Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background Information
As one of the four basic skills in English, writing has been the focus of concern for ages.However, the comprehensive ability of writing for most Chinese students is not as good asthose of the native speakers. And how to improve their English writing ability has become adesperate problem. Basically, the Chinese students can write the thesis grammatically correct,but not appropriate in expressions, which means they are lack of communicative competence.According to Widdowson(1989) communicative competence includes two parts:grammatical competence and pragmatic competence, which is commonly known as“knowledge” and “ability”. He explains that “ability” can be understood as the degree ofaccessibility, which means the competence to choose a piece of language which is proper to acertain context. Pawley (1983) found out that the two desperate problems for the English assecond language learners are how to improve their fluency and choose word appropriatelylike native speakers.It is easy to find that many Chinese students are good at memorizing English words, sowhen they are writing in English, they always use Chinese-English translation method.Through this way, they change English learning to simple words combination based on thetranslation, not to retrieve the related corresponding English chunks in their mind. Thus, theresult is their writings are correct in grammar; however, the function and meaning are not soappropriate. The former researches on Chinese college English writing show that it is hard forChinese learners to express their meaning clearly and appropriately (Huang Xiujun, 2001;Wang Li, 2004; Shi Yujuan, 2005). Some of the lately studies in this field suggest thatChinese college students are not as good as the native speakers in using the appropriate wordsand native-like expressions. Based on these, the present study is conducted to examine theability of Chinese college students on how to choose and use lexical chunks appropriately,and then to find out the common problems in their English writing.
1.2 Aims and Significance of the Research
Lexical chunks plays an important part in both acquiring and performing language.Some researchers have contributed a lot to this field. According to Lewis (1997), chunks arethe key role in language fluency. It has been claimed that most of the languages used by thenative speakers are formulaic, which means many language forms existing in the nativespeakers’ mind and they are easily to be retrieved (McCarthy, 1997). Regarding the researchmethod of lexical chunks, Altenberg (1998) considers that corpus study should be appliedgradually in this research field.Therefore, based on the previous studies, firstly this corpus-based study aims at provingthe relevance between the using of lexical chunks and the pragmatic level, secondly, in orderto make a contrastive study, some software tools like AntConc and SPSS are used to find outthe characteristics, distribution and pragmatic functions of chunks produced by Chineselearners and the differences from those of native speakers. At last, the present study givessome suggestions on how to improve the learning and teaching of lexical chunks in collegeEnglish writing.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Prevalent Studies of Lexical chunks Abroad and Home
Since the phenomenon of lexical chunks has been subject to linguistic study for severalyears, among all the literatures researches conducted, some of them have demonstrated thegreatest impact on the development of the study of chunks. In the next section, the authorgives a brief review on the studies of lexical chunks abroad and home. It has been a long time for lexical chunks as a hot research spot both at home and abroad.All the published literature and research have the great impact on the development of thestudy of chunks. As for linguistic research abroad, four must be demonstrated, they areBecker’s(1975) study of phrasal lexicon, Pawley and Syder’s (1983) study of lexicalizedsentence stems, Nattinger and DeCarrico’s (1992) study of lexical phrases and Biber et.al’s(1999) corpus-based study of lexical bundles.Becker’s (1975) thesis has a great value because he is the first one to introduce theinnovative notion of phrasal lexicon and thus gives raise to people’s attention to the specialpattern of lexicon in later studies. In his thesis he describes the lexical chunks as “the phrasallexicon”, he opposes the conventional concept of language production as a process ofcombining units in the size of word or smaller ones, and believes that phrases consisting ofmore than one word should be taken as the building blocks for the formation of discourse.
2.2 Relevant Corpus-based Studies of Lexical Chunks Abroad and Home
Nowadays, corpus linguistics makes it possible for researchers to study the language in anew way different from the traditional linguistics. Not only it focuses on the study oflanguage itself, but also it helps to make a further study in the field of DDL and CIA. As the corpus-based approaches are widely used for the empirical studies in spokenEnglish and written English in the early time, the corpus linguistics provides a new researchangle on lexical chunks. Moon (1998) has conducted researches on English lexical chunksand the students’ language competence, and he got the result that there is a specific genrepreference for lexical chunks in general, as well as for individual expressions. Howarth(1998),conducted a comparative research to examine the difference on phraseological performancebetween advanced non-native writers of English and the native-speaker data, as a result, heconcluded that even teachers of EFL themselves, both native-speaker and non-native, havelittle knowledge of lexical chunks of the language. These studies show that the lexical chunksmake much influence in interlanguage acquisition. Similarly, Granger (1998) researches theprefabricated patterns in advanced EFL writing and the data analysis shows that firstlanguage plays an important part in acquiring and using of lexical chunks in second languageor interlanguage. The corpus-based approaches are adopted to investigate the usage of lexicalchunks in written English at the university level. One of the most typical studies is Biber etal’s(1999) study. Based on the corpus of LGSWE (Longman Grammar of Spoken andWritten English), Biber et al made an investigation on the lexical chunks through aquantitative approach. In his study, he emphasized the definition and features of lexicalchunks. He defined that lexical chunks may occur at least 10 times per half million words infive texts in a corpus. And according to the structures of lexical chunks, in his academicwritings he classified the lexical chunks into 14 categories in his academic writings. To alarge extent, his research has a great impact on lexical chunks to learn written English word.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework ......... 13
3.1 Studies of Lexical Chunks....... 13
3.2 Studies of Corpus and Corpus Linguistics .......... 20
Chapter Four Design of the Research ..... 24
4.1 The Research Objectives and Question........ 24
4.2 Corpora Used in the Studies.... 24
4.2.1 Self-built Corpus .... 24
.2.2 Native Corpus LOCNESS.... 25
4.3 Instrument Employed ....... 25
4.4 Research Procedures ........ 27
4.5 Data Processing and Collection...... 40
Chapter Five Data Analysis & Discussion on Structure Differences.... 42
5.1 Distributions of Lexical Chunks in Two Corpora ...... 42
5.2 Structure Characteristics of Lexical Chunks in Two Corpora......... 45
5.3 Summary ..... 49
Chapter Six Data Analysis on Pragmatic Functions of Lexical Chunksin Two Corpora
6.1 Pragmatic Functions of Full Clauses in Two Corpora
As we mentioned above, full clauses have the relative complete structure and canconvey relatively complete meanings. Hence, full clausal chunks reach the highest level oflanguage syntax. They can be further classified into two groups: independent clauses anddependent clauses. It is easy for learners to extract some fixed expressions and sentencepatterns from their memory, which can explain the reason that the number of chunks is nothuge, but this category occupies a relatively large percentage in occurrence frequency.The specific pragmatic functions of independent and dependent clauses in self-builtcorpus and LOCNESS are discussed in the following sections. In written texts, independent clause can convey a variety of pragmatic functions becauseof its structural and semantic integrity. There are three types of independent clauses：1) theindependent clauses which can be easily recognized, such as I don’t think so, we must try ourbest; 2). Independent clauses which having a deficient clause structure, such as we must learn;3) independent clauses that combined with several independent elements, such as no pains nogains. On account of it, we can conclude that independent clauses are the combination withthe fixed formulaic and flexible forms.
The present study makes a corpus-based on the 3-6 word length lexical chunks with theaims of exploring the using conditions of lexical chunks by Chinese non-English majorstudents. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches are adopted to conduct a contrastiveworking on the structural characteristics and the pragmatic functions used by Chinesenon-English major students and the native speakers. The total number for each word lengthand their occurrence frequency are regarded as the basic criterion during the process of dataanalysis. According to the result of the data analysis, some major findings are summarized asfollows:
1. In the previous study, nearly all the researches use the native corpus to value thelexical chunk competence of Chinese learners. The author support a new way in which sheadopted the correlation analysis on chunk-using and the pragmatic competence. The resultindicates that the more chunks are used, the higher competence of language is. On account ofit, lexical chunks play an important role in language acquisition.
2. When analyzing differences of the structural characteristics of lexical chunks of eachtype, the method of Chi-Square test is frequently conducted to make a contrasting study onthe frequency of each structural type in two corpora, and the result goes to p≦0.01, whichmeans the difference is rather significant. Regarding to the specific differences of each typecategories in two corpora, the author found that in both corpora, three-word lexical chunkshave the largest number and highest frequency; six-word lexical chunks have the smallestnumber the lowest in occurrence frequency in self-built corpus and LOCNESS. Among thethree structural categories classified by Altenberg(1999),clausal constituents come first innumber in the both corpora, followed by incomplete phrases, while complete clausal chunksthe last, which has the same distribution with Altenberg’ research based on LLC corpus in1998 and Wei Naixing’s study based on COLSEC in 2007. But these two corpora still havesome significant differences. Although Chinese college students use more lexical chunks inwritings than those native speakers, but the using conditions of chunks in Chinesenon-English majors writing is far from satisfactory. There is a deviation of Chinese students’use of chunks from that of the native speakers. Chinese college students tend to overuse orunderuse lexical chunks in their compositions. Compared with native speakers, they uselexical chunks more mechanically, and they prefer to use chunks acquired in the early periodof English learning.
1.1 Background of the Study
Nowadays, teachers' mental health has an unprecedented influence upon educationwhich attracts more and more social attentions. Some teachers suffer from abnormalpsychology and behavior when they are under long-term and extreme work pressure,and this kind of symptom refers to teacher burnout. The term “burnout” was first usedby Freudenberger (1974) who was an American clinical psychologist. He used“burnout” to describe workers, especially the one in service industry. Since thenpsychologists have shown great concern over burnout in different fields. During the late1970s and early 1980s，systematic empirical studies on burnout were conducted andpublished. In the 1980s, the study on burnout was more quantitative and researchersutilize questionnaire and survey methodology and several different measures weredeveloped. An accepted and standardized instrument, the Maslach Burnout Inventory(MBI), was developed to measure burnout (Maslach & Jackson, 1981, 1986). As forconcepts, Perlman and Hartman (1982) compiled a list of definitions about bumout,including (a) to fail, wear out, and become exhausted; (b) a loss of creativity; (c) a lossof commitment for work; (d) an estrangement from clients, co-workers, job and agency;(e) a response to the chronic stress of making it to the top; (f) a syndrome ofinappropriate attitudes toward clients and toward self, often associated withuncomfortable physical and emotional symptoms. In late 1980s, research on burnoutbegan to extend to the field of education. People gradually find that burnout has becomeone of the serious worldwide problems in education field. Teachers are considered asone of the common groups that have job bumout easily. Because teaching is a kind ofcomplex brainwork with pressure and teachers face the problems of how to catch up thecontinuous renewal knowledge and how to improve their professional development.
1.2 Purpose of the Research
Teacher burnout will bring negative influence on teacher themselves, their studentsand even the society. Those teachers with career bumout will probably shift their veiledpsychological barriers unconsciously into negative occupational behaviors and habits.This will make teachers exhausted physically and spiritually, and hinder students' orschools’ development. Consequently, it is significant to draw a picture of Englishteachers' burnout in middle schools and find out the causes of their burnout. Either fromthe perspective of the development of basic education or from the perspective of thehealthy development of middle school teachers and students, there are great practicalvalue and realistic meaning. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to figure out whetherEnglish teachers at middle schools suffer burnout or not, investigate the currentsituation of these teachers’ bumout, and find out its causes and major features, andpropose some strategies to help EFL teachers to take effective and targeted measures toprevent bumout or to lessen EFL teachers’ burnout when bumout occurs to them.
Chapter TwoLiterature Review
2.1 Job Burnout
Freudenberger, an American psychologist，first used the term “burnout” in aprofessional psychological magazine in 1974. According to Freudenberger (1974),job-related stress or burnout is a series of negative symptoms as psychological fatigue,failing professional ability, diminished job passion, apathy, lacking job satisfaction, etc.Since 1970s，the researches on burnout have stepped into many different fields，such asthe fields of medicine, education and many other service industries. A lot of researchershave made a number of researches on the concepts, the situation, the causes, the features,the hazards and countermeasures of burnout. In Merrian-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, job burnout is defined as “theexhaustion of physical or emotional strength or motivation usually as a result ofprolonged stress or frustration". From the clinical perspective, Freudenberger (1974)interpret burnout as ‘‘a state of fatigue or frustration brought about by devotion to acause，way of life，or relation extravagant striving for unrealistic expectation". LaterMaslach (1976) defined burnout as a multidimensional phenomenon, in which threecomponents are discerned: emotional exhaustion (feelings of depletion and feelingdown), depersonalization (attitudes of indifference), and reduced personalaccomplishment (reduced sense of competence). Besides, burnout has been defined inother ways.
2.2 Teacher Burnout
Teaching is generally recognized as an intense, highly stressful occupation. Sincethe late 1980s and early 1990s, the researchers have begun to pay more and moreattention to teacher burnout. Previous research has suggested that burnout is a commonproblem among staff members in educational in-situations (Farber 1991). Therelationship between teacher burnout and job burnout is that of included and including.Compared with other jobs, EFL teacher burnout has more negative effects. Hindrickson (1979) points out that a burn out teacher is losing or has lost theenergy and enthusiasm needed to teach children (pp.36-37). According to Maslach(1981)，teacher burnout can be defined from three dimensions: emotional exhaustion,depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment. Dunham (1992) believe thatteacher burnout is the abnormal reaction when teachers cannot deal with the pressurefrom work, and it is also the exhaustion of emotion, attitude and behavior caused bylong-time stress. Some researchers in China insist that teacher burnout is a kind ofabnormal psychology and behavior when teachers are under long-term and extremework pressure. Continuous tiredness，conflicts with others will cause increasingfrustration, and finally lead to high level of mental fatigue, tension，exhaustion,indifference in emotion, cognition and behavior.
Chapter Three Related Theories......... 22
3.1 Conservation of Resources Theory......... 22
3.2 The Psychological and Educational Theories......... 22
3.3 Theories of Pressure Source......... 24
3.4 Fessler's Teacher Career Cycle Theory......... 24
Chapter Four Research Methodology ......... 26
4.1 Research Questions......... 26
4.3 Instruments......... 30
4.4 Procedures and Data Collection......... 31
4.5 Data Analysis......... 32
Chapter FiveResults and Discussion
5.1 Present Situation of English Teachers' Burnout
According to Fessler (1992)，teachers' career can be divided into eight stages:pre-service, induction, competency building, enthusiastic and growing，careerfrustration, stable and stagnant, career wind-down, and career exit. At different careerstages teachers will face different working pressures. The occurrence of job burnout is agradual process. The mainly forms of presentation are as the follows: at the initial stage，teachers are full of enthusiasm and have adequate knowledge resources. Afterward, dueto long working hours and heavy pressure lead to their working enthusiasm reduced,knowledge resources and energy consumed constantly. Finally, burnout began toproduce.The results of the study show that English teachers in Fuquan city do have burnout,but the burnout is not very serious. About 1/3 teachers are tired of their work and theemotional exhaustion is on a high level. Moreover, most teachers have low levels ofdepersonalization and personal accomplishment. Gender, age, education background，the length of teaching, teaching hours etc. are the variables that have a significantinfluence on teachers' burnout.
Burnout is the external expression of teacher's internal worn-out mentality. Whensuffering from burnout, teachers may have emotional exhaustion, depersonalization andreduced personal accomplishment and directly affect teachers’ well-being and teachingquality. This study demonstrates the importance of alleviating teacher burnout at thepresent situation. In the personal domain, gender, age，teaching years, teaching hoursand education background are significant predictors of teachers’ burnout.The burnout situation of middle school EFL teachers in Fuquan is obvious, but theburnout is not very serious. There are many pressure sources causing middle schoolEFL teachers' burnout. The major ones are: lack social support, the influence ofeducation reform, too much workload, the imperfection of school management andevaluation system, disturbance from students as well as the particularity of Englishsubject. Personal factors including teachers' different personality, low teaching efficacyand improper self-evaluation, and the gap between teachers’ ideal and reality havesignificant impact on the level of EFL teacher burnout. EFL teachers are at a moderatelyhigh level of job burnout in emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment,whereas the level in depersonalization is comparatively lower.
1.1 Research Background and Objectives
Construction grammar, which emerged in the 1980s, is a kind of cognitivelinguistic research method oriented in construction. In recent years, the theoreticalsystem has become more and more mature. The most outstanding achievements of theconstruction grammar is the study of argument structure represented by Goldberg(1995), which emphasizes on the integrated relationship between the verb meaningand argument structure construction; Attention is also paid to the study of lexicalsemantics and marked constructions represented by Fillmore& Kay (1999).English caused-motion construction is one of the five special argument structureconstructions raised by Goldberg (1995), who expresses the view that “argumentstructure constructions are a special subclass of constructions that provides the basicmeans of clausal expression in a language” (p.3). According to the definition ofconstruction, the semantic interpretation of caused-motion construction cannot beascribed to either the verb or the preposition alone or their combination. English caused-motion construction is a common syntactic form. Relativelymore researches are conducted on the causative verbs at present; and the researchesconcerning caused-motion construction are almost limited in the semantics, syntaxand cognition. Nevertheless, it is rarely seen to make an empirical research on theacquisition of caused-motion construction oriented on Chinese EFL learners.This thesis chooses non-English-major students as the subjects to conduct anempirical research in the hope of achieving the following objectives. First of all, thisstudy tries to conduct a major classification on the features of caused-motionconstruction as well as study on the semantic constraints based on the Goldberg’sstudy.
1.2 Organization of the Thesis
This thesis mainly consists of six parts. Chapter 1 elaborates the background ofEnglish caused-motion construction and the significance of conducting the empiricalresearch on it. Chapter 2 makes literature reviews on English caused-motionconstruction and points out the existing problems in studying it. Chapter 3 mainlytalks about the rationale of English caused-motion construction and discusses itscharacteristics, semantic construction and constraints. Chapter 4 introduces thespecific research design and operating procedures of this study. Chapter 5 reports theresults of the statistic data analysis collected and discusses the possible reasons for theresults. Chapter 6 summarizes the main findings of the Chinese EFL learners’acquisition of English caused-motion construction and puts forward the relevantenlightenment on English teaching. The limitations and future suggestions in this fieldwill be provided.
2 Literature Review
2.1 Studies on Construction
According to this definition, Fillmore et al. (1988) further describe constructionas: (1) constructions are conventional syntax, including any syntactic patterns; (2)constructions are idiomatic; (3) lexical items themselves are constructions; (4)constructions are much like the nuclear family (mother plus daughters) trees.With the intensive study of construction, Kay & Fillmore (1999) consider thatconstruction is a set of conditions licensing a class of actual constructs of a language.“Constructs” are utterance forms licensed by constructions, such as words, phrase orsentence, etc. In general, constructions should make specific description for linearrelationship among all the nodes (including mother nodes and daughter nodes).However, some constructions do not supply any linear information concerningdaughter nodes or just offer information about daughter nodes, such as VPconstruction. Some other constructions are adopted to represent direct linearrelationships of daughter nodes, such as some unimportant components between verband its object. Occasionally, some constructions specify spans of a tree moreextensive than the nuclear family, such as may….but…construction. What’s more,there are some lexical constructions specifying a single constituent with no daughters.Lakoff (1987) accepted traditional construction concept, holding that onelanguage grammar can be described as a set of constructions, and every constructionis a configuration of syntactic constituent (such as clause, noun, preposition, gerund,etc.) as well as relevant form-meaning pair. He opposes to taking construction as akind of epiphenomenon. He considers that grammar theory without constructions canby no means make any elaborations for all the grammar fact of any languages; it canonly analyze a small part of phenomenon. Lakeoff (1987) describes construction as:“[a] form-meaning pair (F, M), where F is a set of conditions on syntactic andphonological form and M is a set of conditions on meaning and use” (p.467).
2.2 Studies on Caused-Motion Structure
Lakoff (1970), as the leader of generative semantics, made many contributions tocausative constructions. He established a special semantic symbol mark“+CAUSATIVE” to the notion of causative, holding that causative words are formedby raising the corresponding inchoative from the deep structure of sentences, namelycalled causative transformation. And the inchoative is transformed from thecorresponding adjectives of state.Miller &Johnson-Laird (1976) consider that the forming of people’s notion ofcausation cannot be separated from the perception for the outer world. Based on this,they offer two explanations for the notion of causation: the first one is people’sperception for motion. They contend that the notion of causation has close connectionwith people’s perception that the motion of one object causes the motion of the other,which can be classified into two motions: a motion that one object carries the other tomove together; and a motion that one object collides with the other. Such a notion canbe raised from these two motions, which can be formalized as: “Cause (Travel(x)，Travel(y)) ” (Miller & Johnson-Laird, 1976, p.98). The second is that they hold thatthe notion of causation is “a product of considerate cognitive development, whichmay originate with intentional movements and generalize through some kind ofdecentering to other persons and inanimate objectives” (Miller & Johnson-Laird, 1976,p.490). For example, if John wants to scratch his nose, a series of actions will betriggered, among which the notion of causation can be expressed as: “Cause (Intend(John, scratch his nose), Travel (his hand))” (Miller & Johnson-Laird, 1976, p.105).When such a notion is decentralized and adopted to the other person and objects, thegeneral notion of causation will come into being.
3 Theoretical Framework......19
3.1 Caused-Motion Construction....19
3.2 Various Senses of Caused-Motion Construction..........20
3.3 Semantic Constraints of Caused-Motion Construction.......2
3.4 Non-Conventional Caused-Motion Construction........ 25
3.5 Cognitive Interpretation of Caused-Motion Construction...... 26
4 Research Methodology........32
4.1 Research Questions.....32
4.2 Research Design..........32
4.3 Research Instrument....34
4.3.2 Statistical Computation........34
5 Results and Discussion........35
5.2 Discussion of Results.........45
5 Results and Discussion
From Table 5.2, we can see that calculated value of F is 6.327, the critical valueof F at the 5 percent level. There is a significant difference among the groups(p=.002<.05) at the 5 percent level. In order to analyze the differences in a more detailway, LSD is applied to test the variances of the score. The results are shown in Table5.3. By between-group comparison, it is found that there is a significant differencebetween low group and advanced group (p=.010<.05) and between intermediate groupand advanced group (p=.001<.05), whereas, there is no significant difference betweenlow group and intermediate group (p=.410>.05). Taking the mean value of Table 5.2into consideration, we can safely come to the conclusion that the overall condition ofacquisition on the five senses of caused-motion construction is Adv>Inter=Low (“>”represents “better than” and “=” represents “equal to”). The five senses are recorded as A, B, C, D, E. From Table 5.4, we can see thatcalculated value of F is 67.581, the critical value of F at the 5 percent level. There aresignificant differences on the acquisition among the five senses (p=.000<.05) at the 5percent level. The differences can be further illustrated in Table 5.5.
Chapter 5 has reported the study and explored the acquisition of Englishcaused-motion construction by the Chinese non-English majors. The present study setout to empirically investigate four problems concerning the acquisition, coming upwith these major findings. the subjects’ mean score differences between the five senses of Englishcaused-motion construction are significant. The Chinese non-English majorsexperienced different degree of difficulty in learning the five senses of Englishcaused-motion construction. Among the five senses of English caused-motionconstruction, sense A is the easiest to acquire, while sense B and C are the mostdifficult for them to handle. Besides, the influence of language proficiency shouldalso be taken into consideration. The learners’ language sense tends to improve asthey progress in their general language proficiency. There is a significant differenceacross the three groups for the overall performance on the five senses of Englishcaused-motion construction. That’s to say, as the learners’ language competenceimproved; it will be easier for them to identify English caused-motion construction.Among the three groups, the advanced group performs better than what the low andintermediate group do. Generally speaking, the learner’s performance on thecaused-motion construction develops alongside with their language proficiency.
Chapter 1 Introduction
At the mention of second language learning and second language acquisition,one important and necessary part which cannot be ignored springs tomind---vocabulary. Wilkins once said that, without grammar, people can express littleemotion and information; without vocabulary, people can express nothing (Wilkins,1972: 111). Since the 1970s, language acquisition has become a very popular and hottopic which arouses various scholars and linguists to discuss and study in the field ofsecond language acquisition. According to Lewis, as a core part and task of secondlanguage acquisition, vocabulary acquisition will accompany people for their wholelife and nobody can acquire a language without vocabulary learning or acquisition, nomatter what it is, foreign language or mother tongue (1993). Meanwhile, in theprocess of foreign language learning, a large number of vocabulary will be confrontedin terms of listening, speaking, reading and writing. So do learning in classroom andmaking conversation in daily life. From above, vocabulary acquisition plays a veryessential role in language learning and communication.Concerning vocabulary acquisition, a term has to be referred to, which isincidental vocabulary acquisition, compared with vocabulary intentional learning.Incidental vocabulary acquisition was first proposed by Nagy, Herman and Andersonin 1985, based on their study of children learning mother language vocabulary (Nagy,Herman & Anderson, 1985). After all, there is no fixed definition on incidentalvocabulary acquisition. Later on, Laufer’s definition was agreed on by most peers. Hethinks that, intentional learning refers to students memorize words on purposes suchas, reciting word lists, or words exercises.
1.2 Background of the study
During the past decades, the theory of involvement load hypothesis hasdeveloped in a variety of directions. More history of vocabulary acquisition orlearning can be found in both studies abroad and at home. Some scholars and studiessupport that reading can be a more efficient way to acquire vocabulary; on thecontrary, some other linguists hold the view that the audio approach will make amuch greater contribution to incidental vocabulary acquisition than the visualapproach. Within this discussion, this paper will start from this controversial pointfrom the outset.
1.3 Purpose of the study
With the help of involvement load hypothesis, this paper will compare thedifferent input methods of acquiring second language vocabulary which includeslistening and reading for second language learners and aims to find out which way isa better way to encourage learners to acquire vocabulary more efficiently andpromote the incidental vocabulary acquisition, especially in ESP which refers tobusiness English here in this paper.In order to achieve this objective, the main body of this paper includes takingexperiments, under which with the condition of the involvement load is equal, theincidental vocabulary acquired by second language learners is examined after givingfour various reading and listening tasks. With these experiments done, the results ofthe four groups will be compared and then which way of incidental vocabularyacquisition is better will be found out.
Chapter 2 Literature Review
In this chapter, the basic definitions and features of incidental vocabularyacquisition and involvement load hypothesis will be provided which are necessaryand crucial for the understanding of this study. In addition to the explanations of thetwo conceptions, this chapter also intends to explore the previous theoretical andempirical studies in the field of second language acquisition and involvement loadhypothesis abroad and at home. This chapter mainly includes four parts: thedefinitions of incidental vocabulary acquisition and involvement load hypothesis, andprevious studies abroad and at home.
2.2 The definitions of incidental vocabulary acquisition
Some researchers think that vocabulary acquisition is the core part in secondlanguage acquisition; moreover, some researchers hold the view that each languagetechnique won’t exist without the support of vocabulary. As a result, study of secondlanguage vocabulary gets more and more attention from scholars. Among them, thereare some certain scholars doing their research on second vocabulary acquisition fromthe perspective of incidental vocabulary acquisition. Krashen (1985) is one of the firstlinguists who studied language acquisition, whose input hypothesis became a veryimportant research approach in the field of second language acquisition. He makes adifference between language learning and language acquisition. As a matter of fact, the conception of incidental vocabulary acquisition first emerged at the beginning of20 century, from the field of psychology. Later on, it is Nagy, Herman and Andersonwho first proposed the concept of incidental vocabulary acquisition during theprocess of studying children mother language acquisition, and then this definition isused in the aspect of studying the incidental vocabulary acquisition performancewhen second language learners are doing other learning tasks (Nagy, Herman &Anderson, 1985).Actually, incidental vocabulary acquisition is on the opposite side of intentionallearning, which means learners study vocabulary with certain purposes, such asreciting words lists, doing some vocabulary exercises. However, incidentalvocabulary acquisition refers to when learners are doing some tasks without thepurpose of learning vocabulary, they acquire some words, such as by readingmagazines or books, watching movies or even listening to an English song. Somescholars also call it direct learning and indirect learning (Dong, 2001).
Chapter 3 Methodology...........36
3.2 Research questions......36
3.3 Research design...........36
3.4 Research procedure.....45
3.5 Data collection and analysis......51
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion..........60
4.2 Results and discussion based on tests......60
4.3 Results and discussion based on questionnaire......62
4.4 Results and discussion based on interview.....65
Chapter 5 Conclusion........68
5.2 Findings of the study...........68
5.3 Implications of the study.....71
5.4 Limitations of the study......71
5.5 Suggestions for the further study......73
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion
There are five parts in chapter 4, which includes introduction, the results anddiscussion based on tests, questionnaire and interview. In this chapter, the datacollected from chapter 3 will be analyzed and compared to find the difference anddiscipline among the four groups who take part in the present study. Within theinterview of the teachers, the researcher will explore the deeper reasons under thesurface discipline and phenomenon. Based on the information and data contained in table 4.1, when the involvementload is zero, and group 1 and group 3 are put into consideration, p=0.003(p<0.05). That means there is a significant difference between group 1 and group 3. Here, group1 are the subjects from group 1 who finish task 1, which is to listen first and thenfinish comprehension multiple choices without dictionary. And the questions herehave no relationship with the target words. Meanwhile, group 3 are the subjects fromgroup 3 who finish task 3, which is to read first and then finish the same questionslike task 1. When comparing the two groups, the significance value is smaller than0.05, which means that when the involvement load is 0, there is a significantdifference of effects of reading and listening tasks on incidental vocabularyacquisition. At this time, t=-3.070, which means the latter one is better than theformer one. That is to say, when the involvement load is 0, reading task have a bettereffect than listening on incidental vocabulary acquisition.
In this chapter, four parts are included as conclusion of the present study. Firstcomes the finds of the study. Then the implications and limitations of the study arepresented and the suggestions for the further study come to the last part. This chapter,as a conclusive part, is a summary about the results of the tests, questionnaire and theinterview. In addition to summary of the results, it still remains as a suggestion partwhich gives some inspiration and advice for the further study and English teaching,especially business English teaching and learning. In this paper, starting from the introduction about the definitions of the incidentalvocabulary acquisition and the involvement load hypothesis, with the relativeprevious studies both abroad and at home, the research gaps and research questionsare got, which are also the aims of the present study. The aim of the study is to testwhether there is a significant different effects on the incidental vocabulary acquisitionbetween listening and reading business English. To find out the answer to thequestions, three survey have been carried out, which are tests, questionnaire, andinterview. And the data from the three parts have been collected and analyzed bySPSS, Excel and Cool Edit.
0.1 Background of the study
With the development and implementation of the basic education curriculumreform, China has put forward a new practical standard to the new curriculum. Alongwith the issue of the new standard, it is necessary to apply a batch of new textbooks.The generation of new textbooks is the need of the social development and therequirement of the development of modern language teaching theory. The newEnglish curriculum standard explicitly advocates to implement the cultivation ofcomprehensive language using ability into the teaching process and upholds thelearning manner experience, practice, participation, communication and use to realizethe goal of teaching and make students feel the joy of harvest. It emphasizes the mainbody of the students, require the teachers to avoid the simple way of passing onknowledge in the class, advocate the teaching principle of "meaning first, use first",and requires the learners to participate in purposeful communicative activities in thetarget language during the process of completing the task. At present, the most widelyapplied English textbook in junior middle schools is Go for it published by PeopleEducation Press. In the background of the elementary education curriculum reform, itis necessary for us to make an objective analysis and evaluation of whether it canreach and carry out the overall goal of new curriculum standard.
0.2 Purpose of the study
As is known to all, textbooks are the carrier of teaching organization andimplementation. Correct use of textbooks plays a pivotal role in the realization ofteaching goals. Go for it is the most widely used junior middle school Englishteaching materials after the current implementation of the curriculum reform.Therefore, soon after its use throughout the country, an ocean of evaluation andarguments among a great many front-line teachers have spread, and it is common toread research articles in all kinds of newspapers and magazines from the angle of itsusage, which mostly are empirical articles. Thus, it is absolutely vital to evaluate itfrom the angle of communicative teaching principle, advocated by the new Englishcurriculum standard. Therefore, it is also very necessary to analyze the textbooks fromthe ideal of the communicative teaching approach.The implementation of the elementary education curriculum reform in our countryand the promulgation of the new English curriculum standard promote a batch oftextbooks according to the communicative teaching principle. However, there are afew people to make detailed research on the basic characteristics and the evaluationstandard of textbooks according to the communicative teaching principle. This paperattempts to analyze the theoretical basis of the communicative teaching approach andput a conclusion on the internal evaluation standard of textbooks according to thecommunicative teaching principle, combining evaluation principles and methods ofEnglish textbooks. Through the analysis of the pre-existing research results by theliterature analysis method and the application of kinds of other research methods(induction, statistics method, analysis method etc.) to analyze Go for it, aiming to findthe advantages and disadvantages, maximize its advantage to serve English teachingbetter, and also promote the improvement and perfection. This paper makes up for thedisadvantages of the pre-existing research of textbooks from the angle ofcommunicative teaching approach, and has a theoretical guiding significance to thepreparation and evaluation of the teaching materials. At the same time, it has certainreference value to the communicative teaching.
Chapter One Literature Review
1.1 Background of Communicative Instruction Approach
The origin of Communicative Instruction Approach dates back to the late 1960s.Theretofore, traditional teaching methods like Grammar-Translation Method andAudio-lingual Method had dominated the main field of foreign language teaching.According to those methods, language was taught through constant practice ofgrammar rules and basic structures under the theory of structuralism and behaviorism.But there was an increasing dissatisfaction among foreign language teachers, as wellas applied linguists at that time. The criticism was that kind of teaching methodproduced structurally competent students being frequently communicativelyincompetent. Another cause of controversy was undoubtedly the fact that, by the endof the 1960s, there were growing possibilities of international communication,vocational cooperation and travel around the world. In the meantime, a certainnumber of western theoretical linguists began to consider semantics as basis to thetheoretical model of language.
1.2 The Definition of Communicative Approach
According to Richards & Schmidt, Language is the system of humancommunication transforming the structured arrangement of sounds (or their writtenrepresentation) into larger units. Thus, English learners learn this language tocommunicate with English speakers.Accordingly, what is “Communicative Approach”? The subsequent definition ofcommunicative approach is extracted from Longman Dictionary of LanguageTeaching and Applied Linguistics (2012:115).“Communicative Approach is an approach to foreign or second language teachingwhich emphasizes that the goal of language learning is communicative competenceand which seeks to make meaningful communication and language use a focus of allclassrooms.”Communicative Approach could be regulated as a set of communicative languageteaching theories, organized on account of communicative functions, such as arguing,persuading, and promising, which learners have the necessity to comprehend. In effect,CA is a wider combination of concepts or hypothesis about language and languagelearning.On one hand, CA refers to little more than a combination of functional andgrammatical language teaching. As Littlewood indicates: "One of the mostcharacteristic features of communicative language teaching is that it pays systematicattention to functional as well as structural aspects of language."
Chapter Three Methodology ...... 31
3.1 Research objectives ......... 31
3.2 Research participants.............. 33
3.3 Research instruments.............. 34
3.4 Research procedure ......... 34
Chapter Four Findings and Implications....... 37
4.1 Conformity with CA........ 37
4.2 Accordance with the New English Curriculum Standard ........ 43
4.3 Findings in application ........... 46
Chapter Four Findings and Implications
4.1 Conformity with CA
The reasonable organization of the textbook content is a very complicated work.The organization and arrangement of them influence the students' understanding andmaster of knowledge. At the same time, it also affects the choice of the teacher'steaching method and the formation of students' learning style. The organization of thecommunicative textbook should meet the following principles:(1) From easy to difficult, simple to the complex.(2) Being arranged spiral, and difficult point emersion.(3) Operability.The new Curriculum Standard in our country pointed out that the teachingactivities should have a clear purpose and operability to design the communicativetask, according to the students' age characteristics, cognitive level and the actualknowledge level. Teaching activity is a structural and composed of teaching goal, language input,activity form, the roles between teachers and students and the environment.Communicative teaching has its overall goal, that is, to cultivate the students'language communicative competence and each teaching task has its specific target,which can be cultivating the ability to hear or say, but also cultivating the students'writing, reading, or semantic skills.
The new English curriculum standard indicates that the overall goal of the basiceducation stage of English course is to cultivate students’ comprehensive languageusing capability. The formation of the comprehensive language using capabilityshould be based on the overall development of the students’ language skills, languageknowledge, emotional attitude, learning strategies and cultural awareness. Go for it isin accordance with the general requirements of The English curriculum standard andthe Communicative Approach. The teaching content and language are close to the students’ daily life.Language used only in a real scenario is capable of achieving itscommunicative functions and will be the most real and natural one. Theauthenticity of the teaching content and language is one of the majorcharacteristics of the textbooks. It talks about the problems confronted bystudents, discusses about the personal hobbies, and offers informationconformed to the real life, improving the students' motivation to participate inthe activities of the real language. The content of the materials are full of wit,humor，being close to the students real life and conforming to the student'sinterests and hobbies. The design embodies the concept of “Learning by doing,Learning by playing” advocated in the English curriculum standard.
Vocabulary, which is used as the carrier of our thoughts, is the foundation of alanguage. As Wilkins (1972) stated, “If there is no grammar ， little can be expressed;however, if there is no vocabulary, nothing can be expressed.” For each task of Englishlearning, whether it is pronunciation, grammar, sentence pattern and other Englishknowledge or the cultivation of the four basic English learning skill—listening, speaking,reading and writing, it is impossible for students to master a good knowledge of Englishwithout a certain amount of vocabulary. Therefore, vocabulary plays a significant role forsenior high school because all the other language skills are based on it.Some other language experts express similar idea. The American famous writer andeducator Laufer once (1998) said “The most important element that influences languagecomprehension and application is vocabulary. The thinking activities of human and theexchange of ideas rely firstly on vocabulary.” Jeremy Harmer (1999), a well-knownBritish specialist also pointed out:“If we compare structure as the sketch of a language,vocabulary will be the thing providing organs as well as blood and flesh.”Hence, we can easily draw a conclusion from the sayings of these experts thatvocabulary plays a significant part in language. Vocabulary is regarded as an importantelement in second or foreign language study. Many language authorities (Laupher, 1973)draw the conclusion that as long as one who masters a vocabulary of 5000 words, hisaccuracy in reading comprehension will reach 55%; if the number of vocabularies hemasters is 6200, the chances of accuracy in reading comprehension will increase 9%. Onthe contrary, if the number of words he masters is under 5000 words, students will find itdifficult to learn English. Consequently, great changes have taken place in the requirementof English vocabulary and many new words appear in New English Textbooks. In an oldcurriculum (2001), students are advised to master about 1200 words for daily use, andlearn 800 idioms and phrases. Yet, the new curriculum has clearly required students ofeach level to master a number of vocabularies. E.g. About 3000 new words and 400-500phrases or idioms are supposed to be mastered by students in senior high school.
1.2 Research Purpose and Significance
This research is for the purpose of aiding second language learners with usefulvocabulary memory strategies.Vocabulary memorizing is not isolated itself. With the guidance of vocabularymemory theory, many kinds of strategies can be applied to memorize vocabulary, such asword formation analysis method, contextual method, situation teaching, audio visual,interactive teaching, and image graft method.Different students have different memory strategies in vocabulary memorizing.Experts find that effective memory strategies play the most significant in Englishvocabulary learning. Yet most students cannot memorize words efficiently and tire of rotememorization of words.Therefore, it is valuable and meaningful for students to master vocabulary memorystrategies. The vocabulary memory strategy training can not only help students mastercertain vocabulary learning strategies, but also improve students’ vocabulary learningability, and arouse student’s interest in learning vocabulary. Additionally, it can helpstudents to build up the confidence of learning English, especially for those who are poorin English learning. Meanwhile, it can improve the efficiency of the class since it reducesthe teaching time through vocabulary memory strategies teaching and training, andrelieves the pressure on students and teachers. Hence, it is quite beneficial to qualityeducation---“It’s better to teach fishing than to offer fish”. It is significant to teachstudents master a good knowledge of English, but what is more important is to teachstudents to grasp methods.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Vocabulary Memory and Memory Strategies
Memory helps remind us of things we have done well in the past. It is a complexphenomenon of the brain. The definition of memory given in Ci Xin (1998) is “memory isthe process of memorizing, maintaining, reproducing or re-recognition of human brain.”Atkinson-Shiffrin (1968) developed the Multi-store Model and considered thathuman’s cognitive activity should be regarded as the process of dealing with information.Memory was the process of coding, storage and retrieval information which was inputted.Therefore, according to different ways the information was dealt with and the differentlength of time information was stored, memory was divided into instantaneous memory,short-term memory and long-term memory.Instantaneous memory existed in a very short time after external stimulus. Theinformation is quickly registered in the sensory channel and kept momentarily. Thecapacity of the instantaneous memory is great, but only keeps for a very short time. It isgenerally considered that the contents of instantaneous memory are 10 to 21 bits. Wheninformation on the instantaneous memory is coded, or people realize the instantaneousinformation, it will be turned into short-term memory. Short-term memory existed in avery short time after external stimuli. Its capacity is limited, and the information canreserve in one minute. While processing the information in short-term memory, the brainturns the coded information into long-term memory. Only the coded information inlong-term memory can be retrieved. Whether the information can transfer from short-termmemory to long-term memory rely on the degree the processed information keeping inshort-term memory. The process of coding and organizing the information involvescognitive ability to make it step into long-term memory.
2.2 Related StudiesAbroad and at Home
With the research center of language teaching transforming from teacher’steaching to learners' learning, learners’ vocabulary acquisition process and vocabularymemory strategies which have been attracting more and more attention .Studies show thatthe capacity of vocabularies and memory ability has strong connection withtheir vocabulary memory strategies. Therefore, it is significant to learn to use the correctvocabulary memory strategies (Wang Qiang, 2003). It obvious to see students shouldmaster enough vocabulary and develop effective vocabulary memory strategies. Manyscholars from China and foreign countries have conducted research on vocabulary memorystrategies. Scholars have done a large number of researches on the usage of English vocabularymemory strategies. Think-aloud method was used by Lanson & Hogben (1996) to observethe usage of vocabulary memory strategy of 15 Australian high school students. Theydiscovered that what students most frequently used vocabulary memory strategy isrehearsal vocabulary memory strategy which seemed easy for them to use. At the sametime, they also found that the primary and intermediate levels of learners are more likely touse mechanical rehearsal strategies while the advanced level learners tend to use strategieswhich related to language itself. So they thought that the students’ strategy using wasconnected with the students’ learning experience and cognitive development.
3.1 Research Questions......17
3.3.1 English Vocabulary Proficiency Test.........18
3.4 Research Procedures....19
3.5 Data Collection andAnalysis.......21
4. Results and Discussion..........23
4.1 Results from Questionnaire..........23
4.1.1Analysis of the Questionnaire for Pre-test.........28
4.1.2Analysis of the Questionnaire for Post-test........29
4.2 Results from Vocabulary Test...... 31
4.2.1 Pre-test Results...........31
4.2.2 Post-test Result...........32
5. Conclusion...... 37
5.1 Major Findings.....37
5.3 Limitations and Recommendations for the Further Research......39
4. Results and Discussion
This chapter shows the data and results of the present experiment. At first theresearcher explains all the data from the questionnaire collected from the Control Classand Experimental Classes. The data shows students’ frequency in using vocabularymemory strategies. Then the researcher will explain the data from pre-test and post-test ofEnglish Vocabulary Proficiency, which present the differences of the subjects’ vocabularycapacity between Control ClassA1 and experimental Class A2 after vocabulary memorystrategy training and help the researcher find out the correlation between the subjects’vocabulary capacity and their using of vocabulary strategies. At last, the answer from twoquestionnaires added to the pre-test and post-test reveal the subjects’ enthusiasm invocabulary learning. As we can see from the statistic in Table 4-2, the strategies which have a closercorrelation with vocabulary proficiency are: key words memory strategies (0.265**,0.006), Word Formation memory strategy (0.429 * *, 0.0000), Contextual memorystrategy (0.224 *, 0.019), Utilization memory strategy (0.245*, 0.011), Associativememory strategy (0.302**, 0.002) and Meta-cognitive memory strategy (0.279**, 0.004).However, the most widely used Repetition memory strategy (0.078, 0.414) has littlecorrelation with vocabulary proficiency. So we should pay attention to the repetitionstrategy as the highest frequency used by students has little correlation with thevocabulary proficiency. Therefore teachers should give the positive guidance to studentsin memorizing vocabulary and help them form and develop a scientific method to learnvocabulary.
This study mainly uses the research literature, explaining the definition,classifications, and the related research about the vocabulary memory strategies from theresearchers from home and abroad. The researcher gives her own idea on the classificationof the memory strategies on the basis of these studies, tries to put forward the frame ofclassification of the vocabulary memory strategy and designs this experiment toinvestigate the current situations of vocabulary memory strategies used by senior onestudents. At the same time the researcher manages to explore the relationship betweenusage of vocabulary memory strategies and students’ enthusiasm in learning vocabularyand the correlation between the usage of vocabulary memory strategies and students’vocabulary proficiency. To ensure the validity of the experiment, the researcher designsthis study carefully and finishes it with complete procedures: questionnaire, vocabularyproficiency pre-test, experimental training and vocabulary proficiency post-test. After theexperiment, the data has been collected and processed by means of the SPSS13.0.Theresults of the research are shown below: it is obvious that the overall level of vocabulary memorizing strategies is notvery high. High school students use repetition strategies most frequently, chunkmemorizing strategies least frequently, and the other kinds of strategies randomly.However, from the statistics in the Table 4-2, the most widely used repetition memorystrategy (0.078, 0.414) has little correlation with vocabulary proficiency. That is to say,students cannot have a good knowledge of vocabulary memorizing strategy and don’t havea scientific method to memorize words.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
With the acceleration of world economy integration, especially after China'sentry into the World Trade Organization at the beginning of the 21st century, moreand more China enterprises begin to participate in the international competition. Inorder to enhance their competitiveness and expand their prestige in the internationalmarket, these China companies start to pay attention to the importance of publicitymaterials, which has promoted the C-E translation activities of company profiles.Among the translation essays that have been published in China, quite a few ofscholars or students have made a brief introduction to the C-E translation activitiesof company profiles in China. However, the E-C translation of foreign companyprofiles has hardly been mentioned. In fact, as early as 1970s, plenty of foreignenterprises began to actively enter into China’s market, including many global top500 companies. This happened way before Chinese companies debuted on theworld’s stage. Hence comes the question. Why does the E-C translation research offoreign company profiles start so late? This is a question which every translatorshould think about.The E-C translation research of foreign company profiles is still in its infancycurrently. It is lack of relevant theoretical guidance and practice support. Sometranslation texts are not acceptable to the target audience. Many of them are stuck inthe linguistic level and stress too much on the equivalence and faith between Englishand Chinese company profiles. Some factors, for example, cultural difference, arenot taken into consideration. Such translation will not achieve the desired effects. Onthe contrary, it will affect and hinder the understandings of Chinese readers. Somemisunderstandings will even cause negative influences on the company image.Therefore, the E-C translation research of foreign company profiles must be takenseriously.
1.2 Research Objective and Research Questions
This thesis chooses the translation of company profiles as the research subjectlargely due to the fact that quite a few of errors have been found in the Chinesetranslation of foreign company profiles, which is a serious problem that needs to besolved urgently. Some translators just translate word for word. Others ignore thecultural difference between Chinese and English readers, which directly leads toinappropriate or unacceptable translation. Obviously, these activities will damage thecompanies’ reputation. Much attention should be paid to the quality andappropriateness of the Chinese translation of English company profiles. It is hopedthat thorough the analysis of the current problems and mistakes in the Chinesetranslation of English company profiles, some effective translation strategies for thisactivity can be generalized, leading to more similar and further studies, which will inturn benefit the positive image of the company and its competitiveness.There are two main reasons for the errors and problems in the translation ofcompany profiles. On the one hand, translators have not realized the purposes ofcompany profiles and the intentions of the source texts. On the other hand,translators seem to ignore the presence of target readers. They seldom mind whetherthe translation could be acceptable to target readers or not. More evidence will beshown in Chapter Four.
Chapter TwoAn Overview of English and Chinese CompanyProfiles
2.1 Definitions of Company Profiles
Company profiles belong to a special kind of informative texts, that is, a textthat is provided to a specific group of audience. It is essentially a "resume" of aparticular company, aiming to “establish the credibility with the market the companyserves” (Hackett, 2003). Hackett believes that a good company profile can helppotential customers to “understand the company’s business as well as to understandits approach, unique strengths and relevant experience”. Klein (2005) also thinks acompany profile provides insights about a company to its customers and prospects;potential employees and partners view it to evaluate whether or not it is the kind ofcompany they’d like to work with. In general, a well-written company profilecontains the founders of the company, the products or services, major shareholders,the board members, address, telephone and fax number, web site and other importantinformation. Some profiles contain their history and significant achievementsthroughout the years.This paper defines a company profile in a narrow sense and refers to thecompany introduction including all other affiliates and the most representativecharacteristics. Samples used in this article include the materials from the Internetcovering various business fields such as banks, cars, home appliances, sports goodsand so on.
2.2 Functions of Company Profiles
The German functional translation theory is an important part of the moderntranslation theories. After the Second World War, there has been a rapid growth offunctional translation. With the unique theory innovation, it gradually became arelatively complete theoretical system. Much theoretical exploration and practice inthe translation work continues till now. The far-reaching influence of the theorynever stops. The theoretical system has two core theories. One is Katharina Reiss’stranslation theory of text typology. The translation strategies are closely linked withthe text types. Text types determine translation methods. The other is HansVermeer’s Skopostheorie. The translation purpose decides methods. The latter theoryis the inheritance and development of the former. In the text typology, according tothe different communicative functions of the texts, they can be divided into threetypes: "informative text", "expressive text" and "operative text". Although texts aredivided into three types, she also pointed out that a text usually does not have onlyone function but three functions at the same time. One of the three functions willdominate. In the process of translation, according to different text types and thetranslation purpose, the translator should adopt different translation strategies. Thetranslator must realize what kind of text he is translating before he begins workingwith it (Reiss, 2004).
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework: Skopostheorie....13
3.1 The Development of FunctionalApproaches and Skopostheorie…….. 13
3.2 Rules of Skopostheorie..........15
3.3 The Applicability of Skopostheorie to the E-C Translation ofCompany Profiles........18
Chapter Four Principles and Strategies of E-C Translation of Company.......21
4.1 Major Problems and Mistakes in the E-C Translation ofCompany Profiles........21
4.2 The Translation Brief of Company Profiles..........23
4.3 Guiding Principles of the E-C Translation of Company Profilesfrom...... 24
4.4 Translation Strategies from the Perspective of Skopostheorie.....26
Chapter Five Conclusion...........41
5.1 Summary of the Findings and Implications..........41
5.2 Limitations and Suggestions for Further Study....42
Chapter Four Principles and Strategies of E-C Translation of Company Profiles from the Perspective of Skopostheorie
4.1 Major Problems and Mistakes in the E-C Translation of Company Profiles
In the practice of foreign trades, the translation of company profiles is veryimportant. After investigation, many problems can be found in the translation ofcompany profiles. These errors can be mainly classified into three categories:linguistic errors, pragmatic errors and cultural errors.As Nord (2001) put it, linguistic errors appear because of the differencebetween the two languages in vocabularies, syntax and the discourse structure. Afteranalysis, many translation mistakes of company profiles are found to be thelinguistic errors. These errors can be respectively analyzed from three aspects:vocabularies, syntax and discourse. The appearance of vocabulary errors is mainlydue to the improper use of words or collocations. The translator is just translatingword for word. In addition, the vocabulary translation is sometimes not professional. This is also a common mistake in the translation of company profiles. Companyprofiles belong to the category of business English. One of the characteristics is therich use of professional vocabularies and jargons. The standardization of jargons isthe premise of international business communication. So in the translation process,the translator must determine the specific meanings of the words according to thebasic information of the enterprise and the context by consulting relevantprofessional dictionaries or books. For instance, the sentence in the company profileof the Shell Group, “Shell is a global group of energy and petrochemical companies”was translated into “ 壳牌是一家全球化的能源和化工集团 ”. If the wordpetrochemical is translated into “石化”, the translation will be more accurate andprofessional.
This article expounds the English-Chinese translation of company profiles fromthe functional point of view, including the current problems and the guidance of thetranslation principles and strategies, the contrastive analysis of the languages andcultural differences in Chinese and English company profiles.Different from other text types, a company profile is a special kind of texts withspecific purposes and functions. The translation purpose of company profiles is to letthe readers know more about the enterprises to achieve international recognition andestablish the credibility of the companies and their products. In order to achievethese purposes and functions, more attention should be paid to the target readersfrom different cultural backgrounds in the translation process of company profiles.According to Skopostheorie, a translation act is made up of its purpose and the endjustifies the means. This means that the translation purpose determines thetranslation methods and strategies to be adopted in order to get the expected results.Therefore, in the English-Chinese translation of company profiles, the translatorshould follow the Skopos rule, coherence rule and fidelity rule.However, many translators in this respect tend to ignore the translation purposeof company profiles. So problems still exist in the aspects of languages and culture.There are obstacles to the realization of the purpose of the company profiles. Underthe guidance of Skopostheorie, this paper puts forward a set of guiding principles inthe English-Chinese translation of company profiles, that is, idiomatic,comprehensible and acceptable. Through the analysis of real examples, the studyalso proved that some appropriate strategies, such as addition and restructuring areeffective in this translation practice.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
With the rapid development of mass media, English TV talk shows have beenenjoying more and more popularity among the audience and they have drawnattention from many scholars both at home and abroad. The relevant studies can beroughly divided into two parts: mass media approach and linguistic approach.However, the linguistic studies on English TV talk shows are not only limited inquantity but also lack depth and systematicness.As an important theory in systemic-functional linguistics, register theory isdeveloping rapidly and begins to draw increasing attention from more linguists.However, the existing research hasn’t form a complete system and the application ofregister theory in English TV talk shows hasn’t been analyzed so far. As a form ofregisters, the language in English TV talk shows is influenced by register, and registertheory can also be used for conversational analysis as an effective method ofdiscourse analysis in English TV talk shows, which means that more research onEnglish TV talk shows need to be done to develop register theory and to broaden itsapplication field. This thesis creates a new way to appreciate and analyze English TVtalk shows from the perspective of register theory.
1.2 Research Questions
A register often be viewed as a functional variety of language in a particularsituation, which means that language performs different functions in differentsituations. This thesis is intended to study English TV talk shows through analyzingthe three variables of register theory: field, tenor and mode. Specific researchquestions are as follows:
1. How do English TV talk shows and the register relate to each other?
2. What are the features of English TV talk shows from the perspective of tenorand mode?
3. How to better keep the artistic vitality of English TV talk shows and performtheir functions of communication and entertainment by applying register theory?
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Definitions of TV Talk Shows
Nowadays, mass media exists almost everywhere in our life and exert influenceson our life from various aspects all the time. As an important form of mass media,English TV talk shows stepped into western mass media since 1950s, which haveundergone about sixty years’ development. They have become an integral part of massmedia in many countries and have drawn attention from many scholars not only inmedia studies but also in linguistics, anthropology, culture, psychology and so on.Especially in recent years, they have been enjoying more and more popularity.However, scholars haven’t reached an agreement on the definition of TV talk shows .A talk show is a television programming or radio programming genre in whichone person (or group of people) discusses various topics put forth by a talk showhost.And in the Webster's Dictionary, talk show is defined as a radio or TV programin which famous people are interviewed or engage in a discussion. (Webster’s NinthNew Collegiate Dictionary, 1983: 1156)In accordance with the definition put by Heritage (1985) in Analyzing newsinterviews, TV talk show is an institutional interaction which differs from casualconversations in daily life.Zhang Zequn (1996) holds that talk show program is a program in which theparticipants (including the guest and the audience) explain and discuss on some topicunder the direct of the host in the studio. Cornelia Ilie (2001) regards TV talk show as a sociocultural practice marked by aparticular participant configuration and well established conversations as well as byunpredictable outcomes and spontaneous interventions in Semi-institutional discourse:the case of talk show.Clayman (2002: 13) claims that “TV talk show is a course of interaction to whichthe participants contribute through asking and answering questions on a turn-by-turnbasis.” in The news interview: journalists and public figure on the air.
2.2 Development of English TV Talk Shows at Home and Abroad
Although English TV talk shows just have a history of about sixty years, theirappearance had undergone a few centuries’changes before they became what they aretoday.Academy appeared in the 16th century in Italy, which is a group made up bysome intellectuals. They always got together and discussed some topics that they wereall interested in. A similar social institution appeared in Britain in the form of informalcafégathering and prevailed in the 18th century. When modern technology began tobe used in media industry, English TV talk show, as a form of entertainment, appearedin America for the first time.It is generally admitted that the first English talk show program is broadcasted inWBZ in Springfield, the United States in 1921. Different from the interactive formtoday, the shows at the beginning are mostly monologues, that is, with the host talkingto the audience rather than a conversation between the host and the guest(s) oraudience participation shows. After a period of development, talk shows began toexpand rapidly from 1933, not only are there more types of programs but also moreopportunities for the audience to participate to make the atmosphere more active. In the 1950s, with the popularity of television pouring new energy into talkshows, English TV talk shows were introduced into TV industry as a kind of matureentertainment program which often includes the host, the guest(s) and the audience.The conversation between people is brought into TV program and English TV talkshows opened a new chapter of people's communication. NBC started a program in1954 called The Tonight Show, which is regarded as the beginning of modern EnglishTV talk show (Zhang Guanwen, 2003). From then on, with the maturity of thetelevision technology, English TV talk shows have developed so rapidly that morewell-known English TV talk shows such as Oprah Winfrey Show have appeared. Andsince then, English TV talk shows have gradually become one of the most popularforms of TV programs all over the world.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework—Register Theory.....13
3.1 Formation of Register Theory ......13
3.2 Variables of Register Theory ........17
3.3 Summary .........20
Chapter Four A Register Analysis of English TV Talk Shows .....23
4.1 Analysis of the Field in English TV Talk Shows........23
4.2 Analysis of the Tenor in English TV Talk Shows.......41
4.3 Analysis of the Mode in English TV Talk Shows.......46
4.4 Summary .........50
Chapter Five Conclusion ........51
5.1 Summary of the Thesis ...........51
5.2 Major Findings............51
5.3 Research Limitations ........52
5.4 Implications for Further Studies .........52
Chapter Four A Register Analysis of English TV Talk Shows
A register often be viewed as a functional variety of language in a particularsituation from the perspective of systemic-functional grammar, which means thatlanguage performs different functions in different situations. In this chapter, the authorgives a detailed qualitative analysis of the register in thirty episodes of Ellen Showdownloaded from the Internet in random from three perspectives: field, tenor andmode. And accordingly, this chapter includes three main parts: analysis of the field inEnglish TV talk shows, analysis of the tenor in English TV talk shows and analysis ofthe mode in English TV talk shows. In addition, a general conclusion of the register inEnglish TV talk shows is given at the end of the chapter. Sometimes people just greet with each other when they meet in socialactivities ,however, in most cases, what people talk about to each other has substantialcontent in the process of communication , therefore, after greeting, people need tobring out a topic based on which to continue their conversation. Topic seems to bemore important in English TV talk shows than in daily communications. Therefore,the choice, introduction, shift and development of topic are all of great importance inthe process of communication, especially in English TV talk shows.
Following the introduction to English TV talk shows in chapter two, registertheory in chapter three and the register analysis of English TV talk shows in chapterfour, this chapter is a conclusion of the whole research, in which a brief summary ofthe thesis, major findings, research limitations and implications for further studies areincluded. With the social development, more and more TV shows begin to influence andenrich people's life deeply, among which English TV talk shows have enjoyed greatpopularity as a result of the social progress and international exchanges. Although agreat deal of research has been conducted before, this thesis creates a new way ofappreciating and analyzing English TV talk shows from the perspective of registertheory, aiming to find a new way to better keep the artistic vitality of English TV talkshows and perform their functions of communication and entertainment by applyingregister theory. Besides, this thesis is intended to broaden the application field ofregister theory and provide some help and enlightenment for the relevant research andthe development of register theory.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
At the background of globalization, English as an important communicative toolis becoming more and more important. The skill of English writing which can reflectthe other four skills of reading, speaking, listening and translating has greatsignificance in English teaching and learning. Although writing skill is the core skillthat foreign language teaching emphasizes in China, college students’ writing abilityhas always been the weak part. The lack of high quality teaching materials and thenegative effects of examination system and evaluation system are the objective factorswhile the neglect of students main body role is the subjective factor. (Gao jian, 2011)After six years teaching practice, Yang Wenying and Hu Guilian (2004) conclude thatthe disadvantage lies in the pursuit of quantity at the expense of quality of writing.Besides, teaching writing skills to EFL students is a very laborious andchallenging task for college teachers because it takes a long time to see theimprovement. And the structure, style, and organization of English texts are oftendifferent from the conventions in other languages. Nunan (1999, 271) thinks that it isdifficult for EFL students to produce “a coherent and fluent piece of writing”.Although most English teachers realize that it is important to teach writing, they justcannot spare enough time for practicing it because they spent most of the time onvocabulary, sentence structure, grammar and text analysis. Thus, it is of necessity andimportance to find out an effective teaching approach to improve college students’writing competence.
1.2 Research Purpose and Significance
This paper makes an overview of traditional theory of writing teaching includingthe product approach, the process approach and the genre approach. It makes asummary of the related researches of the process-genre approach and concludes thatall the researches are of great value and advantages in improving Chinese collegestudents’ writing competence. However, there are relatively few researches on theeffects of the process-genre approach in the teaching of college English writing. Sothe author bases her research on the process-genre approach and selects 70non-English majors in Chang Chun Normal University as the subjects to perform theexperiment. This study means to answer the following two questions: 1. How does theprocess-genre approach improve college students’ English writing competence? 2.How does the process-genre approach change the attitudes and habits of the studentstowards English writing and arouse their interest in writing?The study and practice of the process-genre approach in the teaching of collegeEnglish writing can not only help the teachers improve their teaching method andenhance the reform of college English writing teaching, but also improve thecomprehensive writing competence of students and enable them to write happily.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Related Teaching Approaches
There are three approaches that exist before the process-genre approach namely,the product approach, the process approach and the genre approach. In the 1950s and 1960s, the product approach was believed to be an effective andwell-established methodology in America and it had also dominated in the teaching ofEnglish writing for many years in China.According to Nunan (2001), the product approach is based on behaviorism whichbelieves that teaching is a process of giving stimuli and responding. Silva (1993)holds that the entire activity of writing is the exercise for habit formation. Eschholz(1980) thinks that the product approach only results in mindless copies of certainorganizational plan or style.The product approach emphasizes on “correct spelling, correct grammar andcorrect usage”. With the product approach, English teachers focus on the final pieceof writing and take the criteria as vocabulary use, grammatical forms and organization(Brown, 1994). Pincas (1982) provides the most explicit description and she thinksthat writing is basically about linguistic knowledge which includes the proper use ofvocabulary, cohesive devices and sentence level grammar. She puts forward fourstages: familiarization (which provides certain features of one particular text ),controlled writing (students write specific sentence patterns with the teacher’sguidance ), guided writing (students write on a given topic) and free writing (studentsuse the skills to write anything they want).
2.2 Previous studies of the Process-genre Approach
The process-genre approach firstly comes out at foreign countries and many yearsafter is introduced to China. It is the relatively advanced methodology widelyrecognized by domestic and abroad linguists in current days. The following part willmake a review of the process-genre approach abroad and at home. Escholz (1980) argued that it was improper to apply only one approach to theteaching of college English writing and the product approach and process approachcould be used together. Hildenbrand (1985) conducted an empirical study whichcompared the effectiveness of the product and process approach and concluded thatthe process approach was more effective. Later in 1996, his “sample approach”conducted in test-oriented classes was taken as a embryonic form of the process-genreapproach. Paltridge (1996) tried to integrate the process approach with the genreapproach. Kamimura (2000) also got conclusion from his study that the productapproach and process approach should be integrated to teach English writing .In 2000, British scholars Richard Badger and Goodith White in StirlingUniversity put forward the concept of the process-genre approach for the first time. Inthe article “A process genre approach to teaching writing”, they analyzed the strengthsand shortcomings of the product approach, the process approach and the genreapproach to writing in terms of their idea of writing and illustrated how they saw thedevelopment of writing. They got the conclusion that the three approaches werecomplementary and the process-genre approach actually combined the advantages ofthe three approaches and was formed by each of them.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework........ 13
3.1 Development of the Process-genreApproach.......13
3.2 Framework of the Process-genreApproach..........16
3.3 Principles of the Process-genreApproach..... 20
Chapter Four Methodology..... 23
4.1 Research Questions..... 23
4.2 Research Design..........23
Chapter Five Results and Discussion.......33
5.1 The Improvement of College Students’ English Writingcompetence...... 33
5.2 The Change of Students’Attitudes and Habits towards Writing....43
Chapter Five Results and Discussion
The purpose of this paper is to explore how does the process-genre approachimprove college students’ English writing and how does the process-genre approachchange the attitudes and habits of the students towards English writing and arousetheir interest in writing. In order to know the situation, the author conducts theexperiment and analyzes the students’ writing scores through which the first questionis answered. Besides, based on the questionnaires and the in-depth interview, theauthor gets the answer to the second question.
5.1 The Improvement of College Students’ English Writing competence
This part of this chapter discusses the improvement of the process-genreapproach in college students’ English writing i.e. the general improvement ofstudents’ writing performance and the improvement of students’ writing in terms ofvocabulary use, grammatical structure and discourse by the analysis of the scores ofthe two tests. Table 5.1 and 5.2 are the results from the pre-test of the two classes. Table 5.1shows that the mean score of the Control group is 8.4624 and the mean score of theExperimental group is 8.2251. Table 5.2 shows that the Sig.(2-tailed) is 0.507. Thepurpose of the independent-sample T-test is to check whether there is significantdifference of the students’ writing proficiency of the two classes. The experimentalresults show that the students’ writing proficiency of the Control group is similar tothat of the Experimental group before the experiment. That is, there is no significantdifference of the students’ writing proficiency of the two classes before theexperiment because the P value is 0.507 (if the P value is higher than 0.05, it suggeststhat the difference is not significant; if the P value is lower than 0.05, it suggests thereis significant difference) despite the fact that the mean score of the Control group is8.4624 and the mean score of the Experimental group is 8.2251.
From the application of the process-genre approach and the discussion of theexperimental results, it is found that the process-genre approach is not only effectivein improving students’ general writing competence, but also in improving students’writing in terms of vocabulary use, grammatical structure and discourse. Generally,the scores of the students in the experimental class are apparently higher than those inthe control class. In the Experiment group, the obvious improvement of writing can befound in every aspect, such as vocabulary use, grammatical structure and discoursewhile the English writing competence in terms of discourse in the Control group isalmost the same before and after the experiment and slightly higher in terms ofvocabulary use and grammatical structure.In addition, the process-genre approach is positive in changing students’attitudestowards writing. It can build up the students’ interest and confidence in writing andalso help them overcome their fear of English writing. However, the students underthe guide of the traditional approach also have made positive changes. Although thereexist some statistic differences in the change of writing habits between the two groups,the difference is not much significant. In a word, the process-genre approach can notonly improve the students’ writing competence in the aspect of purpose, content andlanguage function and explore their writing potential, but also help the students buildup good writing habits in terms of language forms and writing process.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
At present, film and TV industry is facing to a global market. Chinese peopleappreciate foreign movies and at the same time, are proud of domestic films goingabroad. Nowadays, aiming to build an international market system, the developmentof films and TVs is no longer limited to domestic but to global. However, bothforeign films and Chinese ones inevitably face a problem: the language barrier.English, as an international language medium, is not achieved by everyone to theextent of understanding the film dialogues. Films imported or exported have to fitlocal people’s needs. This is the so-called film localization in which translationpossesses an indispensible part. Similarly, in order to get China’s films or TV plays tobe appreciated by international audiences, they must be translated into English orother languages.Two main ways of audio-visual translation system are dubbing and subtitling.Dubbing is defined by Mona Baker as the substitution of the source language soundtrack. This substitution follows the time, interval of the original dialogues and themouth movements of the actors as far as possible. While subtitling is considered tooffer the content in caption synchronized with vocal dialogues. Dubbing transformsthe film and TV in an extreme way by completely replacing the original film sound byanother voice. In order to fit the cultural norms and customs of the target language,the structure of the original film dialogue will be destroyed on purpose and then bereplaced with a different one.
1.2 Research Questions
This thesis aims to study on E-C subtitle translation strategies of sitcom from theperspective of functional equivalence theory and tries to answer the followingquestion:
(1) What are the factors influencing E-C subtitle translation of film and TVseries?
(3) How does Nida’s functional equivalence theory guide the E-C sitcom subtitletranslation?
(4) What are the translation strategies to solve the existing problems in E-Csitcom subtitle translation?
(5) What about the frequency of utilization of these strategies in sitcom subtitletranslation?
1.3 Research Significance
Because of the complexity of translation and the shortcomings of traditionaltranslation methods in multimedia era, the study of subtitle translation theory becomesan urgent need. Subtitle translation is something of an interdisciplinary practice. Fortranslators, not only the ability of translation but also the knowledge of film and TVsare required. The complexity of the subtitle translation exposes the deficiencies oftraditional translation methods, thus calls for theoretical research from different pointof views. Along with the development of film and TV industry, subtitle translationpractice also gets improved. However, relevant research in China, compared withother countries, falls far more behind. Facing such situation, the study of subtitletranslation is a badly needed project.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Introduction to Subtitle Translation
Subtitle refers to the text, instead of the image, that is displayed in the dialogueof the television, film or drama. It also refers to the text added in the film or televisionprogram in the post processing part. Subtitles generally appear at the bottom of thescreen while in some special work such as stage work, subtitles usually shown on theboth sides of or above the stage. The types of subtitle are various to different scholars from many different pointsof view. The most common and acceptable one is a linguistic aspect which containstwo kinds of concepts, Same-language Subtitling (SLS) and “translation subtitling”which are defined as “intralingual subtitling” and “interlingual subtitling” by GottliebHenrik (1997). Intralingual subtitling. Same-language subtitling can be explained literallythat subtitle is provided within the original language (without translation) in the filmsor TV programs and serves as an aid for a person who is deaf or with hearing problem.It is a repeated literal activity realized by synchronized subtitling for audio, video ormusical lyrics. This kind of subtitle presents a certain film (or program) in thelanguage of writing form instead of speech one. To avoid the interference of othersounds and in order to raise the film viewing, it is common to see intralingual subtitlesin today’s audiovisual works at home and abroad.
2.2 Previous Studies on Subtitle Translation
Since 1950s, some European scholars began to publish particular articles andtheses on how to improve the quality of foreign subtitle translation. From then on,more and more academics started to devote themselves to the study of this field. Thestudy of subtitle translation in China, however, compared with that of the westcountries, is relatively late-started and immature. Systematical theory hasn’t beenbuilt and the research level still stays at a low range. As film industry started from western countries, the study of subtitle translationalso initially appeared in the west. There are mainly four factors which facilitated thestudy of subtitle translation. 1) Along with the rapid development of technology inelectronics, subtitle translation study is highly promoted especially in Europe whereTVs and films were primarily applied and accepted. 2) Serious situation makesrelative scholars feel the strong demand from the audiences for subtitle translation. 3)The relationship between neighboring countries or different nations across the sea iscloser. 4) Subtle associations of languages and cultures exist between countries fromall over the world.In later 1950s, the study of subtitle translation appeared in history for the firsttime. In 1956, an academic article named Traduction et Cinéma (Caillé) waspublished on Le Linguiste. A temporal magazine Bible especially set up a specialcolumn Cinéma et traduction in the year of 1960. After that, various journals andmagazines stepped into this field with plenty of publications.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework....17
3.1 Formation of Nida’s Principle of Functional Equivalence ..........17
3.2 Rules of Functional Equivalence Theory .........21
3.3 Feasibility of Functional Equivalence to E-C Subtitle Translationof Sitcom.........26
Chapter Four A Case Study of Modern Family from the Perspective.......29
4.1 About Sitcom Modern Family.....29
4.2 Application of Functional Equivalence in E-C SubtitlingTranslation...32
Chapter Five Strategies for E-C Sitcom Subtitle Translation of ModernFamily ............43
5.1 Strategies for Subtitle Translation in Modern Family....43
5.2 Quantitative Analysis of Strategies for Subtitle Translation ......53
Chapter Five Strategies for E-C Sitcom Subtitle Translation of Modern Family
For E-C subtitle translation, various strategies are also introduced by Chinesescholars and translators. Professor Li Yunxing proposes some methods on account ofbreaking subtitle constraints in his thesis Strategies for Translating Subtitles (2001).For example, translators usually adopt the strategy of deduction which could beclassified into condensation, reductive paraphrasing and deletion while facing thetime-space restraint in subtitling. He also points out that translators could use thestrategy of transliteration, annotation or domestication to deal with the culturaldifferences. From the analysis in previous chapters, we can find that in order toachieve different levels of functional equivalence, various strategies of translationhave to be used in sitcom subtitle translation. Imitation refers to the phonetic copy in target language form, mostly used in thetranslation of personal names and place names.As illustrated in Chapter 4, translators usually use this strategy when a phoneticequivalence is aimed to achieve. In sitcom subtitle translation, examples for theutilization of imitation mostly lie in the translation of the names of people and places,as well as some of the modal particles. Although the translations of these propernouns are basically pre-defined, they are obvious the best examples for achieving theequivalence of phonetic level. In chapter four, the translation of some personal namesin Modern Family is listed, while in this section, the author organized some of theplace names and summarized them in the following table.
After the comparative study of the previous study from home and abroad and theresearch based on CNKI, the author finds out that most of the previous study are thesummary of the scholars’ practical experience. On the basis of their personalexperience, these scholars propose some translation principles and strategies to dealwith general subtitle translation. Only a few of them conduct the study on the level oftheory. Up to now, the study of sitcom subtitle translation is still a research gap in thefield of translation. The author considers that only through the research process fromboth the theoretical level and practical level, can the translation practice achievecertain anticipative effect. At the end of the paper, the author draws a conclusionlisting the major findings and limitations of the study as well as the enlightenment offurther study. After a series study of both qualitative and quantitative analysis on the Americansitcom Modern Family (Season 5), several points of results could be listed:First, research shows that factors influence subtitle translation mainly are 1) thelimit of subtitle on time and space; 2) the differences between original language andtarget language from the aspect of grammar and syntax; 3) the cultural languagedifferences including idioms, old proverbs, etc.Second, functional equivalence could guide the sitcom subtitle translationeffectively. The essence of functional equivalence is not simply the equivalencebetween two languages, but the equivalence from the level of linguistic function. Inother words, readers of a translated text should be able to comprehend it and react inthe same way as the original readers do. It aims to convey the connotative meaning ofthe original text to the target-language receptors.