the existing knowledge and their experience. We all know thatteachers are rich in the practical teaching experience and they have the indispensablevalue of the teacher’s professional development. And the teaching philosophy plays animportant role in the teachers’ professional development which is the source and powerto promote the English teachers to construct the knowledge that they need in theircareer.
This chapter is the last part of this paper. With the previous data analyzing, thischapter will make a conclusion on the limitations and the main findings. The Englishcurriculum reforms have advocated the English teachers’ professional development andoffers the cherish chances for the rural English teachers’ professional development. Butthere are still challenges during the process of the teachers’ professional development.This paper has shown the current situation of the rural excellent English teachers’professional development and their training needs. And this paper has put forward somepossible suggestions to promote the teachers’ professional development.The data has shown the condition of the rural excellent English teachers’professional development with the four aspects: 1) Reference to the basic informationabout the rural excellent English teachers, most of them is enthusiasm to their careerand has built a harmonious relationship with the students. However, a minority of therural English teachers does not have interests in the career and just regard the career as away to earn a living. 2) Most of the rural excellent English teachers have commandedthe professional knowledge and can apply the scientific knowledge in their teachingprocess and can use the technology to design the teaching activities successfully. Butthere are still some English teachers who are not familiar with the scientific knowledgeand the theoretical knowledge related to the technology is insufficient. 3) The majorityof the junior school English teachers have commanded the professional ability. Theycan create the good study surrounding and inspire the students’ study interest. They canmanage the class and have a good communication with the students and can reflect theirteaching behaviors. But there are still some teachers can not establish a goodrelationship with the students and fail in the class managing. They also use the roughways to deal with the problems existed in their teaching activities.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the study
In our country, students study English based on their mother language, so English learning is theirsecond language. Reading is the most basic and special important activity in the process of secondlanguage acquisition and it is a complex cognitive process including various subcomponents, such asbackground information about the reading materials, knowledge of text structures all of this informationcan help readers to construct coherent meaning from the text. In the process of this activity, readingstrategies are most important and frequent employed by readers to achieve their efficient reading,especially for the reading comprehension in a test.For most of foreign language learners, reading is the main tool to obtain information or linguisticknowledge and learning skills. So, it’s significant to conduct researches on reading strategy used both forlanguage learning and teaching.Reading strategies exactly refer to strategies used by language learners in order to improve theirreading. It not only consists of some reading skills such as reading for main ideas, making inference,skimming and scanning and so on, but also includes selective and restraining actions taken by readers forcertain purposes.
1.2 Purpose of the study
Reading is the main means and channel for people to get knowledge and understand the world. Whenit comes to English reading, the issue becomes even more complicated. In generally, reading is a complexcognitive skill, involving many sub-skills, processes, and background information sources ranging fromthe basic lower level skill to visual processes involved in decoding the print to higher level skills involvinglearning styles, syntax, semantics, and cultural stereotypes, and even to skills of text representation andintegration of ideas with the reader’s global knowledge. English reading differs from mother languagereading in several important aspects. Firstly, reading in a L2 requires more working memory resources, andeven highly proficient at bilinguals also have slower reading rates in their less dominant language(Segalowitz et al., 2003). Secondly, now there is much evidence proves that when bilinguals read in one oftheir own language, they simultaneously activate words from their other language; this introduces an addedlayer of competition (Dijkstra and Van Heuven, 1998; Schwartz and Kroll, 2006; Schwartz, Kroll, and Diaz,2007). Thirdly, most of bilinguals have smaller vocabularies than monolinguals, which can restrain theirability to comprehend text (Bialystok, 2001). Since there are several factors which make English readingmore cognitively challenging, it is possible that English reading strategies that take considerable workingmemory resources to execute may not be well-suited for English readers, particularly those in thebeginning stages of acquisition.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Language learning strategies
In the beginning of strategy research, there are continuous arguments about the definition of strategies.Rigney (1978) says that learning strategies are “operations or steps used by a learner to facilitate theacquisition, storage, or retrieval of information,” Stern (1983) declares that learning strategies are “generalapproaches that language learners use while techniques are used to describe observable actions.”Rod Ellis (1994) labeled dominant three features of learning strategies: (1) learning strategies areobservable outside activities or unobservable mental process. (2) learning strategies refers to ordinarymethods or specific techniques. (3) learner may be conscious or unconscious to use strategies.In some of the most impressive research of this kind, Michael O’Malley and Anna Chamot andcolleagues (O’Malley et al. 1983, 1985a, 1985b, 1987; O’Malley and Chamot1990; Chamot andO’Malley1986, 1987) have studied the use of strategies by learner of English as a second language (ESL)in the United States. Typically, strategies are divided into three main categories: metacognitive strategies,cognitive strategies and socioaffective strategies. Metacognitive is a term used in information –processingtheory to indicate an executive function that involve planning for learning, thinking about the learningprocess as it is taking place, monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating learningafter an activity is completed. Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and involvemore direct manipulation of the learning material itself. Socioaffective strategies have to do with social-mediating activity and transacting with others.
2.2 Reading model
Model can be understood as a set of assumptions about what happen when a reader approaches a text，which is the ways a reader derives meaning from printed material (Devine1988:127). In the past halfcentury, there are three reading models which have significant influence; they are bottom-up model,top-down model and interactive model. The bottom-up model derives from the fundamental understand of the process of reading. Itcharacterizes the process of reading like children to read a book, first from letters to sounds, next to words,and then to sentences and the whole article. American psychologist Gough (1972) describes the model inthe following way:First, the reader pays more attention to the printed words. Second, the reader recognizes letters andwords in the article. Third, the reader works out sentence structure according to their mental dictionary.Fourth, the words in the sentences have been understood from the left to the right. In the bottom-up model,information is treated as from the lower-level to the higher-level decoding in a linear way. Reading processis always from the letter – word – phrase – short sentence –sentence – paragraph and the whole passage.However, this model has its shortcomings. Firstly, the bottom-up model emphasizes on theimportance of the printed information. It even interprets the printed information from the smaller unit tothe larger unit, and neglects the critical influence of the context. Secondly, this model underestimates thereaders’ initiative. As matter of fact, readers have the ability to understand the reading materials by meansof the help of their previous knowledge. As bottom-up model can not interpret the essence of readingprocess sufficiently, so some theorists put forward the opposite model of bottom-up model, which is thetop-down reading model.
Chapter Three Theoretical Foundation ........16
3.1 Schema theory.....16
3.2 Information processing theory ....19
Chapter Four Research Methodology ...........22
4.1 Research questions......22
4.3 Research instruments ..........23
4.4 Data collection and analysis........28
Chapter Five Results and discussion.....30
5.1 Differences of English reading strategies used by two major’s students ....30
5.2 Variation in use of the individual categories of English reading strategies .....32
5.3 The relationship between reading strategies and reading proficiency ....36
5.4 Differences in using reading strategies .....37
Chapter Five Results and discussion
5.1 Differences of English reading strategies used by two major’s students
Metacognitive strategies are cognizance to cognizance, to say specifically, it is knowledge about oneself’s cognitive process and ability to adjust this process (Flavell, 1976). Cognitive strategies have beenused in the process of learning a language, and socioaffective strategies provide more opportunities for thelanguage learners to get in touch with language. The average of three categories of English readingstrategies and overall strategies reveal that how frequently the two majors’ students use reading strategiesin the process of their reading. The results are summarized in the following table: According to the frequency scales of Oxford’s, the mean range is from 2.5 to 3.4 which are defined asmedium frequency. The results in table 5.1 indicate that the liberal arts students used reading strategies atthe medium level of frequency (mean is 2.966). Among the three strategies, metacognitive strategies meanis 2.873; cognitive strategies ranks highest and the mean is 3.088; and socioaffective strategies mean is2.650. All strategies means fall in the medium frequency, that is to say, the liberal arts students use Englishreading strategies at the medium level of frequency. Nevertheless, there still exist differences in the usefrequency of reading strategies. Cognitive Strategies ranks highest and then follows metacognitivestrategies, and students use socioaffective strategies least frequently.
Reading as one of the basic foreign language learning skills plays pretty importance role in ourlearning. English reading strategies derive from the language learning strategies which also have criticalrole during reading. The goal of this study is to discover the different English reading strategies used by thescience and the liberal arts students, and further to probe the relationship between English readingstrategies used and their reading achievements in the science and the liberal arts students of NorthwestNormal University through questionnaire, reading comprehension test and semi–structured interviewinvestigation. The following are the main findings of this study.Students’ majors and their reading strategies have closed relationship. First, the science and the liberalarts students intend to employ English reading strategies in their reading, there is no significance differencein using of some categories of English reading strategies, such as skimming strategy, scanning strategy,transfer strategy, etc. which students of both majors’ use them in mediate level. Second, it can be foundthat cognitive strategies are used more frequently than metacognitive strategies and socioaffectivestrategies are least used during their reading. But there are still have significance different between the twomajors on using some categories of reading strategies, take-noting, analysis and deduction strategies whichthe science students are good at using than the liberal arts students. The possible explanation may due totheir different majors. Third, both of the two majors’ students are no good at socioaffective strategies. Asfor the relationship between students English reading strategies and their reading achievement in the twomajors’ students, the present study shows that the students who are comparatively good at using readingstrategies can get high score in both the two majors.