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            专业英语毕业论文范文精选十篇

            来源: www.zsalud.com 作者:lgg 发布时间:2018-06-24 论文字数:36254字
            论文编号: sb2018062220052621737 论文语言:中文 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
            本文是一篇英语论文,英语论文写作的价值,关键在于能够解决特定行业的特定问题,特别是在学术方面的论文更是如此。因此,论文选择和提炼标题的技巧之一,就是依据学术价值进行选择提
            本文是一篇英语论文,英语论文写作的价值,关键在于能够解决特定行业的特定问题,特别是在学术方面的论文更是如此。因此,论文选择和提炼标题的技巧之一,就是依据学术价值进行选择提炼。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语论文,供大家参考。
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇一

             
            第一章绪论
             
            百年大计,教育为本;教育大计,教师为本。强国必先强教,强教必先强师。青年教师是高校教师队伍的中坚力量,青年教师强,则大学强。要实现青年教师能力的不断增强和发展,教师专业学习是重要的途径。学习是每个社会成员顺应时代发展、适应社会发展和实现个体发展需要旳必然途径,贯穿于人的一生。联合国教科文组织(1976)提出终身学习的概念,号召全体社会成员主动、自觉地学习。但对于已经主动自觉学习的人群,该如何更为科学、持久、高效地学习,是我们需要考虑并少有研究的问题。本研究关注大学英语青年教师中主动积极学习的人群。这些上进的青年教师在日常工作学习中,都参加了哪些教师专业学习活动?这些专业学习活动的选择和参与受到哪些因素的影响?她们从中获得了哪些专业能力的提升?青年教师应当怎样认识各种专业能力之间的关系,做好职业生涯的“顶层设计”,才能进行科学、高效的专业学习,实现持久的专业发展?这些是本研究有待回答的问题。本章将介绍研究的选题缘起、研究目的及论文结构三方面内容。
            ........
             
            1.1选题缘起
            确定要研究积极上进的大学英语青年教师专业学习这个选题,是基于我个人的工作生活经历、大学英语青年教师群体背景以及大英教学改革背景三方面的考虑。接下来,我将在本小节一一阐述。对于教师这个职业,我有一种莫名的喜爱和向往。从师范大学的英语教育专业毕业后,我进入当地另一所高校教授公共英语。讲台之上,面对学生,我常会体验到一种难得的亲近和愉悦,犹如心流体验(Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi1975)。但取得硕士学位和讲师职称后,我开始感到迷茫,大英教学将陪伴我的整个职业生涯,可我已开始感到超多的课时和重复性劳动产生的厌倦,我不知道努力的方向和方法。一次出国进修的机会暂时缓解了这样的焦虑,我取得了TEFL (Teaching English as a Foreign Language)证书,体验到西方文化和教学方法。但回到自己的课堂,中西差异、理想和现实差异、理论和实践差异又超乎想象。我慢慢体会到,单纯的学习教学方法是不够的,需要将教学和研究相结合,在理论和实践中往复穿梭,才会有厚实的基础和前瞻的目光。但如何做教学研究的问题让我产生了新的焦虑和恐慌。而作为女性教师,接下来怀孕生子的经历更加重了这困惑,让我进入前所未有的心理和职业荒宪期,面临中期职业危机(Mid-careercrisis) (Huberman 1992),自我怀疑,寻求改变。改变从来到北外进修开始。虽然巨大的知识输入量和极低的内化率让人感到挫败,但十几年的大英教学经历让我不由自主地思考语言学理论对教学的帮助,这让我慢慢找到了一个大英教师学习的状态,犹如东晋教育家葛洪在《抱朴子•勖学》中讲的,“夫学者,所以清澄性理,簸扬埃移,雕锻矿璞、碧炼屯钝,启导聪明,饰染质素,察往知来”,学习可以促进个体的个性发展、增进知识、启迪心智、提高洞察力。
            …….
             
            1.2研究目的
            本研究的开展主要基于三个目的:个人目的、实用目的和学术目的。就个人目的而言,我希望通过研究一群与自己身份相似、能力又优于自己的同行人,为自己树立职业发展的榜样。通过深入了解她们丰富的学习活动以及内心的需求和对环境的感知,学习她们在教学实践、组织管理、教学研究的丰富经验,以及她们应对学习困难的方法和精神,拓宽自身职业发展选择,提高专业发展能力,鼓舞自己在未来职业发展道路上稳步前行。就实用目的而言,通过研究三位上进型大英青年教师的专业学习,我希望能够引起其他大英青年教师的“共鸣”和“同在感”,给予处在职业瓶颈期或转型期的同行们以前进的动力和热情,促进教师高效持久的专业发展;也希望各高校和院系负责人能够全面深入地了解大英青年教师的学习状况,正视她们的成绩,关注她们的困惑,重新审视制度和政策的有效性和可行性,出台真正切实有效的、符合世情、师情的教师教育和评估政策。
            ………
             
            第二章文献述评
             
            2.1教师专业学习理论研究
            心理学领域对教师学习的认识大致经历了行为主义视角、认知主义视角和社会建构主义视角的过程。早期的行为主义视角下,教师学习“是一种知识和技能的习得,教师是知识的接受者和消费者”(吴一安等2007: 8),通过观察和模仿可以提高教学能力,带来好的教学效果(Moore et al. 1996; Richards & Farrell 2005)。重视教师知识、技能和能力的提高,强调学习结果,但对教师的主体性和个体差异性关注不够。认知主义视角弥补了这一不足。学者们认为教师学习是一种经验学习,是教师在实践中对教学的个人认知建构和解释,内化为教师专业知识,强调积极思考和理解的作用(Richards & Farrell 2005; Richards & Nunan 1990; Roberts ;,陈振华2003;屈林岩2008;孙福海2005)。该视角重视教师的实践体验以及教师的学习主动性,侧重认知机制,但对教师与周围环境的互动关系不够重视。社会建构主义视角对此做出了贡献。学者们认为教师是知识的建构者和生产者以及反思性实践者,教师在原有知识基础上不断与社会语境互动对话,带来教师知识、观念、思维方式和行为模式旳变化(Borko 2004; Kelly 2006; Johnson& Golombek 2003; Putnam & Borko 2000;刘学惠、申继亮 2006;孙洋洋 2010)。该视角重视讨论人与周围环境的互动,但对人的主体性的凸显仍有待提升。Roberts (1998)曾对语言教师学习做过类似的总结,阐明了不同视角下,教师学习中教师、学习机制及环境的相互关系。他认为,教师学习可分为四种范式:(1)基于行为主义的模仿学习:人作为输入-输出系统;(2)基于人本主义的非指导学习:人作为自主行动者;(3)基于认知理论的建构式学习:人作为知识建构者;(4)基于社会文化理论的建构性学习:人作为社会成员。其中第一种范式强调学习过程的模仿性,要求环境提供输入和训练;第二种和第三种范式强调教师的主体性和内在过程,分别注重情感机制和认知机制;第四种是社会建构的范式,强调外部环境对学习的支持和中介,有效的人际互动是该范式的核心(刘学惠2005)。
            ………
             
            2.2教师学习定义
            关于教师学习的概念,以往的教育学和心理学专家从不同视角进行了审视。我在查阅前人对教师学习定义的同时,还进行了初步的数据分析,发现数据中教师专业能力的内容较为凸显。因而,在进一步梳理教师专业能力文献、参考部分学生学习策略概念的基础上,结合初步数据分析中浮现出的教师专业学习活动及教师专业能力特点,提出本研究对教师学习的操作性定义。本小节将依次介绍关于教师专业学习的前人研究定义、教师专业能力概念与分类、学习策略中的“元”概念和本研究定义。在以往的教师学习研究中,学者们从不同视角理解教师学习概念,如教师群体学习中文化的建构发展(朱益民2004)、教师学习的多元内涵和发展阶段(Schwilll et al. 2007;王丽华2007;杨骞、溪海燕2007)、教学实践的经验综合(Freeman & Johnson 1998;陈振华2003;孙福海2005)、教师知识能力获得和变化(Billet 2001;毛齐明2013;张敏2008)、教学实践过程(Adler 2000;Kelly 2006)、知识和实践的关系(Cochran-Smith & Lytle 1999)、问题驱动-自我指导学习(Glichman et al. 1998; Goodlad Johnl990)以及与教师发展相结合的学习视角(程文华2010;孙传远2010)等。
            …………
             
            第三聿理论基础和分析框架...........32
            3.1理论基础 ..........32
            3.2分析框架.......... 38
            3.3小结.......... 41
            第四章研究方法.......... 42
            4.1个案研究.......... 42
            4.2研究对象的选择..........43
            4.3研究者工作.......... 47
            4.4数据收集.......... 50
            4.5数据分析.......... 53
            4.6研究信效度及伦理 ..........58
            4.7小结 ..........60
            第五章喜欢掌声的大英教师朱小新..........61
            5.1爱恨交织的讲台.......... 61
            5.2缤纷多彩的舞台.......... 67
            5.3力不从心的科研.......... 72
            5.5青年骨干教师.......... 75
            5.6小结 ..........77
             
            第八章上进型大英青年教师专业学习差异及原因
             
            通过第五、六、七章的个案分析,我们可以看出,三位上进型的大学英语青年教师的在职专业学习呈现出丰富多彩的学习样态,体现出明显的教师专业学习共性和个体差异性。她们的专业学习共性主要体现为三点:专业学习类型大致相仿,主要分为教学、管理和科研三大类型;相应提高的专业能力类别相同,主要包括课堂教学、组织管理和教学研究等分项专业能力他们的一般学习需求相似,三位教师均有加入校内外教师学习共同体“圈子”的归属需求,渴望拥有和睦的家庭关系和亲密关系的爱的需求,以及希望职业发展环境稳定的安全需求。本研究按学习实践活动分类,较以往研究(Kreber et al. 2005; Van-Eekelen et al 2005;李志厚2005;王俊菊2012;王俊菊、朱耀云2008;张敏2008)更为直观具体、更为贴近教师学习实际。本研究对三项专业能力同等重视,较大多数仅对单项专业能力重视的研究更为全面,对教师学习样态描述的整体性更强。本研究对教师一般需求的关注证明,良好人际关系和互动有利于教师成长。但中国教师对家的特殊感情和责任构成教师部分困境,特别是女教师,照顾家庭会分散投入到教学和科研中的时间精力,给职业发展带来了时间、空间和情感上的多重挑战(周燕等2008;顾佩姬等2014)。三位教师的专业学习差异及原因是本章的分析重点,我将采用类型比较法进行分析。三类教师的学习差异主要体现在三位教师分项专业能力发展的不同侧重上。产生这种差异的原因主要与教师的元专业能力、优势需求及其影响下教师感知的环境有关,而其中元专业能力和优势需求起到主要作用。
            ……..
             
            结论
             
            本研究的内容可概括为上进型大英青年教师的专业学习实践及原因,具体回答以下两组研究问题:
            (1)上进型大学英语青年教师平时参与了哪些学习活动?教师专业能力发生了何种变化?
            (2)这些变化与教师元专业能力和学习需求有何联系?其中起主导作用的需求是什么?在其影响下,教师感知到的学习环境有哪些?对其专业学习有怎样的影响?
            ............
            参考文献(略)
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇二

             
            第一章绪论
             
            1.1言者导向语
            语言不仅可以“客观地”表达命题思想,还可以表达言者的观点、感情和态度。因此,语言交际中,说话者多多少少会在话语中留下自我的印记,这是语言主观性(subjectivity)的表现(参看Lyons 1977: 739;沈家燈2001)。语言中的主观性可以体现在语音、构词、语法、篇章结构等方面。韵律变化、语气词、词缀、代词、副词、时体标记、情态动词、词序、重复等手段都可以用来表达言者的主观态度或视角(沈家煊2009)。语言中的主观性表达形式多样,有些在语言表层无法直观体现,如韵律变化;有些只能镶嵌在命题内使用,句法上无法脱离命题而独立使用,如语气词、词缀、代词、情态动词等;还有些语言形式的句法表现比较灵活,可以独立于命题之外,做整个命题的高层谓语,如副词。本研究仅探讨这类在形式上可以独立于命题内容,表达言者主观态度的语言形式。进一步说,语言交际中,言者常在命题之外添加一些信息来明示自己的言说方式,或表达自己对信息内容的把握程度、个人的情感态度或评价等等,这就需要特定的语言形式来表达这些功能。正是这个原因,我们使用的日常话语常包含两个部分:一是反映客观世界的命题;二是与发出命题的说话者相关的信息。这些与说话者相关的信息往往会用特定的语言形式编码,其中最为常用的编码形式之一是副词以及具有副词功能的短语或小句,如例(1-4)。
            ……….
             
            1.2研究缘起
            本研究之所以把言者导向副词(SOA)扩展为言者导向语(SOE),并从概念语义入手进行英汉语对比分析,主要基于以下两方面的认识。首先,通过对比英汉语副词系统,本研究发现,英汉语副词类别不完全对等,有重合也有阙如(详见第二章对英汉语副词系统的介绍)。这就使得在表达相同的话语-语用功能时,英汉语常会使用不同的编码手段。因此,把英汉对比囿于词性范围内难免会有局限性。拿汉语副词与英语副词生硬对比,就如削足适履,对语言使用现象的描述和解释难以深入。概念如何通过语言得以表达,不同语言釆用的手段不尽相同。这种语言编码手段上的差异具有类型学意义,传统的形式层面的对比分析无法发现并解决这些问题。其次,传统的英汉语副词对比研究存在不足(详见第二章2.2节)。主要体现为:已有研究中个案研究偏多,跨语言之间系统性的对比研究缺乏;对比研究缺少有效的参照点,偏重形式层面的比较,研究方法有待改进;研究多以描写为主,解释不足,研究深度受限。鉴于以上研究不足,本研究将从新的视角对英汉语SOE进行对比分析。英汉两种语言存在类型学差异,本研究主张从共同的概念语义出发,对比分析英汉语在表达相同概念语义时表层SOE编码的异同,并对差异的原因做出解释。另外,英汉语SOE主观性强,语用功能突出,它们大多经历了从字面义到话语功能义的演变。要真正把握SOE各种表达方式之间的联系,有必要考察它们的历时演变过程。因此,本研究将选取SOE中的“言说行为表达”(SAE),从历时角度对该类表达式的演变过程做出描述和分析。釆用共时和历时相结合的研究方法有利于更好地认识SOE这类语义-语用现象。
            ……….
             
            第二章英汉副词系统及言者导向语
             
            2.1英汉语副词系统
            在很多语言中,副词是较难处理的一个词类,其复杂性来自其句法、语义、语用表现上的异质性和灵活性。英汉语中的副词都是语义类型复杂的词性集合,目前学界就副词的性质、外延和分类等问题尚难达成共识。鉴于此,很少有研究对副词进行系统的跨语言对比分析,这不得不说是副词研究的一个遗憾。很多学者都曾指出,不管是研究哪一种语言,都要通过跟其他语言的比较才能获得深刻的认识(吕叔湘1977/1992;沈家煊2011)。本节首先描述英汉语副词系统,总结英汉副词系统的跨语言共性,对比英汉语副词类别的重合和阙如;然后梳理英汉副词对比研究现状,总结目前研究存在的问题;最后对英汉副词对比研究的方法和思路提出自己的看法。依据形态,副词可分为三类:简单副词(如just,only)、合成副词(如somehow,therefore)和派生副词(如 interestingly,clockwise) (Quirk, et al. 1985; 438),这种分类方式不涉及语义和句法分布,因而不能揭示副词的属性特征。另有学者依据语义对副词进行划分,将英语副词分为地点、时间、方式、程度、添加/限制、态度/立场、连接以及其他,共八个类别(Biber,etal. 1999);类似的还有情状、态度、程度、、焦点和连接五个大类的分法(Downing & Locke 2006)。对副词分类还可以依据句法表现,如Radford (1988: 73)就据此将副词分为两大类:句修副词(S_Adverb)和动修副词(VP_Adverb)。除此以外,还有些分类是从语义-句法功能出发,揭示副词意义和句法之间的相互依存关系。根据Van Valin (2005),小句可以分为中心(core)和边缘成分(periphery),中心由谓词(predicate)和论元组成(紅guments),谓词本身被称作核(nucleus),边缘成分是指非论元成分。副词可以作用于小句的不同层面,如核、中心,或整个小句;还有些副词作用范围超出了小句,起语篇组织作用。从语义-句法角度看,副词的位置决定了其辖域和语义指向。
            ………….
             
            2.2英汉语副词对比研究
            国内外很多学者都探讨过副词的句法和语义特征,涉及副词的句法位置和语义指向(Ernst 1984,2002;张谊生2000)、副词的连用顺序(Cinque 1999; Ernst2009; Haumaim 2007; Nilsen 2004;黄河 1990;史金生 2011;袁毓林 2002)、影响副词句法位置的因素(Costa2004,2008)、副词的语用篇章衔接功能(屈承熹1991;祖人植、任雪梅1997)以及副词功能类别的语法化(Berry 2011;徐时仪2006)等。目前英汉副词研究在以上方面己经有了丰厚的研究积累,这为我们进一步探讨英汉副词的句法语义特征提供了理论支持。但大部分副词研究是以单一语言为研究对象,涉及跨语言对比的研究相对不足。目前,有关英汉副词的对比研究多是微观层面的个案研究。从研究内容来看,多为词义相近的英汉副词的比较,比如表示总括的“都”与“air (王还1983)、否定副词“不、没(有)”和“not、no"(张孝忠1984)、焦点副词“只”和“only”(卢英顺1995;徐以中2010)。就研究方法而言,多数研究使用比较法,通常以词为对应单位,或以某种语言的某个语言成分为参照点,比较另一种语言中与其相对应的语言成分在结构形式、句法分布、意义、功能上的异同。分析方法基本上是义项对比或对应的描写,较为偏重句法。比如王还(1983)基于英语“air的各个义项,分析它与汉语“都”的对应关系以及用法上的异同;张孝忠(1984)也是从词汇意义出发,结合句法表现,对比汉英否定副词“不”、“没(有)”和“not”、"no";莫运国(2010)从语义、句法分布和语用功能三方面对比分析英汉情态副词的共性和差异。
            ………..
             
            第三章概念语义理论..........30
            3.1 Jackendoff的概念语义理论.......... 30
            3.2概念的词汇化.......... 38
            3.3概念语义理论在本研究中的应用..........41
            3.4小结.......... 41
            第四章事件语义平台..........43
            4.1事件语义学.......... 43
            4.2词汇语义的分解方法.......... 47
            4.3事件类型.......... 48
            4.4事件的表层实现方式.......... 51
            4.5事件语义学视角下的语言对比研究.......... 52
            4.6 小结.......... 56
            第五章英汉“言说行为表达”对比分析.......... 57
            5.1 SAE的性质和分类.......... 57
            5.2 SAE表达的概念语义..........60
            5.3英汉语编码方式..........63 
            5.4英汉SAE编码差异的解释..........69
            5.5英汉SAE的语用差异..........72
            5.6小结 ..........73
             
            第九章语言的形态特征与SOE的词汇化:多语言证据
             
            第五至七章的对比研究表明,英汉语在SOE的词汇化程度上显示出系统性差异。在编码“言说行为”、“评价”、"言据”等事件语义信息丰富的概念时,英语的词汇化程度高于汉语。本研究认为,这一差异与两种语言具备的形态手段的丰富性有关。英语形态手段相对丰富,词汇编码事件语义的能力强;汉语形态手段缺乏,词汇编码事件语义的能力因之较弱。鉴于存在这样的差异,本研究推断,词汇编码事件语义的能力与语言的形态特征密切相关。为了进一步验证这一关系,本研究在英汉对比的基础上,又考察了其它六种语言。它们分别是形态丰富的屈折语俄语、德语、法语和形态不丰富的孤立语泰语、越南语、緬甸语。研究考察了以上六种语言在“言说行为”、“评价”和“认识”概念上的编码方式。本章首先介绍语言类型学中以形态为依据划分出的四种语言类型,并介绍屈折语俄语、德语、法语以及孤立语泰语、越南语、緬甸语的基本语言特征;然后描述这些语言在言说行为、评价和认识类概念上的编码方式;基于这些描述,进一步分析语言形态特征与SOE词汇化之间的关系。
            ………..
             
            结论
             
            本文运用概念语义理论,借助事件结构,成功为英汉语“言者导向语”(SOE)设立了共比基础。立足该对比基础,研究重点探讨了英汉语SOE在编码方式、句法表现以及语用表现上的异同,以及造成差异的原因。研究还聚焦于“言说行为表达”(SAE),考察了英汉语SAE的形成和词汇化过程,探讨了其历时发展中语用化、语法化和词汇化之间的互动关系,离析出了与上述现象相关的跨语言共性和语言个性特征。研究最后使用多语言证据进一步考察了语言的形态特征与SOE的词汇化之间的关系。总体看来,本研究的目标己经实现,研究手段和方法得到有效运用:研究有了新的发现。但研究也存在局限,很多有意义的语言现象还值得进一步深入研究。本章就主要研究发现、研究创新、研究启示及研究局限和未来研究展望进行总结。就言说行为表达(SAE)而言,研究发现,无论是施事指向的SAE还是表方式/精确程度的SAE,英语的词汇化程度均高于汉语。英语有比较丰富的副词表达言说行为概念,与英语相比,汉语表达这一概念语义的词汇手段欠缺,更多借助组合式或小句式表达。而且,汉语中大多数表达离不开言说动词“说”、“讲”、“告诉”等,“言说”概念被编码的痕迹明显,而英语副词在表层看不到任何言说概念编码的痕迹。
            ............
            参考文献(略)
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇三

             
            第1章绪论
             
            1.1语言认知的起源与发展
            语言,是人类所特有的信息交流与交换的重要手段,是人类物质与精神文明保存与传承的载体。因此,对于人类大脑语言功能的研究一直是人类探索的重点。最早的关于人脑中语言功能的研究可以追溯到十九世纪中旬,Paul Broca在对8个失语症患者的尸体解剖后发现大脑损伤分布于左半球,由此发现大脑语言的表达区域位于大脑左半球额叶前侧,后称“布洛卡区”(Broca, 1861)。此后不久,Wernicke也在研究中发现了语言理解区,位于大脑颞叶后侧(Wernicke, 1874)[2]。至此之后,由丁?有效研究技术的缺乏,对大脑语言功能的研究出现停滞,直到Ellis与Young在总结语言功能障碍病患的基础上提出的语言认知心理学模型(Ellis etal., 1988)。图1.1中将语言认知中的语言呈现分为听觉系统呈现和视觉系统呈现两种方式,即听到的字词与看到的字词。字词按其呈现方式分別被收入听觉或视觉分析系统,进行输入比对。如果字词是已存在于输入系统中的,即可直接理解出该字词的语义。如果字词并不存在于已知的输入词库中,那么只能根据其音位层或字形层读出或写出该字词,但并不能明白其语义。模型中可以看出,视觉.5听觉通路的输入和输出交换可以不经由语义系统,说明我们读出看到的字词而无盖加工理解其含义,即语义未得到激活。值得一提的是,这种认知模型是建立在拼音文字系统的基础上,适用于英、法、德、意等表音文字,而对于汉字等表意文字,在其适用性方面仍盖验证与补充。
            ……..
             
            1.2事件相关电位技术
            事件相关电位,即 Event-related potentials,简称 ERP,是由 Sutton 在 1960年左右提出的概念[4]。这项技术源于对人脑中生物电的发现。自然状态下,大脑收放电称作自发电位electroencephalogram,简称EEG。相较而言,事件相关电位开始时被称作Evoked potentials,即诱发电位,简称EPs,是因为这种大脑神经的电位变化现象的产生前提是外界给予一定的刺激或者撤销一定的刺激,而这种刺激活动对大脑来说具有意义。所以可以说,ERP是一种特别的EP,这两个概念有时可以重叠甚至相互替换。从1924年Berger发现引起a节律减少的EEG论文被认定为噪声[5]到1934年和1935年Adrain与Jasper得到相同的发现[7],ERP受到科学界的承认经过了很长时间。然而它的发现对心理学的发展起到了举足轻重的作用。此后,ERP发展的标志性事件包括:1935至1936年,Pauline以及Davis第一次突破性的获得清醒被试的明确的ERP记录[8]并发表于1939年的诱发电位论文之中。1947年,Dawson首次实现利用叠加技术降低信噪比并提取人体EP,然而效果并不尽如人意;于是,1951年,他再一次发明了新的方法——机械驱动-电子储存方式进行EP的叠加与平均,取得了很好的效果。Galambos与sheatz发表了使用计算机进行平均与叠加的论文(1961),这是历史上的首创。1964年,Walter及其合作者联合发表了关于Contingent Negative Variation (关联性负变化,即CNV)的文章,这是被发现的第一个ERP认知成分,这标志着ERP研究的新时代已经到来。下一个突破性的进展发生于1965年,Sutton等研究者发现了 P3成分。ERP技术的发展催生了心理生理学以及认知神经科学,并极大地促进了认知心理学的发展。
            ……..
             
            第2章实验设计与研究目的
             
            2.1实验提出
            语言,作为文化传承与传播的重要载体和实现途径,在保存传统文明与创建现代文明中具有举足轻重的意义。少数民族的语言教育,不止包括通用语汉语普通话的教育,也包括能够促进国际交流的外语教育。少数民族学生出生后先于母语环境下学习本族语言,进入小学教育阶段开始学习汉语普通话,最后会根据地区教学条件在适当的时间学习世界使用范围最广的语言英语,以此达到继承与发展的双重目的。在这种教育政策下,越来越多的少数民族三语人出现。研究我国少数民族三语人的语言认知机制,不仅利于指导少数民族学生语言的习得,促进民族交流,更有利于少数民族人才的培养,提高我国人口的综合素质,增加民族竞争力。因此近年来对于少数民族三语现象(trilingualism)的研究渐渐兴起。我们将实验设计为启动范式,通过操作第三语言启动词与母语、第二语言目标词之间的关系,利用事件相关电位技术,本研究希望探讨蒙汉英三语者在不同的刺激呈现下(文字信息和语音信息)是否存在跨语言的启动效应,以及什么因素加速了语言的通达机制。考察第三语言单词对第一、二语言单词的启动效应,即何种方式促进单词的通达。蒙汉英这三种语言在字形、语音上存在较大差异,检验差异较大的语言之间是否存在跨语言的启动效应,可以进一步了解三种语言加工和通达机制,同时可以给蒙古族英语学习者以启示,促进第三语言的学习。
            ……….
             
            2.2蒙古族三语人
            试验中被试的选择是熟练掌握蒙古语、汉语和英语的三语人。“蒙古”在初始时期是指一个蒙古地区中部的部落,后来逐渐发展为一个民族。公元十三世纪,成吉思汗统一了蒙古各部,雄伟的蒙古大帝国也慢慢建立起来。时至今日,蒙古族是我国人口较多的少数民族,根据2010年全国第六次人口普查的数据显示,蒙古族人口已达到近六百万,占总人口数量的近百分之零点四五。他们主要聚居于内蒙古自治区,实行民族区域自治。东北、新疆、云南、河北等省份也是蒙古族分布较多的地区。蒙古族人民的生活独具特色,服饰方面喜爱蒙古袍并佩戴腰带、蒙古刀等装饰,饮食上喜爱牛羊肉、奶制品及红茶,居住在灵活性极强的圆形蒙古包内。蒙古族能歌善舞,每年七八月间举行的那达慕大会热闹异常。简言之,蒙古族是我国极具特色的少数民族。本研究采用蒙古族三语者是指依次学习掌握了蒙古语、汉语和英语的三语者。下面对这三种语言及其特点进行详细说明。蒙古族在形成过程中创造了本民族使用的语言文字,后由元朝第一任帝师-德高望重的西藏喇嘛八思巴在旧形的蒙古文字基础上进行创新改革,形成蒙古新字。之后,蒙古文字也几经革新,最终形成陶德蒙古文,亦译作托成蒙古文并延用到了今日。蒙古语,从语系分类的角度属于阿尔泰语系,属蒙古语族,是一种表音文字。蒙文包含二十四个基本字母及七个借词辅音,基本字母可以细分为七个基本元音、十七个基本辅音。由于蒙语是一种黏着语,因此其语法功能的实现是由词根點贴在词尾的位置决定的。蒙古语有元音和谐现象,依据是舌位的前后高低以及圆唇与否。也就是说,同一词中只能同为前元音或中元音。蒙古语有阴阳性、数、格、时态等方面的变化,语序一般为定语-主语-状语-宾语-谓语或定语-主语-宾语-状语-谓语的形式。蒙古语最突出的特点在于其书写形式为纵向,即从上向下连写字母。
            ……….
             
            第3章基干视觉感知的英文词汇识别研究.......... 15
            3. 1实验背景......... 16
            3. 2实验思路与设计......... 16
            3.3实验结果......... 18
            第4章基于听觉感知的英语词汇识别研究......... 25
            4. 1实验背景......... 25
            4. 2实验思路与设计......... 26
            4.3实验结果......... 27
            第5章蒙、汉、英三语认知关系研究......... 34
            5.1实验背景......... 34
            5.2实验结果......... 35
            5. 2. 1行为数据及分析 .........35
            5.2.2 ERP数据及分析......... 36
            5.3综合讨论......... 37
             
            第5章蒙、汉、英三语认知关系研究
             
            5.1实验背景
            第三章与第四章分别基于文字和语音呈现方式,分别进行了语言间(英-蒙、英-汉)的启动对比。本章将综合上述因素,讨论语音在语义理解中的作用以及不同的语言文字体系在学习过程中互相影响的关系。主要分析第三语言的学习方式,第三种语言学习与第二语言及母语的联系,蒙古族大学生的英语学习是通过母语蒙古语学习的还是通过第二语言汉语学习的。由于本章是对上两项研究的综合对比,因此不再赘述实验设计及实施部分。从语言认知的角度考察被试对剌激是否理解以及理解的程度高低。直接的结果可以由下表5.1和5.2呈现。从图5.1中可得,在词汇判断任务反应时方面,排除刺激材料的分类问题而只比较不同语言间(英-蒙、英-汉)的差异,可以看出:无论是语音还是文字呈现,从第三语言(英)到第二语言(汉)间的反应时长要快于第三语言(英)到第一语言(蒙)的时间,说明前者的判断加工难度对蒙古族为母语的被试来说小于后者。这种无论语音及字形上的压倒性优势可以说明,蒙古族大学生的L3 (英)的学习方式是依靠L2,即汉语言的方式习得,而非L1 (蒙)。具体来看,实验材料为语音材料时,被试所用的判断时间要少于文字材料的判断用时。英-蒙之间的差异只有几十毫秒,但是英-汉之间的差异约100毫秒。虽然不排除音速的传播快于视觉这一事实,这种现象仍然可以在一定程度上说明语音的处理对蒙古族被试来说相对文字要容易得多。这与被试的母语背景密切相关,也就是说,蒙古族被试的母语是拼音文字,因此习惯上对语音信息的熟悉度和倾向程度更高。借助有效的语音信息,大脑对语义的加工会更迅速。从得出的标准差数据来看,差值最小的是英语-汉语材料的判断,为14.49,说明被试间水平比较稳定;而其他情况的标准差差距较大。
            ……….
             
            结论
             
            在本文的研究中,利用对译与非对译词对以及事件相关电位技术(ERP),对蒙古族三语人的语言加工机制进行了研究。其中重点是探索母语为拼音文字蒙古语的情况下,第三种语言-英语的学习使用是受母语的习惯影响还是借助第一外语-汉语的习得方式,以及呈现方式的不同(视觉、听觉)对语义通达加工的影响。实验结果证实蒙古族大学生在执行不同语言语义判断任务时,无论文字呈现还是语音呈现都会发现英至汉的判断比英至蒙的判断用时短且准确度高。因此推断其L3的学习更倾向于借助L2而不是L1。尽管启动词是较不熟悉的第三语言,被试对对译词的加工要更快更正确,说明存在翻译启动效应,这与被试的语言熟练程度与刺激呈现时长相关。蒙古族三语人对语音材料的判断要优于文字材料,说明母语的语言系统会影响认知的加工模式,其语义通达要经字形到语音后才会通达词义。本研究结论扩大了对少数民族三语人语言认知的研究,也将对蒙古族三语人的英语教学提供参考。具体研究结论包括:
            1)在跨语言启动方面,无论视觉通道呈现还是听觉通道呈现,以第三语言-英语为启动词时,母语蒙古语及第二语言汉语的目标词皆出现了跨语言启动效应,说明三种语言间的词汇概念是共同存储的,且三种语言拥有共同的语义层和不同的概念层,所以第三语言需以对应的第一、第二语言的语义翻译为中介而通达语义概念表征;
            2)在三种语言的相互作用方面,蒙古族大学生对英-汉的判断任务完成程度优于英-蒙的判断,说明第三语言-母语的加工比第三语言-第二语言的加工难度大,从而推断其第三语言(英语)的习得主要依靠第二语言(汉语)而非母语(蒙古语);
            3)在本项研究发现在语义相关的N400出现之前会有与语音想关的P300的出现,即在语义理解前先进行语音的加工。同时在实验中蒙古族三语者,借助音进行语义理解比文字反应时间更短。基于这两点说明蒙古族三语者在语义通达之前,会先借助语音通达的认知策略,由此得出第三语言受到母语的思维习惯影响,在语义通达时必须要经过语音加工的过程。
            ............
            参考文献(略)

             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇四
             

            1. Introduction
             
            1.1 English language education across China
            The phenomenon of English as a global language has impacted countries allaround the world. In Asia, it is having significant and profound effects on the region'slanguage policies, educational systems and patterns of language use (Bolton,2008;Kirkpatrick, 2008; Nunan,2003). As Tsui and Tollefson (2007: 18) point out, ‘Englishis perceived by language policymakers in Asian countries as a multinational tool thatis essential for achieving national goals and by individuals as an indispensableresource for personal advancement'. Asian countries have therefore promoted theacquisition of English by their citizens, such as by making English an officiallanguage, a language of instruction or a working language, increasing resources forEnglish language learning and teaching,and increasing the amount of curriculum timeallocated to English. According to Osnos (2008) that a vast national appetite haselevated English to something more than a language: it is not simply a tool but adefining measure of life's potential. China today is divided by class,opportunity, andpower, but one of its few unifying beliefs,something shared by waiters,politicians,intellectuals, tycoons,is the power of English…English has become an ideology,aforce strong enough to remake your resume', attract a spouse, or catapult you out of avillage.
            ………..
             
            1.2 English Education of the Migrant Workers' Offspring
            In the mid-1980s,economic reform in China and the fransition to a marketeconomy, accompanied by the phasing out of food rationing systems, led to arelaxation of the household registration system (HRS, HuKou). This resulted inmassive internal migration as workers were allowed to move from rural areas to theeconomically productive areas (Dong, 1989; Li,Stanton, Fang, & Lin, 2006; Wei,1996; Wu & Zhou,1996; Wu & Treiman, 2004). Rural-to-urban migration,the majortype of internal population movement in China^ reflected the trend of rapidindustrialization and the need for a mobile workforce that could meet the demands ofthe thriving market economy. Eastern and coastal urban regions and city groups in theYangtze River Delta, including Shanghai,were major destinations for migrants fromimpoverished western and central inland areas of mainland China. The estimatednumbers of internal migrants in China is currently 147.35 million,approximately12.3% of the population, which is increasing by an average rate of 10% per year.Many urban studies indicate that the floating population in a number of metropolisessuch as Beijing and Shanghai, which contains both rural labor migrants and othersdeparting from their place of official residence, were one-third and one-fourthrespectively of those cities' inhabitants (Appleton et al. 2002).
            …………
             
            n. Theoretical basis
             
            2.1 Dynamic Systematic Theory
            According to Dynamic Systematic Theory in second language learning dynamicsystems are characterized by what is called COMPLETE INTERCONNECTEDNESS:all variables are interrelated, and therefore changes in one variable will have ai#impact on all other variables that are part of the system. In many complex systems,the outcome of development over time can therefore not be calculated exactly; notbecause we lack the right tools to measure it,but because the variables that interactkeep changing over time and the outcome of these interactions, unless they take placein a very simple system,cannot be solved analytically. The theory emphasizes theconstant change in the language learning process. From a dynamic systematic*approach, language acquisition emerges through interaction with other human beingswithin a social context. For example, Kirby and his colleagues, who have developedthe Iterated Learning Model,have been able to model "the process by which theoutput of one individual's learning becomes the input of other individuals' learning"(Smith et al.,2003,). In other words, they see language as a culturally transmittedsystem, which means that learning as an iterative process works both within theindividual and between individuals at the social level. In this view, language learningis both individual learning and learning through interaction. They develop throughinteraction with their environment and through internal self-reorganization. However,for our discussion of migrant workers' offspring's second language learning we willtake a model as developed by Van Geert (1991) to describe what constitutes languagelearning. 
            ………….
             
            2.2 Social Context of Language Learning
            In this model. Stem identified five groups of variables; social context,learnercharacteristics, learning conditions, learning process,and learning outcomes. The firstthree sets of variables can determine the learning outcomes through learning process.Stem further developed the contextual factors into school environment, homeenvironment, community, region,national and international environments. Theinteraction between different levels directly or indirectly influences the Languagelearning at the center. The different levels of context can be termed as scales, one ofthe metaphors handed down from history and social geography (Swyngedouw 1996;Uitermark 2002) as well as world system analysis (Wallerstein 2004). A concept that inits most basic form points toward the fact that sociocultural events and semioticprocesses of meaning making develop not along a horizontal continuum of spread,rather they develop and move on a vertical and stratified continuum of layered scales,for example, globalization, as we understand it here revolves therefore around scalesand the semiotic reifications taking place within and across them. It involvesconnections between local phenomena and phenomena occurring at higher,trans-localscale-levels, and effects of such connections at all scale-levels involved. One of thecontemporary outcomes of this stage of globalization is called super-diversity: the'diversification of diversity' (Vertovec 2007,2010) consisting of an increased numberof new,small grouped, multiple-origin, scattered yet trans-regionally connected,socioeconomically differentiated, legally stratified people that move to new places andorganize their lives with the assistance offered by new technologies. U
            ………..
             
            Chapter 3 Research Design and Data Analysis.........12
            3.1 Methodology ........13
            3.2 Data Analysis........ 14
            Chapter 4 Discussion........ 29
            4.1 the underdeveloped areas in some parts ofChina........ 29
            4.2 migrant women'educational experience on their children'seducation........33
            4.3 Non-Shanghainese students'English learning........34
            Chapter 5 Concluding remarks........36
             
            IV. Discussion
             
            4.1 The English language education in elementary level in the under developedareas in China
            Based on both the quantitative and qualitative data, the research puts forward thefactors underlying the migrant students' English learning. In the first stage,throughconducting three independent sample T-tests,we found out about the significantdifference in English test performance among the Shanghainese students,Non-Shanghainese who started their primary education in Shanghai and theNon-Shanghainese who arrived in Shanghai in the middle or near the end of primaryschool education from their hometowns. The mean scores of these three groups arerespectively 57, 47,and around 36. The P values of three T-tests are .000 which meansthe difference between groups is notable. This result means the later the migrantstudents arrives in Shanghai the greater the gap in English test scores betweenShanghainese and migrant students. Underlying this gap in the three groups ofinformants in the study is, first of all, the uneven distribution of English languageeducation resources between less developed and developed regions in China. Second,the different starting age to leam English among different regions in China causes themigrant students' underperformance in English when they were transferred to Shanghai.Third,the family background of the migrant students, to a large extent, decided the kindof educational resources they can access.
            ………..
             
            Conclusion
             
            The research by investigating social contextual factors in language learningshows that the unequal access to social,economic, and cultural resources in currentinformational and globalization age,are increasingly playing a large part in the lowachievement in English. In addition,the mothers' cultural capital and habitus isinvestigated to explain how the maternal educational experiences are shaping theirchildren's education in positive and negative ways. Specifically,we studied how themothers' migration experience and lack of cultural capital (available time,materialresources, educational knowledge, information about the educational system,andsocial confidence) limits the positive influence on their children, schooling. In the lastpart, we argued from the perspective of second language acquisition theories, that themigrant students' low proficiency in English is a result of a series of interconnectedfactors in language learning process. Among these factors we highlighted the initialstage of language acquisition,be it LI or L2,and the affective factors, such as attitude,confidence, etc. Analyzing some of the variables in second language learning from themacro to micro level,the research highlighted the influences of family background onsecond language learning,that is further. complicated by individual and contextoalfactors. 
            ............
            References (omitted)
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇五

             
            绪 论
             
            第一节 研究目的与对象
            现代汉语语气词是汉语较之于西方语言特有的一种词语。在英语中,语气一般是由主语和动词的限定成分次序来决定,然而汉语主要使用语气词,比如在句末添加“吗”、“呢”、“吧”等语气词来表达不同的语气。语气词是表达语气的虚词,常用在句子末尾或句中停顿处表达说话人对命题内容的不同思想、感情等主观态度。根据不同的交际语境以及说话人的主观态度,同一个命题内容可以表达不同的意义。于是,说话人的主观态度对人们的交际具有很大影响。虽然语气词在现代汉语中的数量较少,但其在书面语和口语中使用频率非常高,在语法学、翻译学以及对外汉语教学研究中,一直备受研究者的关注。基于此,我们选取老舍先生的话剧《茶馆》及霍华(John Howard –Gibbon)、英若诚的两部英译本作为研究现代汉语疑问语气词“吗”、“呢”、“吧”的专书,希望通过我们的研究,为文学翻译研究及对外汉语教学研究提供一些基础性研究成果。剧本《茶馆》是老舍(1899-1966)创作的一本不朽名著,其讲述了老北京裕泰大茶馆历经清末、民初及抗战胜利后国民党统治时期这三个年代间的北京社会风貌,充分反映了解放前社会的黑暗、政府官员的腐败。老舍先生在《茶馆》中刻画的人物性格特点十分鲜明,人物语言高度口语化、个性化,大量语气词的使用充分体现了剧本中人物不同性格和身份地位以及话语参与者之间的人际关系。《茶馆》不仅是一部文学巨著,也是一个丰富的语料宝库。从语言学角度来说,《茶馆》堪称现代汉语语言的实录,它反映了现代汉语语言的基本面貌,具有很大的研究价值。自问世以来,《茶馆》受到了国内外文学、语言学及翻译界的极大关注,曾先后被译为英语、日语、罗马尼亚语等多种语言。
            ………..
             
            第二节 研究现状
            语气词是表达现代汉语各种语气的重要手段之一。胡壮麟(1989)认为,汉语的语气系统和英语语气系统存在着比较大的区别:英语中,表达语气的主要成分是句子的主语和定谓成分;而汉语的各种语气则主要依靠使用不同的语气词和惊叹词来体现,其中疑问语气系统最能反映出汉语的特点[4]。虽然疑问语气词在现代汉语中的数量少,但其在书面语和口语中使用频率非常高,在语法学研究中,一直备受研究者的关注。王力(1980)对汉语和英语的语气进行了对比。他认为,从意义上来说,汉语的语气词所表达的语气和英语的语气(modality)类似,但是在语法结构上,两者却有着巨大差异:英语的语气是通过动词的形态变化体现出来的,而汉语的语气则是由句末添加表示不同语气的虚词来体现[21]。吕叔湘将语气看成一个语法范畴,他认为语气可分为广义和狭义两种。广义的语气包括“语意”和“语势”。而狭义的语气则是指“概念相同的语句,因使用的目的不同所产生的分别。[11]”胡明扬(1993)对现代汉语的语气词作了较为系统的研究,他认为,语气词是典型的虚词,不能单独使用;现代汉语语气词的语气意义系统由陈述、祈使、疑问和感叹四种语气组成[38]。依据表达内容,语气可分为三类:表情语气,表示说话人的某种感情;表态语气,表示说话人的态度;表意语气,表示说话人向对方传递某种信息。[37]齐沪扬(2002)把汉语的语气系统分成了两大类,即功能语气和意志语气。他认为,语气是通过语法形式表达的说话人针对句中命题的一种主观意识[14]。贺阳(1992)对汉语的语气系统作了比较全面的理论表述,他将疑问语气分为两大类:询问语气和反诘语气[36]。他指出特指问句末可以有语气助词“呢”、“啊”,不能有“吗”,是非问句末可以有“吗”、“啊”,不能有“呢”,而选择问句末可以有语气助词“呢”、“啊”不能有“吗”。张伯江(1995)提出疑问标记服务于不同的疑问域,疑问代词服务于疑问点,既可以是一个命题,也可以是一个点,或是一个区域,具体要看疑问标记为何[59]。
            ………….
             
            第一章 句末语气词“吗”的意义、用法及英语翻译
             
            第一节 句末语气词“吗”的意义与用法
            现代汉语中,语气词“吗”是一个典型的疑问语气词,其主要作用是突出疑问焦点,强化疑问语气。从疑问句的形式类别来看,语气词“吗”主要用于是非问句句末,也可以用于反意问、回声问。如:A:你这样做也太过分了。B:过分吗?你也不问问他们以前到底对我做了些什么。句末语气词“吗”既可以用于真性疑问句(疑问度为百分之百),也可以用于假性疑问句(疑问度为零)。此外,“吗”也可以用于介于真性疑问和假性疑问之间的其他不同疑问度的疑问句中。比如下面各句的疑问度是依次降低的:A: 你有孩子吗?>你孩子上学了吗?>你孩子昨天没有去上学吗?B: 我可以这样做吗?>我这样做可以吗?>我不可以这样做吗?>我这样做不可以吗?>我这样做真的不可以吗?>我这样做难道不可以吗?是非问句(又叫然否问句、一般疑问句),结构上像陈述句,只是要用上疑问语调或兼用语气助词,要求作肯定或否定的回答,句末常用语气助词“吗、吧、啊”等,但不用“呢”。在汉语和英语中,是非问句都是疑问句的主要类别之一。在结构形式上,两者存在着语言内部及语言间的差异,但其语用功能基本相同,即寻求对其所包含命题的肯定或否定回答。在翻译过程中,汉英是非问句表面的一致会使译者忽视疑问结构体对语用功能的标示作用,往往使得译文在语用功能效果方面出现一定程度的关联缺失,交际者的话语语气不能在译文中得到很好地表达与传递。
            …………
             
            第二节 句末带“吗”的是非问句和英语是非问句的对比
            徐盛桓(1998)提出了语用嬗变理论来解释英语是非问句的结构特点[57]。他认为,疑问结构体由疑问标示与疑问项组成,疑问标示包括:疑问句末的问号;疑问句句末的标记语调;倒装语序;句首添加的“wh”词及词组以及其它特定的句式结构。疑问项是指疑问句中起信息探寻作用的内容或范围。由此我们可以发现汉英是非问句在形式结构上有其共同之处:两者都有其肯定式和否定式,都有结句标点“?”,英汉语中均有附加问和陈述问。而区别在于汉语是非问句标准句式为“基本形式(肯定)+吗+ ?或基本形式(否定)+吗+ ?” 而英语是非问句的标准形式是主谓倒装,另外英语中没有与汉语“陈述句+吧”相对应的形式。夸克(Quirk 1985)对英语是非问句的功能进行了全面的归类和分析。夸克以问句是否包含“问话人的期望”(speaker`s expectation)将疑问句分为“中性问题”(neutral question)和“引导性问题”(conducive question)[33]。朱纯深和吴旭东(2004)对英汉是非问句的构成及其功能进行了归纳与对比分析,并通过实证研究,分析了英语是非问句汉译之难点。他们将是非问句的主要功能归纳为:寻求信息、引导回答和展示情感等三类,而表达这些语用功能的是非问句则相应地被称为“中性问题” (neutral question)、“引导性问题”(conducive question)和“展示性问题”(manifestational question)[60]。彭小川(2006)认为,带“吗”的是非问句应分为两类:表中性问的是“吗 1”;表示诧异、怀疑或反问的是“吗 2”[60]。
            ……….
             
            第三章 句末语气词“吧”的意义、用法及英语翻译.....50
            第一节 句末语气词“吧”的意义与用法 ..........50
            第二节 句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ............53
            一 陈述句句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ......54
            (一)表示揣测意义的陈述句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ........55
            (二)表示宣告意义的陈述句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ........57
            (三)表示同意意义的陈述句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ........58
            二 疑问句句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ......59
            (一)句末带“吧”的典型是非问句的英语翻译 .......60
            (二)句末带“吧”的附加问句的英语翻译 ...........62
            三 祈使句句末语气词“吧”的英语翻译 ......64
            第三节 小结 .......65
             
            第二章 句末语气词“吧”的意义、用法及英语翻译
             
            第一节 句末语气词“吧”的意义与用法
            传统语法一般认为,现代汉语句末语气词如“吗”、“呢”、“吧”等是用来表达“情态”的,所以被称为“情态虚词”。其中,每个情态虚词在不同的句子结构中有着不同的意义。和“吗”、“呢”一样,“吧”在现代汉语中也被广泛使用,但对其语用功能与意义,学界也是颇有争论的。一种观点是将“吧”看做疑问语气词;另一种观点是将“吧”排除在“表示疑问”的行列之外。之所以引起了争议,是因为“吧”可以出现在多种句式中,表示不同的语气。吕叔湘在《现代汉语八百词》(2012)中认为,“吧”是表示疑信之间语气的一个语气词,也是在祈使句里出现得最多的一个语气词[62]。“吧”可以用于祈使句的末尾,表示“命令、请求、催促、建议”等含义;也可以用于问句的末尾,表达揣测的语气,经常与“大概、也许”等表示揣测语气的副词共现,构成“大概……吧”、“也许……吧”等结构,共同表达不确定、揣测的语气。此外,“吧”可以用在“好”、“行”、“可以”等后面构成“好吧”、“行吧”、“可以吧”等结构,表示对对方所说内容的同意,是一种应答语。
            ……….
             
            结 语
             
            语言的表达与一个民族的思维方式和文化特点有着密切的关系,语气的表达更是如此,因为语气是直接与表达者的态度和观点以及语境相联系的。现代汉语主要依靠语气词来表达各种不同的语气,而英语则是通过动词形态和位置的变化来表达语气。现代汉语语气与时、体等相互疏离,而英语的语气与时体等其他语法范畴密切相关[20]。现代汉语语气词“吗”、“呢”、“吧”在书面语和口头语中使用频率非常高,但其意义和语用功能比较复杂,学界有着不同看法。语气词“吗”、“呢”、“吧”在英语翻译中有多种替代手段,如利用语气隐喻手段,利用英语中的其他词类,利用英语的相关时态,利用英语中的相关句式等,同时,语气词在某些情况下存在着不可译的现象。另外,本文从语言学的角度探索翻译,使得功能目的理论、关联理论等翻译学理论得到了更好的诠释,同时也为语言学的研究开辟了一个新的视角。经过对语料的对比分析,我们认为句末语气词“吗”是典型的疑问语气词,其基本意义是询问,表示提问者对所表达的命题不能做出判断,需要对方证实。在翻译中,按照提问者的提问目的和语境,文章从反诘性“吗”字是非问句和询问性“吗”字是非问句两大类探讨了其英语翻译情况。我们发现,翻译中,霍译较多地采用否定式的一般疑问句表达原文的反诘语气,英译则将反诘语气译为陈述语气,通过添加情态词或副词的方式来体现反诘的语气,另外,汉英语调有着类似的表态功能、表义功能和语法功能,因此,语调也是表达语气的重要手段之一。在询问性“吗”字是非问句翻译中,译者较多使用语调是非问句和一般疑问句式结构进行了翻译,另外我们发现霍译文本善于使用感叹词来表达倾向性的询问。
            ............
            参考文献(略)

             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇六

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1 Background of the Research
            Starting from 1991 the Test for English Majors Band 8 (TEM-8) has undergone 22years' practice. It is a criterion-referenced proficiency test,and its objects are based on theNational Teaching Syllabus. (Zou Shen,1997: 12) TEM-8 has received wide recognitionfrom colleges and universities and the whole society as well. It is held every springtowards the end of the English majors' BA (Bachelor of Arts) program. This test isdesigned by the testing center in Shanghai International Studies University under thesupervision of the National Ministry of Education. The test candidates consist of Englishmajors. If they fail in the first test, they will have only one more chance to make up thistest. And it is used to evaluate an English major graduate's competence. To a certain extent,the TEM-8 certificate for an English major student is very important and useful; it mayinfluence his or her career or further education. For many employers, they tend to see acompetent English major graduate as an equivalent to a holder of the certificate of TEM-8.Many Hong Kong universities, such as Hong Kong Baptist University, require that theapplicants from Mainland China have a TEM-8 certificate when they apply for the MA(Master of Arts) program of English literature or English linguistics. Many universities inMainland China also require that postgraduates of English major should have a TEM-8certificate to apply for their graduate degree's diploma.
            …………
             
            1.2 Research purpose and significance
            The title of the dissertation clearly reveals that the main object is to study thetranslation errors of English majors, find the causes for them, and give some copingstrategies. It will adopt textual analysis as the basic method in the process of researching.The author of this thesis has collected some translation exercises of third-year English majors from Yangtze University and selected some cases to analyze. Inductive method andcomparative analysis will be widely used in this thesis.From the linguistic point of view,error is defined as "a linguistic form or combinationof forms which, in the same context or in the similar conditions of production,would notbe produced by the native speakers." (Lennon,1991: 35) Or it can be interpreted as theviolation of target language norms. In the field of applied linguistics,many scholars stressthe significance of learners' errors. The father of Error Analysis (EA),Corder (1967) has commented in his influential article that learners' errors are significant in three differentrespects. First,it is helpful for the teachers to know how much the students have learnt andhow much they need to improve, if a systematic analysis is undertaken. Second,it isinformative to the researchers, because learners' errors provide an insight into theirlanguage learning process, and reveal the stages of acquisition, and the strategies thatlearners use to learn a target language. Third, it is significant to the learners themselves,because error commitment is an inevitable feature of their learning, and even can beregarded as one of the motives the learners use in order to make progress. In fact,translation errors occur frequently in English majors' practices, and many stu#nts thinkthat translation is extremely difficult in TEM-8. Therefore, in this thesis,guided by EA, theauthor focuses on translation errors and their causes,tries to employ EA to explore thecauses of translation errors and searches for the coping strategies in the hope that it canhelp students to improve translation ability and make forther improvement in translationteaching and learning.
            ………..
             
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 A Brief History of Translation Teaching in China
            According to Mu Lei (1999: 35),"Modern systems of foreign language instructionin China began in 1862" when the first foreign school — Tongwenguan InterpretersCollege was set up by the Qing Government. Translators were trained there for the mainpurpose of serving the Chinese merchants in doing business with foreigners. From thenon, translation teaching (to be exact, teaching translation) was used as a means ofteaching foreign languages and it was not until 1978 that translation became anindependent course offered to university or college students, namely translation teachingnowadays. In the year 1902, Tongwenguan Interpreters College was incorporated intoMetropolitan College as the Translation Department. This is generally regarded as thebeginning of translation education in institutions of higher learning in China.As early as 1944,Yan'an Foreign Languages School began to offer courses intraining translators and interpreters for political, military and foreign affairs. Fu Ke (1989)records its teaching programs, teaching methods and existing problems in his book OnForeign Languages Teaching. According to Mu Lei (1999: 8), they are "the earliest andmost elaborate records on translation teaching." The teaching practice in this period hasaccumulated useful experiences and paved the road for later translation teaching in China.Between 1949 and 1978, courses in translation were offered in some foreign languagesinstitutions and departments in the country, including the present Guangdong Universityof Foreign Studies, Tianjin Foreign Studies University, Dalian University of ForeignLanguages. But at the same time translation was mainly taken as an exercise to learn aforeign language, not as an independent course for the students. The concepts of teachingtranslation and translation teaching were always mixed up and there was no distinctionmade between them. The translation course was mainly offered for the undergraduatesmajoring in foreign languages and there were no specific departments or programs totrain translators and interpreters. (Mu Lei, 1999: 35) As a result, the number of qualifiedtranslators and interpreters was quite limited.
            ……….
             
            2.2 Views on Translation Error Studies
            Researchers abroad and at home have studied translation errors from differentaspects and theoretical perspectives, Melie and Albir (2002; 11-15) hold that the analysis of translation errors should beconducted from two aspects: lack of knowledge and inadequate application orassimilation of the principles governing translation. However, Liao Baisen (2010)believes that the analysis of translation errors is closely related to the process oftranslation, so he suggests that the process-oriented approach, such as Gile,s sequentialmodel of translation, be more preferable to analyze translation errors. According to Gile'smodel (1994),the process of translation is divided into two stages: comprehension andreformulation. At the first stage of comprehension, translators first employ their firstlanguage ability and background knowledge to establish a meaning hypothesis,temporarily assigning a meaning to the part of the text being worked on,and then checkthe meaning hypothesis for fidelity and linguistic acceptability. At the second stage ofreformulation, translators verbalize the meaning of the text in the target language andcheck whether relevant information is included and extraneous information is notincluded. Errors in translation can be traced back to those two stages. Language errorsmight be the translators' failure in the checking process of linguistic acceptability at thesecond stage of reformulation. If translation errors were found,it would mean thattranslators failed in fidelity checking of the first stage of comprehension. However,Gile's model is not suitable for the analysis of students' translation errors, because itcannot offer solutions to students' errors in particular linguistic contexts. (Ouyang,2008:11)
            …………
             
            Chapter Three Theoretical Framework..........10
            3.1 Definitions ........10
            3.2 Error Analysis as the Theoretical Basis........12
            Chapter Four An Overview of Translation Teaching........16
            4.1 Translation Skill Requirements for English Majors........ 16
            4.2 Development and Present Situation of Translation Teaching........ 16
            4.3 Translation Competence........ 20
            4.4 Summary ........23 
            Chapter Five EA-based Translation Error Analysis........ 25
            5.1 Analysis of Errors in Students' Translation Practices ........25
            5.2 Typical Errors in Students' Translation Practices........ 40
            5.3 Causes of Errors in Students' Translation Practices........ 44
            5.4 Suggestions for Handling the Problems ........47
             
            Chapter Five EA-based Translation Error Analysis
             
            5.1 Analysis of Errors in Students' Translation Practices
            According to Ellis (1995,70),“Errors are not something to be avoided but are aninevitable feature of the learning process. Indeed, the very concept of 'error' comes to bechallenged on the grounds that learners act systematically in accordance with the mentalgrammars they have constructed and that their utterances are well-formed in terms of thesegrammars."According to Corder (1967: 167) “A learner's errors are significant in three differentways. First to the teacher in that they tell him, if he undertakes a systematic analysis,howfar towards that goal the learner has progressed and,consequently, what remains for him tolearn. Second they provide to researchers evidence of how language is learned or acquired,what strategies or procedures the learner is employing in his discovery of the language.Thirdly, they are indispensable to the learner himself because we can regard the making oferrors are a device the learner uses in order to learn."So,in the process of translation, students tend to make some mistakes or errors. Inorder to find the problems,the author of this thesis presents several examples, all ofwhich are student's translations of the source texts in TEM-8. The following are theEnglish-to-Chinese translation or Chinese-to-English translation source texts (ST), inwhich all the sentences are numbered for discussion's convenience and the student'starget texts (TT) follow the ST.
            ……….
             
            Conclusion
             
            Since TEM-8 is becoming more and more important, students and teachers pay moreattention to it. According to students' feedback and our investigation, translation is a bigdifficult for students to do TEM-8. Therefore,this thesis turns to the study of errors in thetranslation exercises concerning authentic TEM-8 translation materials and put forwardsome coping strategies, hoping that it can give English major students a little help in theirtranslation competence improvements. However, there are some limitations in the presentstudy. Although the author has conducted the present research on errors in the translationexercises and analyzed some typical problems,putting forward some constructivesuggestions for teachers and students, there are still some limitations and problems thatneed to be mentioned. The selected examples might not be enough for analysis of theproblems, and the analyses are not detailed. The other limitation of the study is that thisthesis mainly discusses errors in the translation exercises, thus some other aspects areneglected, such as translation teaching, translation exercise design, the coursearrangement and the time of translation class every semester, and so on. They are allcalled for further study and investigation. Besides,as the number of examples is notenough to get more usefiil problems, those suggestions given above are not tooconstructive and may be only helpful to those students who are strongly willing to learntranslation well but of little help to lazy students.Finally, the author of this thesis wants to give some suggestions for futureresearchers. With the rapid growth of economy,the demands of various fields aredifferent at different periods, which can be described by the popular saying at home: theplan cannot catch up with the change. Though a very good translation methodology isgreatly advocated at present, it could not last forever. Teachers and researchers shouldcontinuously do researches and introduce new methods for students to keep up with thedevelopment of society. Besides,translation classes should adapt to the students andencompass a variety of pedagogical approaches, laying the emphasis on pedagogic orprofessional activities depending on whether the sessions are aimed at undergraduateEnglish majors. The author also hopes that more and more universities could pay moreattention to translation teaching, and therefore help students to cultivate their translationcompetence.
            ............
            References (omitted)
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇七

             
            Chapter 1 Introduction
             
            1.1 Background of the Study
            21 St century is a time which tends to international exchange and cooperation day by day‘The ability to use English has been considered as the necessary ability of internationalexchange, and has become the requirement of basic quality for modem talent in globalintegration. Recently, the requirement of English talent is especially urgent in all kinds offields in China, and the requirement of English level is becoming higher and higher. It doesnot only stay in the level of passing CET4 and CET6, but the most important thing is oralcommunication and practical ability. As the matter of fact, many Chinese students haveexcellent ability in English reading and writing, but a few of them have good ability inEnglish oral communication. The cause of this phenomenon is that Chinese teachers pay moreattention to grammar, reading, writing and translation, but ignoring the oral communication,and the Chinese English learners also ignore the initial purpose of English learning —communication. Thus, the essential task is to enhance the communicative ability and toemphasize the speaking. In recent years, college English education devotes much attention tocultivate the ability of English oral communication. And the teaching program of collegeEnglish sets the final goal of teaching in having the ability in English oral communication.The traditional pedagogy considered error as the sign of failure in language learning, andaccuracy as the basic goal in teaching. Thus,teachers controlled the students' output andavoided the students making errors. But for learners,making errors is common and inevitable,and error is the main characteristic in the second language acquisition (SLA). Errors reflectthe stage of learners,interlanguage development, so it is regarded as a positive part in theprocess of SLA. Error analysis makes people divert their attention from the initial avoidanceof errors to error study and correction, this provides a more direct and effective method inSLA study. Through analyzing errors, teachers could find out the shortcomings both inlearning and teaching.
            ………..
             
            1.2 Significance of the Study
            This study is significant in several aspects. First, it has the theoretical significance. Thecontroversy over the topic of error correction, however, remains unsolved up till now (Lee,1997:466), Some western researchers have done some work on error correction in westerncountries, and they mainly focus on the value of error correction and the types of errorscorrection, such as,Corder (1967),Allwright (1975), Hendrickson (1978), Kr^hen (1983),Ellis (1991),Carroll and Swain (1993),Long(1996),Lyster and Ranta (1997). While in China,many researchers also done the theoretical studies,their studies are about Error Analysis (EA)theory and the error correction strategies, such as Gui Shichun (1985),Wang Churning(1990),Dai Weidong and Shu Dingfaag (1994). Little empirical research has been done aboutthe in-class oral error correction for non-English majored college students. This study takesthe non-English majored college students as the research objects, and find out the necessity oferror correction in oral English classroom and propose the theory about the effectivecorrective feedback for the teachers and the learners' uptake to the corrective feedback.
            ……….
             
            Chapter 2 Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Major Terms Definition
            According to Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching & Applied Linguistics, error isdefined as following: (in the speech or writing of a second or foreign language learner) theuse of a linguistic item,(e.g.,a word,a grammatical item, a SPEECH ACT,etc.) in a waywhich a fluent or native speaker of the language regards as showing faulty or incompletelearning. A distinction is sometimes made between an error, which results from incompleteknowledge, and a mistake made by a learner when writing or speaking and which is caused bylack of attention, fatigue, carelessness, or some other aspect of performance (Richards, J.C.,Piatt, J, & Plant,H.,1998). And a distinction is also made between an error and a slip. Edge(1989) says a slip is what a learner can self-correct if pointed out if he is given the chance,whereas an error is what a learner cannot self-correct even if his wrongness is pointed out. Anattempt is a guess or when neither the intended meaning nor the structure is clear to theteacher (James, 1998:80-81).Experts have some different versions of definitions of the word error. And while definingerror, they often compare error with mistake or slip. Corder is regarded as a pioneer indefining the term of error, he (1967) points out that an error is a deviation in learner languagewhich results from lack of knowledge of the correct rule. It contrasts to a mistake. An errorcan be overt (the deviation is apparent in the surface form of the utterance) or covert (thedeviation is only evident when the learner's meaning intention is taken into account) (Ellis,1994:700). H. D.Brown (1994:205) shows the difference between error and mistake. He saysthat a mistake is a performance error that is either a random guess or a slip,in that it is afailure to utilize a known system correctly. 
            ………..
             
            2.2 Relevant Theories
            When we discuss the theoretical basis of the effectiveness of corrective feedback anduptake, three relevant theories must be mentioned. One is the Interaction Hypothesis which israised by Michael Long in 1985; the other is the Comprehensible Output Hypothesis which isproposed by Merrill Swain in 1985; the third one is the Noticing Hypothesis which is built bySchmidt in 1986. Long has the further research on the basis of Krashen's Input Hypothesis. He finds outthat both parties of communication will attempt to hold the negotiation of meaning in order tokeep the conversation going smoothly, and then produces the interactive modification, so as topropose the Interaction Hypothesis.Like the input hypothesis, the interaction hypothesis emphasizes the significance ofcomprehensible input. It also seeks to explain how acquisition comes about and makes claimsregarding which kinds of interaction will best promote it. Input is at “i+l”,one step ahead ofthe learner's existing L2 knowledge; interaction 一 i+l,or the interaction hypothesis.Compares Krashen's input hypothesis with Long's interaction hypothesis, the only thing newis the addition of an "interaction" component, which leads to input (Ding-Yanren: 134).
            ………..
             
            Chapter 3 Research Design and Method...........25
            3.1 Research Design ..........25
            3.2 Participants.......... 25
            3.3 Data Collection ..........26
            Chapter 4 Analysis and Discussion.......... 28
            4.1 Students' Errors Most Frequently Corrected .......... 30
            4.1.1 Error Types.......... 30
            4.1.2Distribution of Errors.......... 31
            4.2 Corrective Feedback Most Actively Responded with Students' Uptake ..........34
            4.2.1 Types of Corrective Feedback ..........34
            4.2.2 Types of Uptake ..........36
            4.2.3 Distribution of Students Uptakes.......... 39
            4.3 Corrective Feedback Most Frequently Used and Feedback.......... 43
            Chapter 5 Conclusion .......... 50
             
            Chapter 4 Analysis and Discussion
             
             4.1 Error Treatment Sequence by Lyster and Ranta (1997)
            The sequence begins with a learner's utterance containing at least one error. Theerroneous utterance is followed either by the teacher's corrective feedback or not; if not,thenthere is topic continuation. If corrective feedback is provided by the teacher,then it is eitherfollowed by uptake on the part of the student or not (no uptake entails topic continuation). Ifthere is uptake, then the student's erroneous utterance is either repaired or continues to needrepair in some way. If the utterance needs repair,then the teacher may again providecorrective feedback; if no further feedback is provided, then there is topic continuation.Lyster and Ranta's analytic model was designed to capture learner uptake only in turnsimmediately following corrective feedback,but the uptake is not necessary indicative oflearning. Nonetheless,they believe that the student-generated repairs which can lead to uptakein the error treatment sequence may be important in L2 learning. Although their study dealwith classroom observation predominantly conducted in a French learning context, it is worthbeing applied to other languages' learning contexts,since the study might reveal effectiveinteractions between teachers and students, which can facilitate SLA. And it might beimportant to conduct a classroom observation study in an ESL or EFL context.
            ………..
             
            Conclusion
             
            The current study was inspired by Lyster and Ranta's (1997) study, and has explored therelationship between error types and corrective feedback, and also the relationship betweencorrective feedback and uptake for non-English majors in college. With the help of the datafrom classroom observation, students' questionnaire, and teachers,interviews,the results ofthe current study show both similarities and differences to and from those in Lyster andRanta's study.The following is a summary of .the major findings:First, in three categories of errors—grammatical errors, phonological errors, and lexicalerrors,most of errors responded with teachers' corrective feedback is lexical errors (43%) inthe current study. This results from the students' low competence of oral English; theyhaven't mastered enough vocabulary, thus they usually can not use the correct words in theirutterance, and teacher has to provide some words to ensure accuracy or fluency. However,students think that they always or often make grammatical errors; they regard grammar as themost important aspect in EFL learning and they often make errors on grammar.
            ............
            References (omitted)

             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇八

             
            Introduction
             
            0.1 Research Objectives
            This research is intended to investigate the English as foreign language (EFL)undergraduates’ using the self-regulated strategies (SRSs) to regulate their motivation. Itconsists of two related studies. Study one addresses the SRSs the subjects use to regulate theirmotivation by the form of a structured-questionnaire from a quantitative approach, whilestudy two is an interview based on the result of study one and previous researches.Motivation is the direct cause and inner motive power of English learning, but in theprocess of learning, students are hardly consistent in keeping high motivation all the way,especially when they face bald, insignificant stuff and materials which are hard to understand.At this point, for the sake of keeping the motivations going, they must take certain SRSs toadjust them. In fact, in the recent years, researchers at home have begun to pay close attentionto the dynamic essence of motivation. But there remain still many unsolved problems. What’sthe overall pattern in using motivational regulation strategies (MRSs) among Chinesenon-English undergraduates? Are there any differences in the use of MRSs in terms of genderand specialty? Are there any link between the use of MRSs and academic achievement?In order to solve these problems, this study is intended to have a survey among Chineseundergraduates by using the questionnaire. It is mainly designed to examine the SRSs Chinesenon-English undergraduates use to adjust their motivation, and the relation of motivationalregulation with their academic achievement, gender and specialty. Besides, interviews wereconducted to get further knowledge about undergraduates’ SRSs for motivation.
            ……….
             
            0.2 Significance of the Study
            The present research is expected to display the significance in four aspects.Firstly, although motivational regulation has been regarded as an important aspect ofself-regulated learning (SRL) and is thought to have a great impact on academic achievement,there is still relatively little investigation about it. On the previous studies, researches in this field were confined to the monitor and control of the cognitive strategies. Undeniably, thecognitive strategies, such as retelling, refining, organizing, are extremely important tolearning, but the motivation, i.e. how much students are willing to expend on the study, is alsovery vital.Secondly, previous studies on the relationship between motivation and SRL are mainlysingle-way cause and result relation, that is to say, it holds the view that different motivationconstruction will have great impact on learners’ use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies,but there is still little study on whether learners use some kinds of SRSs to adjust theirmotivation or not.Thirdly, some scholars had made several researches on motivational self-regulation(MSR) on different subjects, such as American college students (Wolters, college 224‐35),students in college of Taiwan region (Cheng Binlin, relation 79-102), Chinese college students (Li Kun,strategy research 305-13), and so on. For foreign language learning, there has been raresystematic experimental study so far that has been devoted to examining how motivationalregulation bears on foreign language learning. We know little about whether and how Chineseundergraduates regulate their motivation, to say nothing of the role of motivational regulationin their foreign language learning.Lastly, this research will provide pedagogical implications for English teaching, andgive help to students to deal with the obstacles they will encounter in language learning.
            ……..
             
            Chpater One Literature Review
             
            1.1 Motivational Regulation
            Although the term SRL is originally a concept in educational psychology, it has beenpaid increasing attention by language researchers, and the fostering of students’ ability toregulate their learning is now more and more increasingly acknowledged as a major objectivewithin language education. The critical importance of motivation in affecting the learning of second language (L2)has been generally recognized, however, the previous researches are mainly devoted toanalyzing how to motivate learners rather than to analyzing what motivation itself is. In recentyears, the emphasis of researches on motivation have begun to shift from distinguishingvaried motivations, the motivational theories and the role of motivation to discussing thedynamic features of motivation and the maintenance of motivation (e.g., D rnyei, “themes”,“attitudes”; D rnyei and  Ottó; Li and Wu; Manolopoulou-Sergi; Zhou and Rao). Previousresearches found that students who are good at regulating their motivation should learn morethan the students less skilled at that.Motivational regulation is a new terminology in the field of L2, but it shares muchsimilar meaning with the term “control of motivation” in the field of L2 learning, and itssignificance for L2 learning has been generally recognized. This type of self-control ofmotivation has also been recognized as a vital aspect in theories of volition, and it takesself-control of motivation as an individual’s ability to ensure the completion of his previouslyset goals in the face of competing demands or distractions (Corno and Kanfer 335). 
            ………..
             
            1.2 Some Items Related to MSR
            Except researches on whether and how learners regulate their motivation duringlearning process, there are still many researches on the relation of motivational regulation with other items, such as the other components of SRL, academic achievement, gender andspecialty. By investigating the differences in using different strategies under different learningcontexts and their relation with other components of SRL, Wolters (college 233-34) foundthat intrinsic regulation and learning goal orientation were moderately and positively related,and extrinsic regulation and performance goal orientation as well; while intrinsic regulationwas negatively related to performance goal orientation, and extrinsic regulation was alsonegatively related to learning goal orientation. In addition, intrinsic regulation had a positiverelation with learners’ reported use of elaboration, critical thinking, organization, andmetacognitive strategies, while extrinsic regulation was negatively related to those items. Ithas found that intrinsic regulation is a significantly positive predictor of learners’ use ofmetacognitive strategies, elaboration, and critical thinking.There were moderate to strong relations between students’ regulation of motivation andtheir use of metacognitive and cognitive strategies. Each MRS was correlated significantly toat least three cognitive and metacognitive learning strategies. Learners who were reported touse more frequently the MRSs tend to report used more metacognitive and cognitivestrategies as well. All the five MRSs were correlated positively with effort, furthermore,students who reported using more MRSs also paid much more efforts and persistence forlearning task (Wolters, high 295).
            ………..
             
            Chapter Three Results and Discussion ..........25 
            3.1 Reliability of the Questionnaire .....25 
            3.2 Overall Pattern in the Use of MRS........26 
            3.3 Factors Influencing the Use of MRS .....27
            3.4 Motivational Problems Encountered by Learners .........41
            3.5 MRS Taken by Learners.....43
            Chpater Four Implications.........53 
            4.1 Helping Teachers Change Their Training Mode....53 
            4.2 Helping Learners Self-regulate Their Motivation .........54
             
            Chpater Four Implications
             
            4.1 Helping Teachers Change Their Training Mode
            Though cognitive, metacognitive and motivational regulations share equal importance,and the critical significance of motivational regulation has been generally recognized, most ofprevious studies were on the metacognitive and cognitive aspects, motivational regulation isstill a relatively less researched field. There is no denying that metacognitive and cognitiveregulation strategies are important for English learning, but the motivational aspect is alsoindispensable because how much learners are willing to spend on learning determines greatlytheir achievementsMotivation has been generally recognized as a determinant of vital importance ininfluencing language learning. Foreign language educators have been trying to find out howthey can stimulate their students’ interest; however, in the past researchers’ focuses weremainly set in the perspective of the strategies teachers can make in stimulating their studentsduring the process of teaching; little attention was given to discussing how teachers can helpstudents self-keep and -increase their motivation when they encounter motivational problemsduring English learning.According to the findings of the present research, the employing of MRSs do play acritical role in reflecting learners’ English achievement, and the high English achievers usedmore MRSs than the low achievers. The finding tells us the key importance of students’self-regulating their motivation and reminds trainers of the awareness of that. Therefore,teachers should help students establish awareness of regulating their motivation when theydon’t feel like fulfilling their English learning tasks. We also found there do exist femaledominance and specialty dominance which tell teachers more helps should be given to thosemale students and students of science. In order to help learners achieve higher Englishachievement, it is of great importance and significance for both learners and educators torecognize that. Teachers and trainers’ attention should be paid to not only how they canstimulate students’ motivation but also how to assist them to self-regulate their motivation.
            ……….
             
            Conclusion
             
            Motivational regulation has been viewed as a critically important aspect of SRL and hasgreat impact on academic achievements, and the lack of motivation is a frequent problemexperienced by EFL Chinese undergraduates, however, the relevant studies on it is little withstill several problems to be solved. Five major findings can be drawn from the results presented in this investigation.
            (i)Chinese EFL undergraduates do frequently rely on some MRSs to maintain orincrease their motivation in English learning until fulfill the tasks, such as negative-basedincentive, performance self-talk, mastery self-talk, volitional control, interest enhancement,task value enhancement, self-reward, and self-efficacy enhancement.
            (ii)Language proficiency does influence the use of MRSs, that is, the high-proficiencylearners used more MRSs than the low-proficiency learners. In general, the means of HG forfive types (negative-based incentive, performance self-talk, mastery self-talk, interestenhancement, and task value enhancement) of MRSs were significantly higher than those ofMG; Means of HG were significantly higher than those of the LG for seven of the eightMRSs with the exception of self-reward; Means of MG were significantly higher than thoseof LG for five MRSs (mastery self-talk, volitional control, interest enhancement, task valueenhancement and self-efficacy enhancement).
            ............
            References (omitted)
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇九

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1Research Background
            It is well known that human being has entered into a rapidly developing world ofinternet, science and technology. The life-long learning has been the important aim of schooleducation. Therefore, in order to master knowledge faster and better, it is not only necessaryfor students to have efficient learning methods and strategies but also to get to know their ownlearning and thinking process in order to improve their self-monitor and self-regulationeffectively. This kind of ability of thinking and self-control refer to one kind of metacognitiveabilities, and those high tactics or skills which enable learners to be more effective andsuccessful in their self-study are defined as metacognitive strategies. And, many researchersmake comments on the role of metacognitive strategies in language learning according totheir researches and understanding. For example, Oxford (1990: 136) proposes that“metacognitive strategies are essential to successful language learning.” In China, Wen(1995) mentioned monitoring role of metacognitive strategies for the first time. Since then,researchers in China show great interest in the study on metacognition.Learners can do self-study by applying network media autonomously. Thepopularization and application of network has changed the traditional mode of study to acertain degree. Online learning becomes a new approach with the coming of informationtechnology. With characteristics of personalization, coordination, plenty of resources,learning under the network environment is beneficial for students' creativity and independentlearning ability. Cultivating the students’ ability under online autonomous learning is anecessity in the present development of society and also an important aim in the schoolteaching. Therefore, online learning becomes an important way of study, and puts forwardhigher demand for autonomous learning ability, especially, the demand for metacognitiveability, the ability of self-planning, self-monitoring and self-regulation,which are vital toindividual life-long learning and development.
            ………
             
            1.2 Purposes of the Study
            Through a survey on metacognitive ability and metacognitive strategies under onlinecollege English autonomous learning employed by Independent College science students inShandong University of Science and Technology, the paper focuses on three questions: thefirst, aims to investigate the general situation of students’ metacognitive ability,metacognitive strategies under online college English autonomous learning; the second,intends to examine the differences existed in the use of metacognitive ability andmetacognitive strategies under online college English autonomous learning between high andlow achievers, the last is to examine the relationships between metacognitive ability,metacognitive strategies and their CET scores among Independent College students.
            ………
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Definitions of Key Terms
            What is Learner Autonomy? Some scholars defined it as a learning process, and someviewed it as a kind of ability. Many different researchers and theorists defined learnerautonomy in many different ways. Even the same researchers have offered differentinterpretations in different periods of time.The definition of “autonomous learning” originated from the discussion on thedevelopment of life-long learning skills in the 1960s. Holec (1981: 47) defined autonomy as“the ability to take charge of one’s own learning”, which has been a major influence in thedebate about autonomy in language learning. Later, Dickinson (1987:11) defined autonomy as“the situation in which the learner is totally responsible for all of the decisions concerned withhis [or her] learning and the implementation of those decisions”.Bound (1988: 17) viewed autonomy as an educational goal that was “an approach toeducational practice”. Littlewood (1999) defined learner autonomy in educational term as theability to acquire knowledge without depending on the teacher. From these definitions, we canget know that autonomous learning is a kind of competence instead of skills.In addition, many scholars gave different ways of definition as well as from varieties ofpoints of concepts. Some researchers defined learner autonomy based on the psychologicalpoint of view. Rathbone (1971) pointed out “the autonomous learner is a self-activated makerof meaning, an active agent in his own learning process.”For other researchers, different factors are taken into account. Dickinson (1987: 11)regarded “autonomy as a special learning environment”. Similarly, Nunan viewed autonomyas a capacity by saying “learners who have reached a point where they are able to define theirown goals and create their own learning opportunities have, by definition, becomeautonomous” (Nunan, 1995).
            ………
             
            2.2 Relationships between Metacognition and Online Autonomous Learning
            The concept of autonomous learning has a full realization of the function of learners’autonomy and stresses the application of metacognition, which can not go without learners’autonomous participation. Autonomous learning and metacognition have a closer relationshipin flexible and opening online learning environment. In this research, it is believed that thedevelopment of online autonomous learning and metacognition is interacted and mutuallypromoted each other. On the one hand, metacognitive ability is the internal condition of onlineautonomous learning. Metacognitive development affects the level and quality of autonomouslearning, whether metacognitive process is regarded as the important procedure ofautonomous learning or metacognitive ability is referred to the internal element ofautonomous learning. On the other hand, autonomous learning and metacognitivedevelopment mutually promote each other. The process of learners’ online autonomouslearning is also the process of learners’ metacognitive development. By autonomous learning,learners’ metacognitive knowledge is accumulated and strengthened. At the same time, self- monitoring capability of metacognition is enhanced as well. With the development ofmetacognitive level, learning efficiency increases and learners’ self-efficiency and confidencecan also be promoted, which will further strengthen meaningful learning and learners’autonomous learning.
            ………
             
            Chapter Three Research Methodology ......... 22
            3.1 Research Context.........22
            3.2 Research Questions .........22
            3.3 Participants .........22
            3.4 Research Instruments.........23
            3.5 Data Collection.........24
            3.6 Data Analysis .........25
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion .........26
            4.1 General Situation of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL .........26
            4.2 Relationships between MAOCEAL, MSOCEAL and CET4 Score.........31
            4.3 Differences in MAOCEAL, MSOCEAL between High .........35
            Chapter Five Conclusion .........39
            5.1 Main Findings .........39
            5.2 Implications.........39
            5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research..........42
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussions
             
            4.1 General Situation of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL
            This section explains the first research question---the overall situation of metacognitiveability and metacognitive strategies under online college English autonomous learning usedby Independent College science students in SDUST. According to Oxford (Version 7.0), the mean of each item of strategy indicates thefrequency of subjects using strategy. The specific corresponding relationship betweenfrequency and scores follows: 4.5~5 indicating “always”, 3.5~4.4 indicating “frequently use”,2.5~3.4 “sometimes use”,1.5~2.4 indicating “rarely use”, 1.0~1.4 “never use”. As shown inTable 3, the total mean value of MA is 63.9745. There are 24 items in MA, the score 63.9745refers to the mean value of the all 24 items, that’s to say, the mean value of each item shouldbe 2.67. Therefore, the explanation for the result is “medium: sometimes”. And the meanvalues of MK (the total score in this aspect is 30), ME (the total score in this aspect is 30) andMR ( the total score in this aspect is 60) are 16.1975, 14.7643 and 33.0127 respectively,which shows that the means of MK and ME are in the low degree, of them, the mean of MRis in the middle degree, and the standard deviations of MK and ME are not so big, which suggests that there is not a big difference in the use of MK and ME. The mean value of MK isslightly higher and ME’s is slightly lower, which shows that the students use MK morefrequent than that of ME during their English study. The unobvious differences among thethree mean values of MK, ME, and MR also demonstrate that the students almost use thethree subcategories equally in English study. The results are related to their wholemetacognitive ability, which becomes relatively better with age, and they know how to plan,monitor and evaluate in English learning. That is probably the reason why the three meanvalues are almost the same.
            …….
             
            Conclusion
             
            The current research shows that MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL used by IndependentCollege students are not in high level. There are three categories: metacognitive knowledge,metacognitive experience and metacognitive regulation in MAOCEAL, and self-planning,self-monitoring and self-evaluation are the three models of MSOCEAL. The participants ofthe Independent Colleges can not have good command of these strategies, which suggests thatthey do not have the general knowledge about MSOCEAL or they haven’t realized theimportance of them. And, another possible reason for the results lies in the neglect of thefunction of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL by English teachers to a certain extent. So it is vitalfor both teachers and learners to pay much attention to the role of MAOCEAL andMSOCEAL in English learning. Owing to the great significance of MAOCEAL andMSOCEAL in English language learning, especially for Independent College Studentsstudying English online, therefore, the author of the current study pay close attention to thediscussion of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL and their impacts on English achievements.
            ............
            References (omitted)
             

            专业英语毕业论文范文精选篇十

             
            Chapter One Introduction
             
            1.1Research Background
            It is well known that human being has entered into a rapidly developing world ofinternet, science and technology. The life-long learning has been the important aim of schooleducation. Therefore, in order to master knowledge faster and better, it is not only necessaryfor students to have efficient learning methods and strategies but also to get to know their ownlearning and thinking process in order to improve their self-monitor and self-regulationeffectively. This kind of ability of thinking and self-control refer to one kind of metacognitiveabilities, and those high tactics or skills which enable learners to be more effective andsuccessful in their self-study are defined as metacognitive strategies. And, many researchersmake comments on the role of metacognitive strategies in language learning according totheir researches and understanding. For example, Oxford (1990: 136) proposes that“metacognitive strategies are essential to successful language learning.” In China, Wen(1995) mentioned monitoring role of metacognitive strategies for the first time. Since then,researchers in China show great interest in the study on metacognition.Learners can do self-study by applying network media autonomously. Thepopularization and application of network has changed the traditional mode of study to acertain degree. Online learning becomes a new approach with the coming of informationtechnology. With characteristics of personalization, coordination, plenty of resources,learning under the network environment is beneficial for students' creativity and independentlearning ability. Cultivating the students’ ability under online autonomous learning is anecessity in the present development of society and also an important aim in the schoolteaching. Therefore, online learning becomes an important way of study, and puts forwardhigher demand for autonomous learning ability, especially, the demand for metacognitiveability, the ability of self-planning, self-monitoring and self-regulation,which are vital toindividual life-long learning and development.
            ………
             
            1.2 Purposes of the Study
            Through a survey on metacognitive ability and metacognitive strategies under onlinecollege English autonomous learning employed by Independent College science students inShandong University of Science and Technology, the paper focuses on three questions: thefirst, aims to investigate the general situation of students’ metacognitive ability,metacognitive strategies under online college English autonomous learning; the second,intends to examine the differences existed in the use of metacognitive ability andmetacognitive strategies under online college English autonomous learning between high andlow achievers, the last is to examine the relationships between metacognitive ability,metacognitive strategies and their CET scores among Independent College students.
            ………
            Chapter Two Literature Review
             
            2.1 Definitions of Key Terms
            What is Learner Autonomy? Some scholars defined it as a learning process, and someviewed it as a kind of ability. Many different researchers and theorists defined learnerautonomy in many different ways. Even the same researchers have offered differentinterpretations in different periods of time.The definition of “autonomous learning” originated from the discussion on thedevelopment of life-long learning skills in the 1960s. Holec (1981: 47) defined autonomy as“the ability to take charge of one’s own learning”, which has been a major influence in thedebate about autonomy in language learning. Later, Dickinson (1987:11) defined autonomy as“the situation in which the learner is totally responsible for all of the decisions concerned withhis [or her] learning and the implementation of those decisions”.Bound (1988: 17) viewed autonomy as an educational goal that was “an approach toeducational practice”. Littlewood (1999) defined learner autonomy in educational term as theability to acquire knowledge without depending on the teacher. From these definitions, we canget know that autonomous learning is a kind of competence instead of skills.In addition, many scholars gave different ways of definition as well as from varieties ofpoints of concepts. Some researchers defined learner autonomy based on the psychologicalpoint of view. Rathbone (1971) pointed out “the autonomous learner is a self-activated makerof meaning, an active agent in his own learning process.”For other researchers, different factors are taken into account. Dickinson (1987: 11)regarded “autonomy as a special learning environment”. Similarly, Nunan viewed autonomyas a capacity by saying “learners who have reached a point where they are able to define theirown goals and create their own learning opportunities have, by definition, becomeautonomous” (Nunan, 1995).
            ………
             
            2.2 Relationships between Metacognition and Online Autonomous Learning
            The concept of autonomous learning has a full realization of the function of learners’autonomy and stresses the application of metacognition, which can not go without learners’autonomous participation. Autonomous learning and metacognition have a closer relationshipin flexible and opening online learning environment. In this research, it is believed that thedevelopment of online autonomous learning and metacognition is interacted and mutuallypromoted each other. On the one hand, metacognitive ability is the internal condition of onlineautonomous learning. Metacognitive development affects the level and quality of autonomouslearning, whether metacognitive process is regarded as the important procedure ofautonomous learning or metacognitive ability is referred to the internal element ofautonomous learning. On the other hand, autonomous learning and metacognitivedevelopment mutually promote each other. The process of learners’ online autonomouslearning is also the process of learners’ metacognitive development. By autonomous learning,learners’ metacognitive knowledge is accumulated and strengthened. At the same time, self- monitoring capability of metacognition is enhanced as well. With the development ofmetacognitive level, learning efficiency increases and learners’ self-efficiency and confidencecan also be promoted, which will further strengthen meaningful learning and learners’autonomous learning.
            ………
             
            Chapter Three Research Methodology ......... 22
            3.1 Research Context.........22
            3.2 Research Questions .........22
            3.3 Participants .........22
            3.4 Research Instruments.........23
            3.5 Data Collection.........24
            3.6 Data Analysis .........25
            Chapter Four Results and Discussion .........26
            4.1 General Situation of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL .........26
            4.2 Relationships between MAOCEAL, MSOCEAL and CET4 Score.........31
            4.3 Differences in MAOCEAL, MSOCEAL between High .........35
            Chapter Five Conclusion .........39
            5.1 Main Findings .........39
            5.2 Implications.........39
            5.3 Limitations and Suggestions for Future Research..........42
             
            Chapter Four Results and Discussions
             
            4.1 General Situation of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL
            This section explains the first research question---the overall situation of metacognitiveability and metacognitive strategies under online college English autonomous learning usedby Independent College science students in SDUST. According to Oxford (Version 7.0), the mean of each item of strategy indicates thefrequency of subjects using strategy. The specific corresponding relationship betweenfrequency and scores follows: 4.5~5 indicating “always”, 3.5~4.4 indicating “frequently use”,2.5~3.4 “sometimes use”,1.5~2.4 indicating “rarely use”, 1.0~1.4 “never use”. As shown inTable 3, the total mean value of MA is 63.9745. There are 24 items in MA, the score 63.9745refers to the mean value of the all 24 items, that’s to say, the mean value of each item shouldbe 2.67. Therefore, the explanation for the result is “medium: sometimes”. And the meanvalues of MK (the total score in this aspect is 30), ME (the total score in this aspect is 30) andMR ( the total score in this aspect is 60) are 16.1975, 14.7643 and 33.0127 respectively,which shows that the means of MK and ME are in the low degree, of them, the mean of MRis in the middle degree, and the standard deviations of MK and ME are not so big, which suggests that there is not a big difference in the use of MK and ME. The mean value of MK isslightly higher and ME’s is slightly lower, which shows that the students use MK morefrequent than that of ME during their English study. The unobvious differences among thethree mean values of MK, ME, and MR also demonstrate that the students almost use thethree subcategories equally in English study. The results are related to their wholemetacognitive ability, which becomes relatively better with age, and they know how to plan,monitor and evaluate in English learning. That is probably the reason why the three meanvalues are almost the same.
            …….
             
            Conclusion
             
            The current research shows that MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL used by IndependentCollege students are not in high level. There are three categories: metacognitive knowledge,metacognitive experience and metacognitive regulation in MAOCEAL, and self-planning,self-monitoring and self-evaluation are the three models of MSOCEAL. The participants ofthe Independent Colleges can not have good command of these strategies, which suggests thatthey do not have the general knowledge about MSOCEAL or they haven’t realized theimportance of them. And, another possible reason for the results lies in the neglect of thefunction of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL by English teachers to a certain extent. So it is vitalfor both teachers and learners to pay much attention to the role of MAOCEAL andMSOCEAL in English learning. Owing to the great significance of MAOCEAL andMSOCEAL in English language learning, especially for Independent College Studentsstudying English online, therefore, the author of the current study pay close attention to thediscussion of MAOCEAL and MSOCEAL and their impacts on English achievements.
            ............
            References (omitted)

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