Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Study Background
Conversational Implicature, called CI for short, is the second important theory in Pragmatics, which put forward by another Oxford philosopher Herbert Paul Grice（1967）during the speech “Logic and Conversation” at Harvard University in 1967. According to Grice, people’s talk is not made up of a bunch of incoherent words under normal circumstances. People’s conversations are able to go smoothly, because both sides follow the certain purposes, and act in harmony with each other. He considers that people must comply with some certain principles when communicating.This principle is called the Cooperative Principle, abbreviated as CP. It consists of four maxims:quality maxim, quantity maxim, relevance maxim and manner maxim (Grice, 1976) In communication, people’s dialogue often because for some reasons and context factors violated certain sessions principles of cooperation, not straightforward to express their views, in violation of the principles of this cooperation, resulting in implication. Conversational Implicature refers to the implicit implication to the content or expression in the specific context, that is, the pragmatic meaning of words. The violation of the Cooperative Principle does not necessarily lead to communication obstacles, on the contrary, the deliberate violation of the Cooperative Principle, tend to produce special session meaning and pragmatic meaning, it helps to smooth the session and convey the information effectively.
1.2 Purpose of the Study
In recent years, American TV drama is becoming more and more familiar in Chinese audiences. Although these TV dramas based on the real life in America, they are full of imagination and creativity, making the plots up and down. To study these TV series from the perspective of pragmatics, contribute to the analysis of linguistic features of daily life scenes of dialogue, and to gain further deep knowledge and understanding of the dramas and character analysis; learn how to express characteristics through language.This paper adopts the research method of the combination of description and explanation. By using the Qualitative research, analyzing the violation of each maxim of the Cooperative Principle in real conversation, and summed up the characteristics of the drama dialogue language. Then analyze how Conversational Implicature is deduced through violating maxims of Cooperative Principle.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1Previous Studies of Cooperative Principle
Grice’s (1967) theory of Conversational Implicature completed the transition from meaning to implication, achieved a breakthrough in pragmatics studies. It has won widespread recognition and high praise of linguistic, and studied earnestly by great many people in the linguistic circle. With the research gradually deepening, the shortcomings also become more obvious. Aiming at the shortage of the academic circles, there are mainly three remedying the error approaches. First, confirm Conversational Implicature, especially for its quantity maxim and do the more specific analysis of it. For example, Laurence Horn (1984) and Gerald Gazdar (1979) have been successful in quantity maxim. Levinson (1983) inherited and developed the theory predecessors made gratifying achievements. Second, complete other principles on the basis ofsupplementary principles. Undoubtedly, Leech (1983) is a typical representative of this approach. On the basis of CP, he created another parallel principle—Politeness Principle. The last one is completely abandon the “Cooperative Principle” and created other principles. Dan Sperber and Deirdre Wilson’s (1986) Relevance is this idea. Research on CP abroad can summarize from theory exploration and application research two aspects. There are two different of Cooperative Principle of new exploration; one faction is to maintain the views, such as the Saul (2002),Davis (1998), and Lumsden (2008). The other faction hold the view questioned, such asKeysar (1995),Ladegaard (2008) andKecskes(2014). Although Kecskes (2014) questioned, he also made some supplementary at the same time. Davies (2007) indicates in the article Grice’s Cooperative Principle: Meaning and Rationalitythat part of the reason of misunderstanding of “cooperation” is the theory comes from philosophy and applied linguistics. In order to understand on behalf of Grice’s point of view of “cooperation”, it is necessary to overall him about the articles of Cooperative Principle and the implicature. After studied his book carefully we can see that the concept of “cooperation” from his own thoughts, namely sentence meaning and speaker's meaning is different, the language is regular and human behavior is rational.
2.2 Previous Studies of Conversational Implicature
It has been 40 years since H. P. Grice (1967) proposed the theory of Conversational Implicature in the United States in a speech (William James Lecture) at the Harvard University, in 1967. During these years, the theory of Conversational Implicature has gone through three stages, establishment-Reconstruction-refactor ; from the development of Classic-Gricean Theory of Conversational Implicature for the Neo-Gricean Theory of Conversational Implicature has become a widely explanatory theory of pragmatics. Research on the theory of Conversational Implicature for establishment of pragmatics in linguistic research status and made a very important contribution to the development of the theory of Linguistics. Classic-Gricean Theory of Conversational Implicature mainly refers to part of the content of speech “Logic and Conversation”, which given by H.P. Grice at Harvard University, and collected in the proceedings named Syntax and Sematics (1975), which co-edited by P．Cole and J．Morgan. At the end of the 1950s, the British philosopher Austin (1962) started to overthrow the true value of the condition is considered the center point of language comprehension. Levinson (1983) proposed speech act theory, it put people’s words into constative and performative. Austin (1962) divided this speech act into locutionary act illocutionary act and perlocutionary act. He believed that the successful implementation of an act of speech must meet three conditions. First, the speaker must have the conditions to implement an act. Second, the speaker must have the sincerity for his own behavior. Third, the speaker cannot go back on his own words. These three conditions are referred to as felicity condition.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework ....... 12
3.1 Cooperative Principle ........ 12
3.1.1 The Maxims of Cooperative Principle ......... 12
3.2 Violation of the Maxims of CP ........ 14
3.2.1 Violation of the Maxim of Quantity ........ 17
3.2.2 Violation of the Maxim of Quality .......... 17
3.2.3 Violation of the Maxim of Relation ........ 18
3.2.4 Violation of the Maxim of Manner ......... 18
3.3 Conversational Implicature ......... 19
3.3.1 The Premise of Conversational Implicature Generated ........ 19
3.3.2 Inferring of Conversational Implicature ...... 20
3.3.3 The Characteristics of Conversational Implicature .......... 21
Chapter Four Data Analysis ......... 22
4.1 Brief Introduction to the Plot and Main Characters of House of Cards ( I ) .... 22
4.2 Conversational Implicature Generated by Violating the Maxim Quantity. ...... 24
4.3 Conversational Implicature Generated by Violating the Maxim of Quality. .... 30
4.4 Conversational Implicature Generated by Violating the Maxim of Relation ... 34
4.5 Conversational Implicature Generated by Violating the Maxim of Manner .... 38
Chapter Five Conclusion ......... 42
5.1 Major Findings of the Study ....... 42
5.2 Limitations and Further Suggestions of the Research ........ 43
Chapter Four Data Analysis
4.1 Brief Introduction to the Plot and Main Characters of House of Cards ( I )
House of Cards(I) is a political American TV series according to Michael Dobbs’s novel which produced by Beau Willimon, directed by David Fincher. The first season put forward in February 1, 2013 in streaming media service provider Netflix premiere. The first season received positive reviews from critics and has always maintained top ratings and won many influential awards like Television Critics Association Awards, Satellite Awards,Peabody Award, and Writers Guild of America Award, ect. House in House of Cards refers to the Congress and the whole American politics. The original meaning of Cards is the card game, and here referring to the politicians of the wrist as “kings disputes and power game” in the drama. House of cards is also an English language collocation; it means a house made up of cards. In the drama, it can be understood as the “builder” being wily and clever. It also refers to the loose and fragile power, which is vulnerable. The setting of this drama is in present-day Washington D.C. . It is a story mainly about Frank Underwood, who is a Democrat from South Carolina’s 5th congressional district and House majority whip. He helped Garrett Walker won the election to become the 45th US president, while Walker would return for the promise to appoint him as secretary of state. However, before Walker’s inauguration, the chief of staff Linda Vasquez has told Underwood the president wanted to keep him in pushing the bill through Congress, which would not nominate him as secretary of state. After his hope of being the Secretary of State was shattered, he decided torevenge against those whobetrayedhim. His wife, Claire Underwood, is often involved in her husband’s political action.
In the thesis, the author analyzes a typical part of dialogues from House of Cards ( I ) according to the western theory of pragmatics, that is, Grice’s Conversational Cooperative Principle. The dialogues between characters contain rich complex emotional connotation, and many dialogues contain rich subtext, namely the implication. Grice’s Conversational Implicature theory is a very important theory in pragmatics. Some scholars think the Conversational Implicature theory is the core content of pragmatics. It not only puts forward the “literal meaning” and “Conversational Implicature” in character communication discourses, but also explains how people’s daily communications is successful. As Suo Zhenyu (2000) mentioned in his book A Course of Pragmatics that Grice’s theory of non-natural meaning is a kind of theory of communication in fact. As a kind of communication theory, Grice captured an important aspect in the verbal communication behavior, namely, the communication process and communicative intention are always inseparable. In fact, as any communication process involves the communicative intention, any successful communication depends on the hearer’s accurate understanding of the communicative intention of the speaker. We can know the dialogues violate the Cooperative Principle and the Conversational Implicature is generated; but we do not know what kind of Conversational Implicature is.
The reference (omitted)
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Research
With the advent of the Internet Era, public access to information is not confinedto the traditional media like magazines, newspapers or brochures. In accordance withthe trend, the Internet has become a new mode of information media. Governments,companies, institutions set up homepages to reach the public. Domestic universities,as well, have established their own website with continuous improvement on itscontent and form. The guests of university websites usually pay much attention to theadvisors’ bio statements (or the teaching staff) because reading those bios helpsevaluate the university. The advisor’s bio statement (short for bio) on universitywebsites is the brief introduction to the academic background of the advisor whichconstructs the academic identity to prospective graduate students and other academics.Therefore, the advisor’s bio statement not only serves as a good channel to publicizethe universities’ and teachers’ scientific research quality, but also acts as a medium forinteraction among advisors, potential students and other academics.In recent decades, although much attention has been paid to genre analysis, fewstudies have examined the advisors’ bio statements lest the Chinese ones. Hyland andTse (2012) proposed a move structure of English article bio statements by analyzing600 article bio statements of three disciplines. They mentioned that “the bio is anunsung and disregarded genre which has largely escaped the notice of discourseanalysts” (p.155), so there is still much room left for the current study to investigatethe advisors’ bio statements from both macro and micro level under domestic context.
1.2 Purposes of the Thesis
Through the collection and analyses of 60 samples, the overall goals of thisresearch are to (1) establish the move structure of Chinese advisors’ bio statements, (2)testify the variations in move structure of English and Chinese bio statements and (3)probe into the micro features of all the samples to gain better understanding about thisgenre. To achieve the goals, the current study addresses the following questions:1) In order to fulfill the communicative purposes, what is the move structure ofadvisors’ bio statements in Chinese, and how can it be compared with that in English?2) How can the macro (structural) and micro (linguistic and non-linguistic)features of advisors’ bio statements be explained?
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter will begin by presenting the core subject, genre analysis. To bespecific, it includes the basic terms and different approaches to it. Then foreign anddomestic studies related to genre analysis are to be outlined. The final section of thisChapter is studies related to genre analysis of advisors’ bio statements which pointsout that there is great room for the current research.
2.1 Genre Analysis
As an insightful and thick description of academic and professional texts, genreanalysis has become a powerful and useful tool to identify the relationship betweenform and function as well as to investigate the internal and external structure ofdifferent types of texts. According to Chandler (1977), “genre analysis situates textswithin textual and social contexts, underlining the social nature of the production andreading of texts” (p.10). Therefore, genre analysis is to identify the schematicstructure, identify the strategies available to allow users to fulfill their communicativepurposes, and identify linguistic choices of the genre to realize the strategies (Henry& Roseberry, 1999).
2.2 Previous Studies in Genre Analysis
Discourse analysis, as Bhatia (1993) noted, is the study of language use beyondthe sentence boundaries moving from a surface-level description to deep-leveldescription of language use. The early stage sees features of language of textconstruction, but the analyses go beyond the pure linguistic description to a thickerdescription of various aspects of genres. It has progressed through at least four levelsof description: “register analysis, grammatical-rhetorical analysis, interactionalanalysis and genre analysis” (p. 5-12).The first is register analysis by focusing on the lexical grammatical features anddetailed description of language varieties including features of lexis, grammar,context and style. Grammatical-rhetorical analysis, as the second stage, attempts tocatch the relationship between grammatical choices and rhetorical functions inscientific writing. Interactional analysis, the third stage, is to study the interactionbetween language and social meanings, which doesn’t take the social cultural andpsychological factors into consideration.Bhatia (1993) finds the first three stages inadequate in two respects. First, theylack “adequate information about the rationale underlying various discourse-types”such as “insufficient explanation of socio-cultural, institutional and organizationalconstraints and expectations that influence the nature of a particular discourse-genre”(p.10). Second, they pay “little attention to the conventionalized regularities in theorganization of various communicative events” (p.10). In consequent, Bhatia arguesthat genre analysis which combines socio-cultural and psycholinguistic aspects oftext-construction with linguistic insights is powerful and useful.
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY .......20
3.1 Data Collection .....20
3.2 Research Questions ........21
3.3 Method .........22
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF ADVISORS’ BIO STATEMENTS IN CHINESE ......24
4.1 Genre Analysis of Advisors’ Bio Statements at a Macro Level ....24
4.1.1 Move Structure of Advisors’ Bio Statements ............24
22.214.171.124 A Sample Analysis......24
126.96.36.199 The Identification of All the Moves and Steps in the Corpus....27
4.1.2 Variations in Moves of English and Chinese Bio Statements .....32
4.1.3 Interpretation of the Moves and Steps of Advisors’ Bio Statements ....34
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS OF ADVISORS’ BIOSTATEMENTS IN CHINESE
This chapter sets out to describe the move structure of sixty Chinese advisors’bio statements along with the linguistic and non-linguistic features. With limited space,it is unnecessary to detail the process of genre analysis of all the samples. In the firstsection, genre analysis of an example chosen from the corpus will be given and thenthe analytical method will be generalized to other samples so that the final movestructure will be proposed. In addition to the structure, this section will compare movestructures identified in Hyland and Tse (2012) and that in the present study, along withexplanation of each move with examples. In the latter section, it will attempt to unveilthe underlying linguistic and non-linguistic features of the samples.
The present thesis has conducted a genre-based analysis on the structure andlinguistic style of Chinese advisors’ bio statements. In this chapter, the findings of thisstudy will be summarized, and implications from the perspective of genre theory andits application will be discussed, along with limitations of this study and somesuggestions for future research.Inspired by Hyland and Tse’s (2012) research, the author conducted the currentstudy to investigate the generic structure of Chinese bio statements. This study built acorpus by sixty advisors’ bio statements from domestic university websites. Thisthesis answers the two questions: 1) In order to fulfill the communicative purposes,what is the move structure of advisors’ bio statements in Chinese, and how can it becompared with that in English? 2) How can the structural and linguistic features ofadvisors’ bio statements be explained?Based on Hyland and Tse’s (2012) move structure, this study described aseven-move structure for the advisors’ bio statements: move one Basic Information tocatch readers’ attention which includes information like name, gender, date of birth,title, position, e-mail and telephone; move two Profile is to introduce the past andpresent experiences about the advisor, usually containing his/her education andworking experiences, teaching activities and community service; move three is aboutthe Research Interest which confines an advisor into certain specialty; move four isthe Publications by which readers can make evaluation on advisors’ academiccompetence; move five is Achievements meaning the recognition gained from fellowscholars or academic committees; move six Enrollment clarifies the specificrequirements the advisor established for admitting new students and finally comes thelast move Contact Information to provide telephone numbers, e-mail or postal addressto get in touch with advisors if necessary.
差比结构是表达“比较”概念的结构之一，是两个或两个以上的事物在性质、数量以及属性特征等方面经比较之后存在的异同和高低差异。英语和朝鲜语中都具有表示“差比”概念的结构，但其表现形式与方式存在不同。英语属于屈折语，其结构内部的某些成分是通过屈折变化或借助于助动词而体现。朝鲜语和韩国语同属于裁着语语系，其差比结构的表达形式与特征是相同的。因此，韩国语差比结构文献对研究朝鲜语差比结构具有一定的参考性。关于英语和朝鲜语差比结构研究在英语国家、中国和韩国都已有很长的历史。无论是单语研究，还是语言间的对比，最初主要出现在语法书或相关的专著中，继而有不少学术型文章对这两种语言的差比结构进行了分析和探讨。国外对于英语差比结构的研究主要集中于比较标记词的界定、比较省略、比较删除等方面。Napoli(1983)根据比较词的句法属性，提出了 “两个‘than’假说”论。他认为英语比较句中的“than”既可以是介词(preposition)，也可以是连词（coordination)。当“than”为介词时，其引导的是短语型比较句(phrasalcomparatives),即“than”后接一^限定词短语；当“than”是连词时，其引导的是分句型比较句（clausal comparatives)，即“than”后接一个限定分句，并且两种比较句之间不可相互转换，应分别对待，可以看出是一种机械式的生成模式。Bresnan(1973)最早提出英语差比结构。他认为短语比较句是由它们的从句表达式通过比较省略(comparative deletion)操作派生而来的，也就是说，短语比较句是由分句比较句基础生成的。他曾提出比较删除的观点，即比较分句删去同主句部分相同的含有等级语义成分（gradable property)的语类。Pinkham(1982)提出了比较省略（comparative ellipsis)的概念，认为比较分句可选择性（optional)删除某些语类成分。Kennedy (2002)研究了英语的比较删除（comparative deletion)和比较次删除（comparative sub-deletion)现象，其也继承了 Chomsky的“移动”观点，且进一步指出比较删除是比较成分的显性移动，而次删除是比较成分的隐性移动。
比较是人类认识客观世界的基本方法’人类需要通过比较来认识客观事物并?把它们记载到大脑中，因此比较也是人类最基本的语言活动。换句话说，各个民族在日常生活中都会使用“比较”这一概念，而把这种概念投射到语言中，便形成了各种比较结构，差比结构是其中之一。“差比”是指两种事物或同一事物在性状、数量、属性特征方面经比较之后存在的高低、大小等差别。最早西方语言学家对印欧语中的比较结构等级进行了划分，提出了比较结构分为“原级”、“比较级”和“最高级”。Jespersen (1924)墙出了比较级系统，把比较等级分为髙等（Superiority)、平等（Equality)和低等（Inferiority)。其中，高等和低等均表示不相等，因此统称为差比。章振邦(2012) 出，英语中形容词和副词比较等级用于句子中表示两种事物或人之间的比较,形成了比较结构(Comparative Construction)英语比较结构最主要的有三种：as... as结构，more... than结构和the... most结构。其中“more... than"结构也称差比结构。韩国语言学家对比较概念具有明确的界定。在《国语大辞典》中把“比较”定义为，在两个或两个以上的事物间进行比较来考察它们之间的相似点和不同点。朝鲜语中差比句又称差等比较句文（?吾uim平呈），细分为三类：胜过差比句、不及差比句和极比差比句。朝鲜语差比结构表示比较主体和比较客体在其所拥有的性质上比较时，其结果不是相同，而是不同的比较句。全远红（2010)提出，差等比较句文是比较两个或两个以上事物在状态、性质、模样方面存在高低、优劣等的句子。被比较的事物间要拥有相同的属性，并且存在可比性。
差比结构的构成成分中比较值表示比较的结果，即人们进行比较后两种对象的性质或程度上的差别。因此，比较值普遍由形容词充当。崔健1" (2002)提出，比较句之所以成立，就是因为形容词自身内含着表示程度的语义。我们可以看出，形容词本身具有[+程度]的语义特征。然而，并不是所有的形容词都能够进入差比结构。按照词汇意义，英语形容词可以分为动态形容词(Dynamic Adjectives)和静态形容词(Stative Adjectives)。动态形容词带有动作含义，如：abusive，ambitious, brave, calm, careful, careless, clever, friendly, funny, generous, gentle, greedy, hasty, helpful等。静态形容词描写人或物的静态特征，却 tall, short, big, small, ugly, beautiful, shallow, deep, blue,white等。英语形容词还可以分为等级形容词(Gradable Adjectives)和非等级形容词(Non-gradable Adjectives)。所有的动态形容词和大多数静态形容词都是可等级的。因此，英语中能够进入差比结构的形容词都具有[+等级性]的语义特征。关于朝鲜语形容词的分类研究，最初研究的学者是到色洲（1937)。他对朝鲜语形容词分为：性状形容词、存在形容词、比较形容词、数量形容词、指示形容词等。南基心、高永根(1987)从意义层面对韩国语形容词进行了下位分类，可分为：性状形容词和指示形容词性状形容词再细分为感官形容词、评价形容词、比较形容词、心理形容词、存在形容词。从第四章分析中可见，比较值为副词与名词时,比较点的实现方式保持一致，均为隐性。然而，比较值为形容词时，其语义特征存在差异。当性质类形容词充当比较值时，英语比较点实现方式为隐性、朝鲜语为显性、隐性两种特征；当状态类形容词充当比较值时，英语为隐性、朝鲜语也是隐性。
比较是一种人类认识世界的基本方法，英朝语言中都存在表达“比较”概念的结构，差比结构是其中之一。本文在前人研究的基础上，通过句法、语义层面上的对比，较系统性地分析出英朝差比结构在句法结构上的共性与个性特征，进而找出导致这种差异的根本原因。首先，本文从句法层面上，对英朝差比结构进行了句法位置关系对比，得出以下结论：1)比较主体呢,与比较词CM的位置关系相同，均为呢1在句首、比较词在后；2)比较客体吧与CM的关系为英语吧在CM后，而朝鲜语吧在CM之前；3)比较值AP/PP/NP与CM为英语AP/PP/NP在CM之前，而朝鲜语在CM后，即句末；4)英语AP/PP/NP出现在吧与吧之间，而朝鲜语AP/PP/NP出现在吧和吧之后，充当谓语。其次，分析了英朝差比结构构成要素的句法制约关系，其结果为：1) NP./N&与CM之间的制约关系保持一致，即CM的出现，使吧进入差比结构，2) AP/PP/NP与CM之间的关系为，比较词的出现使结构中存在可比较的两个事物。因此，必然要进行高低、大小区分。英语中AP以比较级形式表示差异，朝鲜语则以原型在句末或以宾语形式体现；4)即1/呢2与呢3之间的关系为：英语中隐性NP3，而朝鲜语中既可以显性、也可以隐性。最后，探讨了比较词的句法属性，进而证明了英朝比较词的不同使差比结构内部构成要素在句法位置关系上存在差异。差比结构中，比较词与比较客体为一个整体，拆分或删除其中任一成分都无法表达差比概念。朝鲜语比较词“sa”为比较格助词，属于文法形态素，不能独立使用，需依附于比较客体，充当插入语成分，即附加语。而在英语差比结构中，我们可以对比较主体进行wh-提问，但对比较客体进行wh-提问时，需要“than who"整体移到句首位进行提问。根据wh-移位特征，wh-词与介词可以并移（pied-piping)。此外，比较主体与比较客体在人称、性、数、格上不一致，根据约束理论B原则，它们存在于同一个CP。由此推出，英语比较词“than”为介词。
Chapter One Literature Review
The Skopos theory is an approach to translation which was put forward by HansVermeer and developed in Germany in the late 1970s and which oriented a moresocio-cultural and functional concept of translation. Groundwork for a GeneralTheory of Translation is the major work on Skopos theory, co-authored by Vermeerand Katharina Reiss in 1984. Later on, Justa Holz-manttari put forward the translationaction and Nord proposed the “Function plus Loyalty”, making this theory more andmore scientific and complete.In Vermeer’s opinion, the source text, the effect of it on translation readers or thefunction assigned by the author does not determine the translation process much as theinitiator’s skopos of the target text. As a result, the skopos, to a large extent, lie on thetarget text receiver, his living situation and cultural background.According to Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, Skopos theory istraced back to the late 1970s in Germany. It shows that the study of translationapproach shifts from leading linguistic translation theories, equivalence especially, toa more functional concept. Instead of a mechanical process of transcoding, translationis view as special activities of human beings with purposes just like other humanactions. “Skopos” is a Greek word meaning the purpose of a translation.To put skopostheorie in the easiest way, it is “The end justifies the means”.
1.1 Historical Overview of Skopostheorie
Any theory has its own history of development. Actually, the functionaltranslation theory did not originate in the 20thCentury. Instead, it can be traced backto the time of Bible translation. At that time, Jerome and Martin Luther found thatthere were passages in the Bible that should be reproduced even to the letter and inother passages they thought it was much more meaningful to translate the sense ratherthan the content or to adjust the original to the target reader’s expectations. Later,Nida put forward Functional Equivalence.That is, “the message of the original text (will be) so transported into the receptorlanguage that the response of the receptor is essentially like that of the originalreceptors” (Nida & Taber, 1969: 200). In one of his books, Nida attaches greatimportance on the purpose of the translation, on the cultural implications of the targettext, and on both the translator and the receivers.
1.2 Basic Concepts of Skopostheorie
The above is the history of the development of Skopostheorie. Then what is itmainly about? What is the difference between this theory with “DynamicEquivalence” theory? Some basic concepts of Skopostheorie are presented in thefollowing.Translation brief looks upon the translator as a barrister, who has the basicinformation and instruction in hand and then freely carries them out in a way he seesfit. The initiator (who might also the translator), as a matter of fact, makes thedecision in the translation skopos by clarifying translation kind. It is undeniable thatfrom time to time the client discusses the translation skopos with the translator andthen reaches a consensus after negotiation, especially when the client is not quite sureabout what kind of text is needed. Normally, clients do not bother themselves to offerthe translator a clear translation brief. After all, they have no idea that a good briefspells a better translation since after all they are not experts in interculturalcommunication.The translation brief does not exactly inform the translator how to translate, whattranslation type to choose or what concrete translation strategy to use. All of them areentirely up to the translator’s responsibility and competence. If disagreement aboutsuitable target text happens between the client and the translator, the translator thenhas two choices: either turns down the assignment or refuses to take any responsibilityfor the function of the translation work and just does whatever the client asks for.In fact, in many cases, an experienced translator is able to infer the purposesfrom the translation situation itself.
Chapter Two “Two-way Landscape” of the NovelsTranslated by Lin Shu
2.1 An Overview of the Social and Historical Background in Late Qing Dynasty
The year of 1840 was a nightmare for China, when Britain broke the Chinese’sdream of “Celestial Empire” in Qing Dynasty. It is Opium War that forced China toopen its door to the imperialist countries from the West. After two-year fight, the warwas ended up with China’s defeat, along with a series of humiliating and unequaltreaties of Nanjing. More ports were opened to the West and the invasion becamemore and more severe. Military invasion along with commercial plunder and culturalinfluence from the imperialist countries combined to tear the dream apart and awakenthe intellectuals’ dream of Celestial Empire. The Chinese had to open their eyes andlook around the world. They found China was no longer the central kingdom, evenlagged behind the West. Learn from the West, or China would be reduced to thecolony of imperialist countries. As a result, there emerged the first tide of translation.With the slogan of “Learning what is advanced from the westerners to conquer them”,the intellectuals immersed themselves in the translation of the books about naturalscience, for example the military technology, machinery producing, etc.
2.2 The Translator---Lin Shu
After introducing the social and cultural background, this thesis is going to makea concise introduction to Lin Shu, including his life story and his translation purposes.Born in Fujian province, Lin Shu, alias Lin Qinnan , obtained the title ofJuren(举人) in 1882, but failed to pass the Imperial Examination for seven times. Hemade ends meet by writing and drawing. He was so into classical Chinese and had agood command of it. Lin Shu studied Records of the Grand Historian (《史记》) andRecords of Han Dynasty ( 《汉书》) for twenty-five years (陈平原，夏晓红 ,1989:120). That is why he mastered Classic Chinese in his translation. So manypeople admired him and followed his example. Guo Moruo once said Joan Haste wasperhaps the first foreign novel he has ever read. Although it was not of great value inthe history of world literature, yet once translated into Chinese by Lin Shu, the novelwas greatly refined.In the modern translation history of China, Lin Shu was as well-known as YanFu for the achievements in translation. Kang Youwei once praised him as a genius intranslation. There is an interesting story about the initiation of Lin Shu’s translationcareer. In 1897, Lin Shu’s wife passed away, which got Lin Shu in great sorrow.
CHAPTER THREE UNCLE TOM’S CABIN AND ITS AUTHOR .........29
3.1 AN INTRODUCTION TO HARRIET BEECHER STOWE .......29
3.2 UNCLE TOM’S CABIN......30
3.2.1 Its Content.....30
3.2.2 Literary Features ..........31
3.2.3 The Background....31
3.2.4 Intention of Writing.......32
3.3 INFLUENCE OF UNCLE TOM’S CABIN ......32
CHAPTER FOUR A CASE STUDY OF HEINU YU TIAN LU.....35
4.1 EVALUATION OF LIN SHU’S TRANSLATION METHODS ..........35
4.2 MISTRANSLATION IN HEINU YU TIAN LU .......36
Chapter Four A Case Study of Heinu Yu Tian Lu inthe Light of Skopostheorie
4.1 Evaluation of Lin Shu’s Translation Methods
Skopostheorie exhibits a new standard for translation criterion. Equivalence andfaithfulness are no longer the leading principles deciding the translators’ choices. Theoriginal is just an information provider. However, it is the translation purposes thatmatter in the whole translation process. When translating Uncle Tom’s Cabin, Lin Shutook full consideration of the national situation. Under the intention of saving ChinesePeople, Lin Shu adopted flexible methods to enlighten the public. He linked the fateof the blacks to the fate of the Chinese to encourage them to fight against theimperialist countries. So Lin Shu deleted all sentences like“Patience! Patience! ye whose hearts swell indignant at wrongs like these. Not onethrob of anguish, not one tear of the oppressed, is forgotten by the Man of Sorrows, theLord fo Glory. In his patient, generous bosom he hears the anguish of a world. Bearthou, like him, in patience, and labor in love; for sure as he is God” (Stowe, 2004:126)Coherence Rule is also called intra-textual rule. To put it simple, the translationworks must be accepted and understood in the target language culture. In Heinu YuTian Lu, Lin Shu used Classic Chinese and deleted many description paragraphs to fitChinese reading habits. Due to the dominant socio-historical background in earlytwentieth century, when cultural exchanges between China and English-speakingcountries were scare and most Chinese were ignorant about the Western culture, LinShu added many notes to culture-loaded words, such as the explanation of honeymoon(“蜜月者，西人娶妇时，挟其妇游历，经月而归”) (林纾，魏易, 1981:71).
It can be said that Skopostheorie is an innovation, which turns the attention oftranslation study from word-to-word equivalence to multiple factors in translationprocess. In the light of Skopostheorie, the translation skopos are the determinant in thechoice of translation strategies, and the canon for translation evaluation is whether thetarget text is adequate to the translation purposes or not.Traditional translation studies hold the standard of equivalence, so Lin Shu’sworks are criticized a lot due to unfaithfulness. This thesis, however, makes acomprehensive analysis of him, including his life story, the social and historicalbackground, the features and impact of his translation works. As to the “Two-wayLandscape”, this thesis analyzes this phenomenon by two kinds of mistranslations.That is, unintentional mistranslation and intentional mistranslation. It cannot bedenied that Lin Shu made so many mistakes that he shouldn’t have made. A quantityof examples was displayed. Nevertheless, more importantly, his methods to achievehis translation intention were more eye-catching. Taking the intention of cheering upthe Chinese into consideration, Lin Shu overstated the misery of the slaves anddeleted the happy moment and kind treatment of the slaves. Besides, Lin Shu thoughta lot of readers’ acceptance. From the very beginning, he translated in Classic Chineseand made adaptation according to Chinese traditional novel style. Then, he deletedsome religious content and made explanations of the rest culture-loaded words.
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background
The past two dacades have witnessed great interest in different genres ofacademic discourse, largely due to Swales’ pioneering and influential work on theintroductory section of research article as a genre. However, while much of theresearch has centered on academic texts in professional journals, longer academictexts such as research theses and dissertations by student writers have not receiveddue attention. Research into English-language theses and dissertations by L2 studentwriters is even less in the literature, although they are important means for novicestudent writers to issue their findings in a wider research community. Moreover, it isfound that L2 students have been experiencing great difficulty not only in “awarenessof the rhetorical and linguistic conventions of writing a thesis in English”, but also in how to write specific sections of a thesis in English. Informal interviews showed thatmany students have encountered difficulties at various levels when writing theirtheses (Ren, 2011, p. 2). Scholars indeed found out problems in student writers’ theses.For example, Hinkel (1997) examined indirectness in L2 academic writing by Chinese,Japanese and Korean admitted to graduate and postgraduate programs in Americanuniversities, and the results indicated that writers from these countries were in greaterfrequency than native writers in using rhetorical questions and tags, disclaimers anddenials, repetition, hedges and other types, which are not usually seen in formalwriting. She thus contended that “indirectness strategies are associated with spokendiscourse.” (p. 382)
1.2 Aims and Significance of the Study
The Introduction is an indispensable and key part in the thesis, as it offers therationales for a research project. However, just as Swales (1990, p. 12) put“[i]ntroductions are known to be troublesome, and nearly all academic writers admit having more difficulty with getting started of a piece of academic writing than theyhave with its continuation.” Though the introduction part of student thesis has drawnscholastic interest in the field of discourse analysis, most of the studies have beenconducted from the perspective of genre analysis, neglecting the fact that it is likely topossess oral clues due to various reasons in these otherwise formal academic writing.By analyzing a corpus of 60 introductory chapters accompanying MA theses bystudents in Chinese universities and their counterparts in American universities, thepresent study aims to compare the degrees of orality in their work from theperspectives of reader/writer visibility and lexico-syntactic performances. The resultsare expected to contribute to the research into English-language texts by Chineselearners and professsional writers in the fields of contrastive rhetoric and secondlanguage writing. Pedagogically, suggestions will also be offered for Chinese writingteachers and student writers in terms of academic style, especially the formality ofacademic genres.
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Spoken and Written Discourse
Both speaking and writing are channels for people to transmit message,exchange ideas and maintain social relationships. However, as two contrasting styles,they are different in a number of ways. In the past years, much research has beenconducted to define the differences between these two styles. For example,Mirahayuni (2002, p. 3) stated that “the Western philosophical tradition hasdenigrated writing as an inferior copy of the spoken word: speech is more immediateand transparent and draws on interior consciousness, whereas writing is dead andabstract”; Halliday (1996, p. 352) pointed out that written language creates a world of“things and structures, discontinuous, rigid and determinate, spoken language,however, creates a world that is moving and flowing, continuous, elastic andinternimate.” Other scholars such as Biber (1999), Carter and McCarthy (2006)proclaimed that spoken and written English differ in terms of grammar, vocabulary,formality and spontaneity. To be more specific, oral and written language differ notonly in medium of communication such as radio versus books, live speech versuswritten compositions, but also in different language use “which are conventionallyrelated to different contexts and different types of discourse.” (McCarthy & Carter,2004, p.8) In other words, spoken language and written language may differ at lexical,syntactical and discourse levels.
2.2 Advanced Learner Texts
Learner language has been a big concern in the field of linguistics and secondlanguage acquisition research, especially after the conception of interlanguage wasproposed. Interlanguage is an independent and structured linguistic system containingboth errors and non-errors, structures of the foreign language, those that are the resultsof transfer from learner’ s native language (L1) and even structures that do not exist ineither the learners’ L1 or the foreign language the learners are learning (Vi i , 2008).Therefore, the learner language is a third language, and remains “foreign sounding”even when it’s largely free of linguistic errors, which is especially true of advancedlearners’ writing. In recent years, thanks to corpus linguistics and computertechnology, just as Granger (1998, p. 8) pointed out, “the emergence of a corpus ofadvanced learner English has made it possible to come up with a new, more concreteapproach to the lexical features of learner language.”One of the areas of interest is on the close relationship between first languagetransfer and second language writing. For instance, Wang Wenyu and Wen Qiufang(2002) recorded the thinking process of 16 English majors when they wereperforming a English writing task, and the quantitative analysis revealed that L1thinking model took 24% in the whole thinking process. A further empirical study bythe same authors revealed that, opposed to the general opinion that the transfer of L1thinking becomes less transparent as learners’ second language proficiency improves,the L1 thinking model functions differently in various L2 thinking processes.Specifically, as the L2 proficiency progresses, L1 involvement in the writing output ofadvanced English learners reduces, but the same decline is not obvious in thequestioning process (Wang Wenyu & Wang Lifei, 2004).
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY....... 16
3.1 Subjects and Corpus........16
3.2 Research Design....17
CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ........... 27
4.1 Writer/reader Visibility .............27
4.2 Lexical Measure---Vocabulary Frequency....31
4.3 Syntactic Measures .........35
CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS.......... 44
5.1 Summary of the Research .........44
5.2 Implications of the Study ..........45
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions .....46
CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Writer/reader Visibility
In Petch-Tyson’s research, each feature of the writer/reader visibility wasanalyzed based on per 10,000 words, while in the corpus under investigation,improvements have been made by analyzing the corpus based on per 20,000 words ofeach feature in order to maintain more accurate and reliable results. The two corporaare possessed using the Microsoft Word and the results are presented as follows inTable 4.1.As can be seen from the table, the situations are:1. In terms of the first-second pronouns, generally speaking, the tendency ofemploying the first-second pronouns in MA thesis between the two groups is almostthe same (55.52 per 20,000 words vs. 56.67 per 20,000 words), which is differentfrom what Petch-Tyson (1998) and Wen Qiufang, Ding Yanren and Wang Wenyu(2003) have found that Chinese English learners are in a greater tendency in using thefirst-second pronouns in their writing compared with the English native speakers.2. With regard to the using of the first person singular pronouns and secondperson pronouns, American students show much higher tendency than Chinese writers,which is in contrast to Petch-Tyson and Wen Qiufang, Ding Yanren and WangWenyu’s findings; and only in using the first person plural pronouns do Chinesestudents have a much greater frequency than American students.
The findings of the present study may provide a general picture of the tendencyof orality in the theses composed by Chinese and American postgraduates, but thereare a number of limitations which must be noted before any conclusions are drawn.To begin with, the corpus in this study is limited in quantity to make validgeneralization, which means that the findings of this study need to be further testedwith larger corpora. Besides, the corpus of this study is limited to the field of appliedlinguistics, so whether the findings is applicable to other disciplines needs to be investigated in the future. What’ more, this comparative study is made only betweenChinese students and American students, the situation of orality of students from otherL1 backgrounds can be a concern in the later researches.Secondly, though certain reasons are given when reporting the findings, yetthey are far from enough to explain the causes of orality in Chinese students’ thesiswriting. It is hoped that in the future, more empirical studies will be carried out tofocus on the reasons that may cause orality in written discourse.Thirdly, the current study has put its focus on the orality in the introductorysection of thesis. However, orality is also likely to manifest itself prominently in otherparts of academic texts, especially the Discussion and Conclusion. Thus, studies ofother parts to detect oral clues are in need.
Chapter 1 Literature Review
1.1 Review on Riffaterre’s Literary Semiotics
Riffaterre defines the text as a linguistic entity, and considers it as the factual,concrete starting point, and the most basic, elemental feature of literature. His semioticstheory is to define the universals of literariness reflected by the poetic texts. (Riffaterre,1981c) In this sense, his semiotics is of literary semiotics, which considers the literaryphenomenon as the linguistic and semiotic artifact, and studies the dynamic processesand products of signification and communication of it. (Veivo, 2009) Literary semiotics“overlaps especially with poetic and aesthetic semiotics”, and it “is not always clearlydistinguished from text semiotics as a whole”. It encompasses two directions oftraditional scholarly discourse about literature: it is a theory or a group of theories ofliterature; and in its application it becomes a methodof interpretation. (N th, 1990)Just as it has been pointed out by Jonathan Culler (1981), Riffaterre’s semioticsdeparts from two axioms: 1) poetic signification is indirect; 2) the unit of meaning inpoetry is the finite, closed entity of the text.The first axiom can be seen in the distinction Riffaterre draws between the notion“meaning” and “significance”. He calls it “meaning when words signify through theirone-on-one relationship with nonverbal referent”; “significance when these same wordssignify through their relationship with structural invariants”. (Riffaterre, 1980a) Theindividual signs within a poem may have a certain meaning on the mimetic level; but onthe level of semiosis, they combine to give it a quite different significance. He contendsthat the linguistic mechanisms involved in transmitting poetic significance, i.e. thesemiosis differ qualitatively from those of non-poetic. From the perspective of stylistics,as Selden and Widdowson (1993) point out, Riffaterre agrees with the Russian Formalistsin regarding poetry as a special use of language.
1.2 Review on the Previous Studies about the Four Quartets
The modern long poem2Four Quartets is a sequence of four poetic texts writtenby the Nobel Prize laureate Thomas Sterns Eliot. The first quartet Burnt Norton waspublished in 1936 as a single poem in Collected Poems 1909-1935, and then modeled on Burnt Norton, in a span of seven years there come East Coker in 1939，The DrySalvages in 1940 and Little Gidding in 1942 in sequence. In 1944, Eliot put the fourpoems together under the title Four Quartets and published it as a single piece.This poem is generally regarded as “the final fruits of a lifetime of creative endeavoron Eliot’s part as a poet.” (Murphy, 2007) Both critics and Eliot himself agree that FourQuartets constitutes his best work. On one hand, this poem manifests consummatelyEliot’s adroit craftsmanship as a poet; on the other hand, it incarnates perfectly theessence his literary and poetic theory on his part as an avatar of the New Criticism. Thisultimate poetic masterwork of the poet is also esteemed as the inaugural work of LateModernism for in this poem for Eliot has “provided his generation of a model ofwholeness in the still point”.1(Woodward, 1980)Due to the great achievement the Four Quartets has accomplished and its specialposition in literature history, there have been studies on the poem across a variety ofapproaches upon a wide range of topics. In the following two sections, we’ll conduct ageneral review on the previous studies about the poem.
Chapter 2 Research Design
2.1 Research Objectives
This dissertation has set up the following objectives:
1) To testify the applicability of Riffaterre’s literary semiotic theory, especially forits power on analysis of the modern long poem;
2) To analyze the text production of the Four Quartets in the scope of literarysemiotics;
3) To serve as a reference for the studies on Michael Riffaterre’s theory and the FourQuartets, and ultimately for the studies on the literary semiotics and the modern longpoems.
2.2 Research Content
This research intends to explore the following research questions:
1) How can the poem be interpreted as a unitary whole from the perspective ofRiffaterre’s semiotics?
2) How can the process of text production of the Four Quartets be interpreted by therules of expansion and conversion and the intertextual model developed by Riffaterre?
Chapter 3 Description of the Four Quartets......28
3.1 Description of Burnt Norton .........28
3.2 Description of East Coker......29
3.3 Description of The Dry Salvages..........30
3.4 Description of Little Gidding........30
Chapter 4 Analysis of the Four Quartets..........31
4.1 Analysis of the Expansions....32
4.2 Analysis of the Conversions..........39
4.3 Intertextual Analysis.......45
Chapter 4 Analysis of the Four Quartets
As it has been mentioned in the previous chapter, at the beginning of the poem, Eliotquotes two epigrams from Greek philosopher Heraclitus. These two prefatory quotationsare also taken as the point of departure by this study for the following two reasons. Firstly,the epigrams present themselves as the ungrammatical signs in the poem. As theirparadoxical nature indicating, they can not be interpreted at the mimetic level. What’smore, in appearance they bear little relevance to the poem as a whole. Secondly, thequotations function in accordance with Riffaterre’s notion of interpretant for they indicatethe existence of intertext. This can be seen in light of Riffaterre’s view of the title asinterpretant. According to him, titles can function as dual signs, when they introduce apoem and at the same time refer to a text outside of it. By referring to another text thetitles point to where the significance of the poems they crown can be found. The twotexts are related to the signs in the same structure. (Riffaterre, 1978)As it can be seen from the epigrams, Heraclitus’ doctrine is constructed and oftenexpressed in a paradoxical sense. In fact, just as Long (1998) points out that the womb ofHeraclitus’ cosmic cycle and the rest of his thinking is the paradoxical doctrine of “unity-in-opposites”.To Heraclitus, the ultimate truth is that “things taken together are whole and notwhole, brought together and brought apart, in tune and out of tune, out of all things therecomes a unity and out of unity all things”. (qtd. from Preus 2007) This means that farfrom excluding opposition and change from itself, the unity depends on changes andopposites, “since universe is in a continuous state of dynamic equilibrium”. (Long, 1999)The phenomenon that everything in this world relies on and implies its paring conformsto the ultimate rational formula, i.e. logos— unity out of change and opposition. Therewould be no day if the night does never fall; no feeling of heat could be told if nothingfeels cold, “just as a river will lose its identity if it ceases to flow”. (Ibid.)
The conclusion of this study is stated in the following three major points.Firstly, the prefatory quotations of Heraclitus’ epigrams can serve as theinterpretants facilitating and guiding the process of interpretation. The central hypogramcould be hypothetically deduced in a phrase “at the still point turning the world”, whichsynthesizes the Heraclitean cosmic cycle of four elements as well as the model of thispoem.Secondly, the whole poem is developed through expansion and conversion of thefour elements implied by the epigrams. Each quartet involves expanding and convertingat least one of the four principle elements or related symbols. Being structured inaccordance with the model deduced from Heraclitus’ cosmic cycle of the flux whereinthe elements are transmuting, every five parts of each quartet is affiliated to the uniquetheme of that quartet, and the whole four quartets are interwoven together as one unitarypiece. Furthermore, to maintain the accordance with the model, the extensiveintertextualities between this poetic text and the previous ones are varied to a certainextent.Thirdly, the poetic text taken as a unitary whole, the paradoxical expressions couldbe reconciled under the hypogram and the model from it. The paradoxical expressionscould be taken as the reflection of the dual nature of the elements within the ever-transmuting flux. In the poem, the artificial opposites exist just at the mimetic level; atthe level of semiosis, the opposites could be explained by the process of expansion andconversion.
Chapter 1 General Theory of Translation Aesthetics
As soon as literary works are talked about, beauty or aesthetics instantly comes topeople’s minds. As far as the translation work is concerned, it requires the translators notonly convey the original meaning of the source text as exactly as possibly, but also payspecial attention to the diction of the target text, so as to produce such a beautiful andnatural target text as the source text, and consequently it becomes of appropriateness andquite of necessity to render Translation Aesthetics Theory as guidance while translating.The translation theories experience a long historical development both at home andabroad. A retrospect into the development reveals there exists a close relationshipbetween translation and aesthetics. The historical review of aesthetics origins expressedin Chinese and western translation theory will be stated, reviewed and commented in thischapter with some relative studies on Translation Aesthetics.
Aesthetics appears in history as a philosophical concept. It involves many elements.Different philosophers conduct studies from different aspects. No matter from whatperspective they do research, the three elements, aesthetic object, esthetic subject andaesthetic activity are the main research subjects.In 1750, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten(1714-1762), the German philosopher,published his book named Aesthetics, where the close relationship between aesthetics andphilosophy is expressed and the definition of aesthetics is stated as the science of thebeauty and the study of human perception or feeling, including human affection,aspiration, imagination, intuition and fantasy. According to the book Aesthetics, threeelements are involved in the study, which are respectively aesthetic object, aestheticsubject and aesthetic activity.
1.2 Translation Aesthetics
Aesthetics entered the field of western translation studies at the early stage. Itexperiences a time span of about 1800 years. During the period, translation theory islinked to literary aesthetics.The representatives in the west are Marcus Tullius Cicero at the early stage. LaterMartin Luther and Johann Wolfgang Von Goethe also translated and conducted studiesaccording to the principles of aesthetics.It is a general acknowledgement that Tullius Cicero and Quintus Horatius Flaccusstarted the western translation theories in ancient age. Tullius Cicero, serving as a famousancient Roman Philosopher, is generally regarded as the primogenitor of westerntranslation theory. He run against the word-for-word translation and preferred themeaning-for-meaning translation. Quintus Flaccus Horace used aesthetic criteria intranslation and promoted it. The views of Tullius Cicero and Quintus Flaccus Horacegreatly influenced the successive translators of later generations. A very important part ofthe history of western translation theory is the Classical Period, whose root is deeply inthe ancient Greek culture. During the Classical Period, the principles that all thetranslators followed was set up by such ancient Greek sages as Thales, Herakleitus, Platoetc in their works. To a great degree, these ancient philosophers and their aestheticthoughts influenced the western translation theory.
Chapter 2 David Copperfield and its Chinese Versions
2.1 David Copperfield
Created in the late 1840s, David Copperfield came out as a book with thepublication in series from 1849 to 1850 and it is regarded as the dearest child by theauthor Charles Dickens himself.Regarded as one of the greatest critical realist novelists during the Victorian Time,Charles Dickens might be the most popular writer of England and is deemed to be one ofthe first western writers introduced into China in the early times. Born on February in1812 in Portsmouth, Charles Dickens did not receive much education in his childhoodbecause his family fortune declined very much. But he did not depress. He made greatendeavor through poverty and such experience endowed him with a positive spirit to lifeand kept him up in all the misery. In his life time, he altogether wrote 14 novels andmany short stories, essays and plays, among which David Copperfield, on the one handwas his personal favorite, on the other, was often regarded as the shiniest star by critics.In the year of 1870, he died of a fatal stroke.
2.2 Chinese Versions of David Copperfield and Their Translators
Since its appearance in1849, David Copperfield has been translated into manyforeign languages, including Chinese and enjoys a great world-wide reputation. As one ofthe first western novels introduced into China in the early times, David Copperfield istranslated into Chinese for several times since the beginning of the 20thcentury. In thispaper, three different Chinese versions are mentioned, which are respectively translatedby Lin Shu, Zhang Guruo and Zhuang Yichuan.Serving as the herald of the advent of western literature in China, Lin Shu is one ofthe most important forerunners of literary translation in China. He introduced many newtechniques for Chinese writers to improve their literary creation and to help Chinesereaders know more about foreign literature.Lin Shu was born in Minxian county Fu Jian province in 1852. Child as he was, heread many ancient Chinese masterpiece, such as The Four Books (The Great Learning,The Doctrine of the Mean, The Confucian Analects, and The Works of Mencius) and TheFive Classics (The Book of Songs, The Book of History, The Book of Changes, The Bookof Rites and The Spring and Autumn Annals). He became a parentless child but he nevergive up reading. Later as an adult he participated the examination of different kinds inorder to become a government official, because whoever can pass the imperial courtexamination, can work as governmental employee in ancient China.
Chapter 3 Analysis of Reproduction of Aesthetics in Three Chinese Versions..........27
3.1 Aesthetics of Sound in Translation.......28
3.1.3 Reduplicated Words...........33
3.2 Aesthetics of Form in Translation........36
3.2.3 Four-character Phrases.......41
3.3 Aesthetics of Meaning in Translation...........43
3.3.1 Image Aesthetics .......43
3.3.2 Ideorealm Aesthetics .........45
Chapter 3 Analysis of Reproduction ofAesthetics in Three Chinese Versions
When bilingual translators translate literary works, their task is undoubtedly toconvey the meaning, form and beauty of the source text because the aesthetics, generallyspeaking, is expressed in the meaning and form. Consequently the successful translatorsmust be someone, who can be an expert at finding the aesthetics and reproducing it in thetarget text. However, the bilingual translators naturally confront with the challenge ofhow to deal with adaptation and fidelity, over-translation and under-translation,translatability and untranslatability and accuracy and beauty. No matter how hardship thetranslators experience during the translation, there would be a common phenomena, thatthe aesthetics is lost or undertranslated. Sometimes the translators must neglect someminor elements to keep the original aesthetics in his translation. A good translation is aperfect expression of three beauties in accordance with Xu Yuanchong. Therefore thetranslators have to struggle for the maintenance of original aesthetics in the translatedversion, and then the reproduction of the original aesthetic features becomes theconscious action during their translation and their aesthetic meaning plays an importantrole.Generally speaking, all human beings can commune with one another just becausethey are gifted with the same mind, which naturally functions the same. According to LiuZhongde, no matter what races human beings may belong to, for the possession of thesame nature, world and universe, they all have the power of thinking to logically reasonand have the feelings to express love or hatred, pleasure or anger, joy or sorrow (刘重德,2001:128).
The whole essay is a study on aesthetic presentation in the original text and itsrepresentation in the translated version of David Copperfield. Serving as the first twoparts, the introduction and literature review outline the theoretical framework,background information and previous studies on the aesthetics in translation. The secondpart is the detailed analysis on David Copperfield and its Chinese versions and theirtranslators as well as their translation features. In this part, the previous researches onDavid Copperfield and its Chinese versions are also reviewed in order that the betterresearch can be conducted on this basis and a good lesson can be learned. The third partis the most important one, where many examples are rendered to analyze the aestheticelements presented in the original text and represented in the target text and the author’sthoughts and ideas are expressed on the basis of the typical examples specially selectedfrom David Copperfield from the perspective of sound, form and meaning aesthetics.The thesis is designed to analyze and research David Copperfield and its Chineseversions, translated by Lin Shu, Zhang Guruo and Zhuang Yichuan, from the perspectiveof translation aesthetics. In order to introduce a fresh insight into the study on Chineseversions of David Copperfield, the aesthetic representation are examined in the threetranslated versions from two aspects: aesthetic representation of the aesthetic valuesexpressed by the form, that refers to the reproduction of the beauty of sound and form;and aesthetic representation of aesthetic values expressed non-formally, which refers tothe representation of image and ideorealm. Apart from that, it is also examined how thetranslators try their utmost to make the original aesthetics and the target aesthetics reachharmony in the representative process of aesthetics. Through the analysis of threetranslated versions, it is found that the translation of literature works should start withappreciating the source aesthetics, and then reproducing the aesthetics. Whether thetranslator can succeed in reproducing the original aesthetics in the translated versiondepends on his aesthetic feeling, aesthetic experience, and then his literaryaccomplishments and language ability and so on.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
Language is of great significance for us, and just as Martin Heidegger (1971: 215) hassaid, “Language is the home of the Being. In its housing man is at home.” We are all users oflanguage. What language exactly is, the understanding of which is helpful for us to furtherunderstand language learning. In The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language, David Crystal(1997: 430) defines language from various perspectives, and summarizes the basic features oflanguage: the function of communication and self-expression, the system of sound, symbolsor written symbols, and the systematic and conventional use of the system. Therefore, forlanguage learners, especially for foreign language learners, the essence of language learning isto develop one’s ability to use language communicatively, which is the communicativecompetence with pragmatic competence as an essential component. Furthermore, with theincreasing economic globalization and close international communication, the cultivation offoreign talents pays more attention to the development of communicative competence.The phrase ‘Communicative Competence’ is put forward by Dell Hymes (1972), whichcontains both the tacit knowledge of language and the ability to use it. And the proposal ofcommunicative competence is against the distinction between linguistic competence andlinguistic performance by Chomsky who ignores social and cultural factors in the languageuse. The core point of communicative competence is appropriateness, which also involvesother three parameters: possibility, feasibility and effectiveness.Pragmatic competence, as an indispensable part of communicative competence, relates tothe ability to appropriately use language in dynamic contexts, including the ability of handlingspeech acts, the ability of using different conversational structures to achieve successfulcommunication and so on.
1.2 Research Significance
This thesis is to examine EFL learners’ pragmatic competence from the speech act ofrequesting. And the subjects are the senior high school students from Shandong province.Their pragmatic competence will be presented in the use of speech act of requesting. Theemphasis of the thesis is to explore the distributions of the three request strategies among thesenior high school students. This thesis also tries to explore how the senior high schoolstudents perform requesting sequence and factors influencing the selection of requeststrategies.This thesis is about study of senior high school English learners’ pragmatic competencein the speech act of requesting. First of all, it can enrich the empirical studies on bothpragmatic competence and speech act of requesting to some degree. In previous studies, manyscholars have conducted studies on the advances English learners, such as the college students,adults and so on. And subjects in this study are senior high school students, whichcompensates for the present studies’ deficiency to some degree. Moreover, this study shedsome light on the English learners, especially the senior high school students. In other words,they can have an overall look at their English learning. And the thesis arouses their pragmaticawareness and helps them to better learn a foreign language. Last but not least, languageteachers can also acquire some pedagogical implications and arouse their attention to theinstruction of pragmatic competence.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Speech Act Theory
Speech act theory is the first complete and important pragmatic theory, which is firstproposed by Austin and then improved by his student Searle. Since 1952, courses titled Wordsand Deeds has been given by Austin in Oxford. In 1955, the lecture How to Do Things withWords was given in Harvard, when Austin’s thoughts firstly gained wide popularity andbecame a significant research issue in pragmatics. In 1969, Speech Acts: An Essay in thePhilosophy of Language written by Searle was published. From then on, ‘Speech Act Theory’has become its formal name.In the middle of the 1900s, Austin observes that “the uttering of the sentence is, or is apart of, the doing of an action” (1962: 5). For example, “Close the door, please.” This is notjust a sequence of meaningful language symbols, but in fact it is asking someone to performthe action of “closing the door.” Such an utterance cannot be said to be true or false, which iscalled performatives and is used to do things or perform acts. For example, “I promise toreturn the book tomorrow” and “I warn you not to be so rude next time.” In the aboveutterances, the speaker actually performs the speech act of promise and warning whilespeaking. And constatives can be true or false, which are to make assertions, statements ordescriptions. For example: “Changchun is in Jilin province.” It aims to state the fact thatChangchun is a city of Jilin province. Then Austin (1962) makes further explorations ofperformatives and constatives. He emphasizes that performative has to meet the felicityconditions under which utterances can be proper to be actions.
2.2 Speech Act of Requesting
Searle (1979) refines Austin’s classifications and divides speech acts into five types:assertives, directives, commissives, expressives and declaratives. Directives refer to thespeech acts that the speaker tries to get the hearer to do something. In daily communication,advice, commands, orders, questions and requests all belong to the speech act of directives(Huang, 2009: 107). In the study, the author defines requesting as directives. That is, thespeaker tries to get the hearer to do something. And Searle’s felicity conditions (1969: 66) forrequesting are as follows:In CCSARP, the basic structure of requesting is summarized as: alerter, supportive move,head act, though each component can be omitted. For example: “Mary, I was ill yesterday. Doyou think I could borrow your notes? I promise to return them tomorrow.” The first name“Mary” is alerter, serving to arouse hearer’s attention;“I’m ill yesterday” is preposedsupportive move, explaining the reason for the requesting (grounder); “do you think” isinternal modification (downgrader), linked to the head act to soften the impositive force;“Could I borrow your notes” is head act, used to perform the speech act of requesting; and “Ipromise to return them tomorrow” is postposed supportive move (promise of reward), tryingto increase the likelihood of the hearer’s compliance with the speaker’s request. It can beconcluded that requesting concerns two aspects: one is speaker’s intention of requesting viasome utterances; the other is the consequential effect of the intention. The hearer may accept,refuse or ignore it.
Chapter Three Methodology ...... 24
3.1 Research Questions ...... 24
3.2 Subjects .......... 24
3.3 Instrument....... 25
3.4 Data Collection...... 26
Chapter Four Results and Discussion ..... 27
4.1 Request Sequence......... 28
4.2 Distributions of Request Strategies .......... 34
4.2.1 Direct Strategies .... 34
4.2.2 Conventionally Indirect Strategies .... 36
4.2.3 Non-conventionally Indirect Strategies.... 37
4.3 Factors Affecting Selection of Request Strategies ........ 39
Chapter Five Conclusion ..... 45
5.1 Major Findings ...... 45
5.2 Implications.... 46
5.3 Limitations and Suggestions ...... 48
Chapter Four Results and Discussion
Before data analysis, it is necessary to firstly present the learning background of thestudents’ English study.The research subjects are all in Grade 3 in the senior high school. Though the schoolwhere they study is the best one in town, it absolutely lags behind schools in other big cities.For example, though every classroom is equipped with a computer, it isn’t connected to theInternet. Though there are two English classes on average every day, not an oral English classis arranged, let alone appoint a foreign teacher who can help practice oral English with thestudents. Through the conversation with the teacher, the author finds that the English gradesare still emphasized, which lead to emphasis on grammar knowledge rather than the practicaluse of English as a language for the English teachers and students. Such a learningenvironment is not convenient and beneficial for their development of pragmatic competencein English.According to the analysis of background questionnaire, 74% students began to learnEnglish when they were in Grade three in their primary school. That is to say, they havelearned English for almost nine years so far. Theoretically speaking, the students should havepossessed certain communicative ability in English. And in terms of most students’ choices,the average time they spend on English every day except the English classes is within onehour. Only 34% students say they would spend one to two hours every day in learning English.Almost nobody would learn English every day for more than three hours. Therefore, theirEnglish learning time after class is relatively limited and most of them depend on the Englishclasses to learn English. What’s more, among the research subjects, only four students haveever been to the English-speaking countries. Yet, they only went there for a short-time tour. Asto their English learning methods, most students would choose original film, TV, and Internetinformation to help improve their English, as is shown in Figure 4.1. As far as they areconcerned, they do put the everyday English conversation and communication to a highposition. At last, most students regard their English level as neither too excellent nor too bad.In a word, the English learning background is not convenient for them and Englishpragmatic competence is always neglected by the students and the teachers.
At last, this chapter presents a general summary of the whole study. The authorsummarizes major findings on the basis of the research questions, suggests some implications,and points out the limitations and suggestions for further study.This study aims to explore the senior high school students’ pragmatic competence inrequesting. Pragmatic competence concerns the ability to properly interpret others’ intentionand to appropriately express one’s own intention in terms of certain social rules and certaincultural contexts. And producing appropriate speech acts in certain context is one of the mostsignificant aspects of pragmatic competence. Therefore, the author tries to investigate therequest sequence, the distributions of request strategies and the factors affecting selection ofrequest strategies. On the basis of the analysis and discussion in the previous chapters, hereare the major findings:Firstly, when senior high school students perform the requesting, their request sequenceis composed of alerter, supportive move and head act, which answers to what Blum-Kulka etal. have found in CCSARP. However, not all the students make request through all the threesteps. Alerters and supportive moves are not compulsory components; especially supportivemoves have the lowest use frequency; and head act, as the core in the request sequence, isalmost used in each situation. The use of alerters and supportive moves relates to socialfactors to some degree, like social distance, the relative power and so on.
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Research Rationale
Voice, as a common linguistic phenomenon, has long engaged the attention of manylinguists from different schools. In the traditional grammar, Quirk, et al (1973:801) definesvoice as a grammatical category and the action of a sentence is viewed in either of two waysthat reveal the same facts. As for Transformational-Generative (TG) Grammar, passive voicein syntax is only a derived form of the active voice, expressing the same meaning as the activeone. Furthermore, it is taken for granted that the passive voice is semantically synonymouswith its active counterpart by most EFL learners as well as teachers, being congruent with theviews of TG Grammar.However, Paul (1966) refutes TG as a bumble in voice conception. If we turn toCognitive Grammar (Langacker, 1987; Goldberg, 1995/2006) for the construal ofactive-passive alteration, the passive structure is regarded as a construction characterized by aspecial pragmatic meaning, and it is different from its active structure. What is more,Goldberg (1995: 45) holds that a passive structure is not derived out of its active structure viatransformation. The “choice” of passive structure over its correlative active is meaning-basedand crucially complies with to the dynamic construal of the participant roles involved in theevent depicted. According to the view of Cognitive Grammar, Construal Operations is one ofthe most widely used cognitive operations that determine the way language is used. AsConstrual Operation Theory holds, the construal of one’s mind in language would pick on theproper structural possibility among different possible alternatives. The term “construal” refersto the mental process of selecting one conceptual expression instead of another when thespeaker thinks of a particular scene and expresses it in language. Therefore, the passivestructure and its active counterpart “represent alternative construal of the profiledevent”(Langacker, 1990:13).
1.2 Research Objectives
To date, many linguists, from home and abroad, have studied the semantic asymmetry inthe English voice. Their researches challenge and overturn the previous common concept thatactive and passive sentences are synonymous, making semantic asymmetry a worthwhilesubject for scholars from different schools. However, many of the studies mainly focus on thedescription and rough illustration on such phenomenon. Comprehensive classification andin-depth analysis are seldom touched upon. In addition, the previous studies rarely concern L2acquisition of semantic asymmetry between active and passive sentences by Chinese EFLlearners.In light of the effectiveness of cognitive linguistic theory in the pedagogical application(Langacker, 2001; Taylor, 2002), the on-going study adopts a cognitive approach which isoperated within the theoretical framework of Construal Operation Theory in the teaching ofsemantic asymmetry in the English voice from the perspective of the grammatical recipient(i.e., Recipient Semantic Asymmetry, hereinafter “RSA”) and is intended to investigate theeffect of the cognitive approach on L2 acquisition of the RSA in the English voice by ChineseEFL learners.It is expected that this study will function as an inspiration for Chinese instructors toimprove the current teaching approach and embark on adopting a more efficient teachingapproach on L2 acquisition of the RSA in the English voice. It is hoped that this study will beconductive to the further research in the field of L2 acquisition of the semantic asymmetry inthe English voice.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Different Approaches to the Study of English Voice
Emerging in the late 17thand early 18thcenturies, the traditional grammar is prescriptivein formulating grammatical rules and imposing the rules on language users (Radford, 1997).Grammar is viewed as a key to all the linguistic phenomena from which the traditionalgrammarians attempt to summarize the grammar rules. They focus on the accuracy ofexpression and production and with no tolerance for language errors. Thus the traditionalgrammar gains popularity in the studies of English grammar and exerts great influence onmany textbook writers (Cook, 2000).In the traditional grammar, voice consists of both active voice and passive voice. Thedifference between in active voice and passive voice is simply a matter of syntax; theypossess the same meaning (Langacker, 2002). The traditional grammarians regard the twovoices as semantically equivalent: the passive voice is just a derived form from thecorresponding active voice. In their view, the voice is a grammatical category of the verb andshows the relationship between the subject and the predicate. In an active voice, the subject isthe grammatical agent of the action, while in the passive voice the subject is the grammaticalrecipient of the action.However, traditional grammar fails to provide guidelines or principles for voice choosingand use in the communication. In addition, traditional grammar overlooks the phenomenon ofsemantic asymmetry in the English voice.
2.2 Studies on the Teaching of English Voice
In this section, the studies on the teaching of the English voice are introduced both athome and abroad.In foreign language teaching, the English voice is mainly taught as a kind of grammarthrough form-focused instruction and repetitious practice. Generally, Grammar-TranslationMethod as a deductive method is an effective means in grammar teaching (Rechards &Rodgers, 1986).Nevertheless, Grammar-Translation Method hammers at explaining the rules oflanguage system to learners, which leads to a consequence that learners equipped with goodknowledge of the target language fail to use the language properly in communication.In 1980s, with the emergence of Communicative Language Teaching Approach,attention was directed to interaction as both the means and the ultimate goal of languagestudy. The communicative method holds that grammar can be acquired automatically as longas meaningful communication is provided. In this way, the English voice is supposed to beacquired through meaningful communications without much or intense instruction. Eventhough learners instructed by this approach are motivated to use the language appropriately incommunicative situations, teachers and other education experts still find that it is difficult totailor syllabuses to all kinds of possible communications, resulting in difficult and arduouswork in the teaching design and teaching process.
Chapter 3 Theoretical Framework......... 14
3.1 Construal Operation Theory .... 14
3.2 Croft and Cruse’s Classification of Construal Operations .... 15
3.3 Cognitive Analysis of the RSA in the English Voice......... 20
Chapter 4 The Empirical Study........ 28
4.1 Research Hypotheses ..... 28
4.2 The Empirical Study...... 29
4.3 The Summary ..... 34
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion..... 35
5.1 The Results of the Pretest.... 35
5.2 The Results of the Immediate Posttest ....... 36
5.3 The Results of the Delayed-Posttest ..... 38
5.4 Comparisons Among the Pretest, the Immediate Posttest... 40
5.5 Discussion ..... 44
5.6 The Summary ..... 46
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion
This chapter outlines the statistical analysis of the data collected from the participants.First of all, the results of the pretests, the immediate posttest and the delayed posttest areprovided. Then, comparisons among the pretests, the immediate posttest and the delayedposttest are made. Last, research questions concerning the effects of the traditional approachand the cognitive approach to L2 acquisition of the RSA in the English active-passivealternations are answered based on the data analysis.
5.1 The Results of the Pretest
As illustrated above, the participants’ acquisition of the RSA in the English voice wasmeasured in the form of the test consisting of grammaticality-judgment &error-correctiontasks and multiple-choice tasks. One correct answer was awarded one point and a wrong onezero points. Thus the total score of the test was 21 points, and anyone who could achieve 16points was regarded to have acquired the RSA in English voice. Table 5.1 listed the scores ofthe pretest from the two groups.Table 5.1 shows the means and the SD (standard deviation) of the scores of theparticipants on L2 acquisition of the RSA. The statistics also indicate that the participants inthe CG and the EG failed to acquire the RSA in the English voice for the means of the twogroups are only around 8 out of 21.Then an independent-sample t-test was applied to explore whether there was a significantdifference existing between the two groups’ performance on L2 acquisition of the RSA. Theresults are presented in Table 5.2. In line with the results, there was not a significantdifference existing between the EG and the CG in terms of their current knowledge of theRSA in the English voice, because p = .192 > .05.
This present study intends to examine the effects of the cognitive approach on L2acquisition of the RSA in the English voice by Chinese EFL learners. By comparing with thetraditional approach, three hypotheses are proposed. On the whole, the outcomes of thepresent empirical research positively answer the research questions and are consistent with thecorresponding hypotheses. The major findings are summarized as follows:First, it was found that (as in the first hypothesis) the traditional approach could facilitatethe learning of the RSA in the English voice in some degree by Chinese EFL learners in theshort run and in the long run. Though facilitated the learning to some extent, the traditionalapproach did not impel the students to the mastery of the knowledge either in the short time orin the long time. In addition, the shortcomings of the long-term retention of the knowledgewere also exposed in the experiment.Second, as for the second and third hypotheses, it was discovered that the cognitiveapproach, by comparison with the traditional approach, had positive effects and producedgreater positive effects on L2 acquisition of the RSA in the English voice by Chinese EFLlearners in both the short run and the long run. The participants who were instructed by thecognitive approach had a superior progress in learning the RSA in the English voice and hadacquired the phenomenon to the standard line as stipulated. In other words, the cognitiveapproach was consistently found to be more facilitative than the traditional approach to L2acquisition of the RSA in English voice.
Chapter One Introduction
This study aims at examining academic homepages from the perspective of a twodimensional genre analysis.Personal homepage, the elements of which effectively present the quality of theindividuals, is an effective method to advertise individual. As a result, more and morescholars in universities seize the opportunities to promote their unique images by building anacademic homepage, with the purpose of attracting other scholars and students in the samefield. At the same time, modern communication technologies enable websites to become anessential tool for universities to present and promote their identities. Therefore, universitiesare also trying to apply academic homepages of scholars as advertising strategies in theirwebsites. The university becomes a commodity and its prospective students becomeconsumers. Consequently, academic homepages of scholars run by the university not onlypresent themselves, but also promote the university. Therefore, this study seeks to discoverhow personal academic homepages of scholars are managed to achieve the promotionalfunction online in the context of university.
1.2 Rationale of the Present Study
There are several reasons contributing to the study of academic homepages from theperspective of a two dimensional genre analysis.First of all, academic homepage of scholar is a genre in scholarly life which enjoyspopularity home and abroad. Academic homepages managed or controlled by the universityor the department the scholars work in not only can help the target navigators have a betterunderstanding of the basic information of the scholar, but also make them know more aboutthe disciplinary communities, academic resources, and considerable insights of the schooland/or departments. Consequently, due to the severe competitions among top universities allover the world, an increasing number of universities set up homepages for the scholars inorder to promote the school and attract more excellent students and new employees. In theacademic homepages, the subject of the page, namely the professors or doctors, usually playstwo roles: scholar in the academic field who provides information about his study or research,and employee in the university who share the responsibility to promote the image of theschool and/or department. Therefore, how the academic homepages serve to achieve theircommunicative purposes when playing the two roles at the same time attracts the author ofthe present study most.Secondly, the rapid development of globalization makes it more important and urgent foruniversities to think out ways of attracting qualified candidates from home and abroad. Thereis no doubt that academic homepages is a good resolution in this respect. In order to fulfillsuch a purpose, there is no denying that academic homepages possess their own multiplefunctions. The first and foremost unique function of an academic homepage is to present theimage of the scholar by offering some basic information regarding the academic bio,achievements of research, contact information, research groups or teams, and list ofpublications, etc. of the scholar, for those students who are looking for a supervisor of theirfuture study.
Chapter Two Literature Review
This chapter reviews previous studies on digital genre and homepages. The first sectionfocuses on the definition and function of web-mediated genre. The next section concernsprevious studies on homepages. The last section is the summary of this chapter. Commentswith regard to the contributions and limitations of the previous studies are made in eachsection.
2.2 Academic Home page as a Digital Genre
In the past decade, not only organizations, such as universities and companies, but alsoindividuals, like college students, celebrities as well as academic scholars, have their ownhomepages. Those people own their homepages with a variety of purposes. Students shareresources and information online with their friends or read some articles just forentertainment. Companies advertise their products in their homepages. Organizationspromote their image through the information provided on their homepages.With regard to the jargon, some people use the term “homepage”, while others use“webpage” or “website”. In most cases, such terms are interchangeable. However, accordingto the founder of World Wide Web (WWW), Tim Berbers-Lee, the word “homepage” datesback to the time before the Internet became so commercialized. Homepage refers to the pagecreated by a person or an organization with the most commonly used links in it, which servesas a starting point of exploring the WWW. It is a home base, therefore leads to the termhomepage. Due to the fact that the term “homepage” does not reflect many of the existingwebpages today, the term “webpage” came into being. (Yates and Orlikowski, 1996)
Chapter Three Analytical Framework ...... 16
3.1 Overview ....... 16
3.2 Traditional Models of Genre Analysis ....... 16
3.2.1 Sydney School.... 16
3.2.2 ESP School .... 17
3.2.3 New Rhetoric School ........ 20
3.3 Askehave and Nielsen’s Two-Dimensional........ 21
3.4 Analytical Framework for the Present Study ....... 23
3.5 Research Procedure ...... 26
3.6 Summary ....... 27
Chapter Four Two-dimensional Genre Analysis of Academic Homepages........ 28
4.1 Overview ....... 28
4.2 Communicative Purposes of Academic Homepages...... 28
4.2.1 Communicative Purposes in the Reading Mode ....... 29
4.2.2 Communicative Purposes in the Navigating Mode........ 30
4.3 Analysis of Moves in the Reading Mode ........ 30
4.4 Analysis of Hyperlinks in the Navigating Mode....... 49
4.4.1 Generic Links of Academic Homepages.... 50
4.4.2 Specific Links of Academic Homepages ........ 54
4.4.3 Distribution of Generic and Specific Links in Academic Homepages.... 56
4.4.4 Summary ....... 59
4.5 Rhetorical Strategies in the Reading Mode..... 60
4.6 Rhetorical Strategies in the Navigating Mode ..... 71
Chapter Five Conclusion ........ 75
5.1 Overview ....... 75
5.2 Major Findings of the Present Study..... 75
5.3 Implications and Limitations of the Present Study ........ 77
Chapter Four Two-dimensional Genre Analysis of AcademicHomepages
This chapter, based on the analytical framework developed in Chapter 3, analyzes50academic homepages chosen from the top 25 of the QS World University Rankings 2014.Section 4.1 discusses the communicative purposes of academic homepages. In section 4.2,the move structure and move frequency are analyzed. In section 4.3, generic links andspecific links are identified. Section 4.4 deals with the rhetorical strategies applied in thereading mode, and Section 4.5 explores the rhetorical strategies in the navigating mode.The core of identifying the moves and steps is the identification of the communicativepurposes of a genre.Since the academic homepages seek to present something achieved or studied by thescholars to a potentially massive audience, identifying the target readers of such kind of genreis necessary.The first group of target reader falls on the prospective students who show stronginterest in the research fields of the scholars. Since those students are facing the questions asto which supervisor to choose, what they can learn in the future or what research projects topursue when stepping into further education, they may probably pay a frequent attention tothe academic homepages of the scholars to find the answers. Obviously, courses and researchinterests of the scholar are shown at the very start in the layout of the homepage, which makeit easy for the prospective students to find the most important information they need.
By regarding the homepage as a digital genre, the present study presents an explorationof the university-owned academic homepages from the perspective of a two-dimensionalgenre analysis. Based on the two-dimensional genre analysis model of Askehave and Nielsen(2005), the study is carried out in both the reading mode and the navigating mode. The studyaims at finding out how the academic homepages achieve the communicative purposes in thecontext of the university through the moves and links and the reasons for the use of rhetoricalstrategies. It begins with an analysis of the communicative purposes, after which the movesand links are identified. Finally, the semiotic choices in the reading mode are explored withthe help of visual grammar and the realizations of links are found to explain how theacademic homepages serve to navigate the target readers. This chapter provides a generalconclusion of the present study. Major findings concerning the communicative purposes,moves and links and the use of semiotic choices and links realizations are presentedaccordingly. Finally, some limitations and suggestions for further studies are also listed.