Chapter One Introduction
In the New English Curriculum Standard (2011), teachers are required to helplearners form learning strategies that are suitable for them and modify their ownlearning strategies constantly. As learning strategies have been regarded as an essentialpart of Second Language Learning, developing learning strategies has been the essenceof implementing quality-oriented education in teaching of primary and middle school.In china, helping students develop their learning strategies has come to a consensus ofEnglish teachers. During the implementation of English Curriculum, teachers aresupposed to impart more learning strategies to help students handle their learning, anduse scientific methods to increase the efficiency of learning. In addition, helping themuse learning strategies effectively can cultivate their autonomous learning ability, so thatthey can have a solid foundation of sustainable learning for whole life. (The NewEnglish Curriculum Standard, 2011)Researches on learning strategies can be divided into several dimensions, such asthe relevance between learning strategies and English scores, some specific categoriesof learning strategies, the learning strategies that the good learners use, the influencefactors of using learning strategies. Considering that almost every learner who learnsEnglish wants to achieve a high level of English ability and good learners in ForeignLanguage School attain their goals and there must be some special strategies beyond theintelligence variety among them, the thesis is designed to explore the “special thing”during the learning process of those good English learners. We can reflect on those“special things” or common learning strategies frequently used by the good Englishlearners, therefore teachers can pay more attention to those more efficient learningstrategies to help average English learners learn as efficiently as those good learners do.
Learning strategies affect autonomous learning and lifelong learning. A researchrelated to the basic trend of human-beings’ social lifestyles in 21st Century found thatthe lifelong learning will become the most important and attractive way of living. Theaim of lifelong learning is not only to prepare for living, but also to live happily.Learners can have a solid foundation of lifelong learning by obtaining learningstrategies. Stepping into an era of learning by oneself, learners are required to cultivatethe independent, cooperative and explorative learning methods by obtaining learningstrategies. The functions of learning strategies toward learners are not only related tolearning itself, but also to the mental state of learners. An appropriate learning attitudecan lead to a positive attitude of life in the future.To do a job well, one must make one’s tools sharper first, so does Englishlearning. There are many good English learners and what brings their superiority is notonly their hard work but “something special” in English learning. Teaching students thelearning strategies can improve the English level dramatically. Because of SLA’sdevelopment, more and more branches in the field of SLA emerged with their ownabundant research achievements and theories. Linguists gradually found the great rolelearning strategies play in English learning. The area of English Learning Strategies hasbeen intensively studied in the western countries for the past few decades, the learningstrategies have been gradually regarded as the “philosopher’s stone”1of Englishlearning.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.0 Overseas Research Status of English Learning Strategies
Since the 1970s，many western psychologists and applied linguists began to payattention to the individual variation of learners. One of the important fields is theresearch of learning strategies. Thanks to the development of cognitive psychology andthe changing research trend from how to teach to how to learn, some famous appliedlinguists began to probe into the learning strategies of good English learners. Rubin(1975) published her classical article “what the ‘good language learners’ can teach us”.He concluded that the foreign language learners have much in common in terms ofpsychological characteristics and learning methods, which include psychologicalcharacter, such as psychology of adventure, the tolerance of ambiguity; communicativestrategies, such as periphrasis, using nonverbal communication ways; social strategies,such as searching for chances of communication and practice; cognitive strategies, suchas guess, inductive inference, deductive reasoning, clarification, verification, monitoringof linguistic forms.
2.1 O’Malley and Chamot’s Trichotomy
O’Malley and Chamot (1990) classified learning strategies into 3 parts: cognitivestrategies, meta-cognitive strategies and social\affective strategies which are based onthe Information Processing Theory. Cognitive strategies was applied to activities oflanguage learning, including resourcing, repetition, directed physical response, grouping,deduction, imagery, auditory representation, key word,contextualization,transfer,inferring,note-taking,recombination,translation andelaboration, etc. Meta-cognitive strategies refer to strategies that be used to manage andmonitor cognitive strategies, containing advance preparation, advance organizers,selective attention, directed attention, self-monitoring, self-management, self-evaluationand delayed production etc. Social\affective strategies provide learners with morechances to practice language, which includes cooperation, question for clarification andquestion for helpmeet.From the classification of O’Malley and Chamot (1990), it can be inferred thatwhen classifying learning strategies, much attention was paid to the management ofneeds of cognitive process, but to some extent the management of non-intelligencefactors were ignored.
Chapter Three Methodology .........10
3.1 Research Aims........10
3.2 Research Methods ........11
3.3 Research Backgroud........12
3.5 Methods to Analyze Data ........14
3.6 Research Procedures........14
Chapter Four Findings and Discussion........16
4.1 Overall Analysis of the Good English Learners........16
4.2 The General Picture of the Utilization of the Two Groups........18
4.3 The Significant Differences between the Two Groups........19
4.4 Memory Related Strategies ........21
4.5 Cognitive Strategies ........23
4.6 Compensatory Strategies ........24
4.7 Meta-cognitive Strategies ........25
4.8 Affective Strategies........27
4.9 Social Strategies ........28
Chapter Five Implications ........30
5.1 Suggestions on Memory Related Strategies........31
5.2 Suggestions on Cognitive Strategies........34
5.3 Suggestions on Meta-cognitive Strategies ........35
5.4 Suggestions on Affective Strategies........36
5.5 Suggestions on Social Strategies........39
Chapter Five Implications
After the discussions of those findings, it has been noticed that some strategiesare used by the good English learners in high frequency, especially three categorieswhich show significant differences between the good English learners and averagelearners. The three categories of English learning strategies are cognitive strategies,meta-cognitive strategies and social strategies, all of which are the main keys to becomea successful English learner.The average means of some cognitive strategies items indicate that the goodlearners read and write the new words repeatedly to reinforce their cognition. Repetitioncan deepen the impression of the new knowledge. They also have a clear cognition oftheir interest and learning potential. If they believe they can speak English natively, theywill practice the pronunciation of English by watching English TV series and movies. Inaddition, when they read passages, they read quickly at the first time to get a whole ideathen read it carefully again. Furthermore, they can understand the new knowledge basedon the old knowledge. They always think about the relationship between the new andold knowledge. This finding is consistent with Constructivist Theory.
In this chapter, major findings, limitations of the study and suggestions for furtherresearch will be discussed.As learning strategies have been regarded as an essential part of Second LanguageLearning, developing learning strategies has been the essence of implementingquality-oriented education in teaching of primary and middle school. Therefore, byusing the questionnaire with learners, the present research aims at exploring the goodEnglish learners’ characteristics of English learning and their utilization condition ofEnglish learning strategies, finding out whether the good English learners and averagelearners are significantly different in the utilization of English learning strategies.Furthermore, based on the collection and analysis of statistics, some constructivesuggestions have been given to teachers about cultivating learners’ English learningstrategies and improving their English learning efficiency in dimensions of fivecategories of English learning strategies.Concluding from the results and findings in the previous section, we come toknow that among the six categories of English learning strategies, the good Englishlearners use compensatory strategies, meta-cognitive strategies, social strategies andcognitive strategies more frequently. But the question whether the compensatorystrategies belong to learning strategies or not remains disputed, so this category ofstrategies will not be discussed in the present survey.
Chapter I Introduction
1.1 Research Background
The pursuit of happiness is one the eternal themes of human. In the field of psychology,with the rise and development of positive psychology, subjective well-being graduallybecomes a focus discussed by many psychologists and scholars. Bhutan’s king put forward aconcept called "national happiness index" in the 1970s, since then more and more countriesare beginning to study happiness index, attempting to regard the national subjectivewell-being as one social development indicator. Premier Wen Jiabao pointed out in the"Government Work Report" on the third session of the 11th National People’s Congressmeeting, "all that we do is to make people live a happier life with more dignity ". Then, inJanuary, 2011, the provincial education conference held in Jiangxi province put forward toimprove people’s education happiness index as an important objective duing the developmentof education reform. In 2011, in the discussion of the fourth conference of the 11th NationalPeople’s Congress, "happiness index" almost leapt to top hot words of two sessions.The real purpose of education is to promote individual’s happiness experience andimprove one’s happiness consciousness. But teachers are the key to promote the quality ofeducation and curriculum reform. Teachers are the guide and the creator of students’happiness education. Teachers’ happiness not only has close relations with teachers’ workenthusiasm, but also influences teachers’ physical and mental health, and teachers’ stability.However, for a long time, we payed much attention to the cultivation of teachers’ professionalquality, but relatively ignored the attention to teachers’ happiness.
1.2 Research Significance
The past research about middle school English teachers mainly focused on professionalknowledge, professional ability, professional development, the role location, teaching skills,education quality, teaching strategy and job burnout and so on, but rarely about emotionalfactors, especially subjective well-being research. In recent years, most research discussed theinfluencial factors of teachers’ subjective well-being, in the study of relationship scholars began to explore teachers’ subjective well-being and personality characteristics, jobsatisfaction, mental health, social support, coping styles, etc. But relationship researchbetween subjective well-being and social support mainly focus on the elderly, urban residents,students.Although some research is about primary and secondary school teachers andkindergarten teachers, I haven’t found studies on the relationship between middle schoolEnglish teachers’ subjective well-being and social support.Based on the reality, I make middle school English teachers as the research subjects,expanding teachers’ subjective well-being research field, so as to make up for the deficiencyof the research to a certain extent. At the same time, this study can enrich middle schoolEnglish teachers’ development theory, and provide some theoretical basis for promotingmiddle school English teachers’ mental health development.
Chapter II Literature Review
2.1 Definition of Terms
Subjective well-being(SWB)is defined as “a person’s cognitive and affective evaluationsof his or her life that includes experiencing pleasant emotions, low levels of negative moods,and high life satisfaction”(Diener et a1., 2002:63).SWB consists of emotional and cognitive components (Diener, Suh, Lucas, & Smith,1999: 276–302). Emotional well-being is reflected in frequent experiences of pleasantemotions and infrequent experiences of unpleasant emotions. The cognitive component ofSWB refers to a global evaluation of one’s life, often assessed as life satisfaction. Thecognitive and emotional components are often correlated so that people with high lifesatisfaction tend to report more frequent pleasant emotions than those with low lifesatisfaction (Diener & Fujita, 1995: 926–935).According to the formal definition in Sociology, social support refers to the behavior thatthe certain social network helps social vulnerable groups with the use of certain material andspiritual means for free.This study used Xiao Shuiyuan’s classification of social support to define the term. XiaoShuiyuan concludes social support to three aspects: Objective Support, Subjective Supportand Utilization of Support. Objective support is also called the actual social support, includingdirect material aid and the existence and participation of social network, which is theobjective reality and also the important resources people use to meet their social,physiological and psychological needs; Subjective support is also called perceived socialsupport, namely the individual’s emotional experience and satisfaction when respected andsupported in society, which is closely related to individual’s subjective feeling; Utilization ofSupport is individual’s use of social support.
2.2 Overseas and Domestic Research Status
Subjective well-being stems from the concept "quality of life" put forward in 1958. Theessence of “quality of life” is a kind of subjective experience, it includes one’s satisfaction oflife, inner contentment, as well as self-fulfillment in society. After this concept is put forward,it caught many researchers’ attention from sociology, psychology, economics and otherdisciplines. Gradually it’s divided into two major research orientation: objective quality of lifeand subjective quality of life. Research on subjective quality of life focuses on people’sattitudes, expectations, feelings, desires, values and people’s happiness experience, which isalso called “Subjective Well-being” research.From the 1950s to 1960s, The rise of quality of life movement and positive psychologymovement in the western countries promoted the formation of SWB psychological research.1967 Wanner Wislson wrote the first article of happiness “Related Factors to Happiness”,which marked the start of SWB research in the west.From the 1950s to the present day, foreign research on subjective well-being can bedivided into three stages: (1)Descriptive research stage (the mid 1950s - 80s), during thisstage the focus of study is on resource classification and demographic variables. Theresearchers just measured all kinds of people’s SWB and described the corresponding levelsof SWB. (2) Theoretical construction stage (the mid 1980s - 90s), during this stageresearchers created a lot of SWB theory model, and carefully tested and explained SWBmodel. (3) Empirical research stage (the 1990s - the present day), the key of this stage is acombination of a variety of ways to measure SWB, to study the method of improving people’sSWB.
Chapter III Methodology......... 20
3.1 Research Questions............ 20
3.2 Research Hypotheses ......... 20
3.3 Research Subjects .............. 20
3.4 Research Instruments........ 22
3.5 Data Analysis........ 24
Chapter IV Results and Discussion ...... 25
4.1 Statistical Results and Analysis ...... 25
4.2 Discussion ............. 44
4.3 Interview Results and Analysis....... 49
Chapter V Conclusions and Suggestions..... 56
5.1 Conclusions........... 56
5.2 Suggestions and Measures ....... 57
5.3 Shortcomings and Prospects ........... 62
Chapter IV Results and Discussion
4.1 Statistical Results and Analysis
Descriptive statistics was used to measure 150 participants’ score in SWB, including LifeSatisfaction(LS), Positive Affect(PA), Negative Affect(NA) and Self-Evaluation ofWell-Being(SEWB). Results shown in table 4.1. Table 4.1 shows that middle school English teachers’ life satisfaction averaged 4.69 (thehighest score is seven), positive affect averaged 4.36 (the highest score is seven), negativeaffect averaged 1.92 (the highest score is seven) and self-evaluation of well-being averaged6.38 (the highest score is nine), indicating that middle school English teachers’ lifesatisfaction and positive affect are above the average level, their negative affect is at a lowlevel and their general evaluation of happiness is between “A bit happy” and “Happy”. Fromthe standard deviation score we can see, the dispersion degree of middle school Englishteachers’ subjective well-being is not high, which shows that their subjective well-being leveldoesn’t have obvious differences.The specific information of middle school English teachers’ LS, PA, NA and SEWB canbe seen in the charts below.
The following conclusion is summarized according to the investigation and interview ofpart of middle school English teachers in Ganzhou:
a. The subjective well-being of Ganzhou middle school English teachers is generallyabove average level. Major support comes from family members, friends, relatives and theircolleagues. Social support is relatively adequate. The subjective support and utilization ofsupport is in good condition while the objective support is at intermediate level.
b. The subjective well-being has significant difference in gender. The PA and SEWB offemale teachers are significantly higher than male teachers while their NA is obviously lowerthan male teachers.
c. Middle school English teachers’ subjective well-being has no significant difference inmatital status, age, educational level, teaching stage, school type, teaching experience,professional title and monthly income.
d. The total score of middle school English teachers’ social support is positivelycorrelated with LS, PA and SEWB. Meanwhile, it is negatively related to NA. All thedimensions of social support have close relationship with that of subjective well-being.
e. All the dimensions of subjective well-being of middle school English teachers havesignificant difference in high and low groups of total score of social support. The degrees ofLA, PA and SEWB of higher score groups are obviously higher than the lower groups.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
In second and foreign language instruction, teaching efficacy is the key point to allthe teachers and learners. On one hand, English，as a foreign language taught in China,takes a large proportion in some important examinations and is vital to many job areas.Learners in which country English is a foreign language leam English for practicalpurposes. On the other hand, under the influence of Chinese culture and the pressure ofexaminations, teachers in the classroom take the prior status and are the authority, whilelearners just sit still and listen to teachers carefully. In the learning atmosphere, learnersaccept the knowledge passively without thinking. Researchers and teachers are alwaysexploring a more effective teaching approach and method, for learners desires toimprove their English proficiency with the help of teachers, especially in EFL classroomcontext. Many researches in second language acquisition and applied linguistics haveshown that, however, this instruction model is not beneficial to learners' life longdevelopment, especially in the aspect of learners' thinking ways and autonomouslearning capacity. Even though some teachers have adopted some other teachingapproaches, such as Communicative Language Teaching, Task-based LanguageTeaching, they just apply the teaching approach in class with its form and procedureinstead of the real meaning of it.With the New Curriculum Reform taking place，more and more teachers realize theimportant function of English course not only in examination but also in facilitatinglearners' life long development and comprehending the classroom instructions moredeeply, so most of them start to explore more effective teaching approaches that help tonot merely construct learners' language knowledge but build up their right thinkingways, autonomous learning and cooperation awareness as well.
1.2 Purposes and Significance of the Research
Unlike the most researches in studying scaffolding，the present thesis is conductedwith a purpose to investigate the status quo of scaffolding in classroom talk thatincludes teacher and peer talk in junior high school, the elements that influence the useof effective classroom discourse in junior high school and the effects that are caused byscaffolding strategies through a wholesome investigation to the classroom discoursemainly. With a systematic research on it，it would enhance the understanding to theclassroom discourse and its relations with scaffolding and redefine teachers' and learners' role in class. In short, the present thesis attempts to focus on the status quo ofclassroom discourse and its embodiment in scaffolding in junior high school classroomcontext.In general，the present study has employed a multiple research methods, thecombination of qualitative and quantitative method, in order to provide a morewholesome and comprehensive understanding and view to the scaffolding in classroomdiscourse. It takes a key junior high school in Chongqing as an example to get thesubjects，including teachers and learners from Grade One in junior high school，forstudents in this period is alert to further language development compared with theirchildhood. To analyze the scaffolding embodied in teacher and learner talks in juniorhigh school classroom, the study would get teachers' information and collect theinformation of the learners' English learning experience, then get teachers' and learners'attitudes about scaffolding in classroom learning by interview questions andquestionnaire respectively. Teachers' teachings in class are video-taped and codedthrough the classroom observation. The embodiment of scaffolding in classroomdiscourses in junior high school classroom are testified through the systematicobservations and analysis to the videotaped class materials, while the effects ofscaffolding are analyzed by the combination of classroom observations, interview andquestionnaire.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Bases
Class is the main learning place for students' knowledge learning and skillsdevelopment, and discourse has vital function in class. Most of the teaching behavior ispresented through classroom discourse. He (2001，cited in Cheng，2009) classes theteachers' talk into three categories: questioning, feedback，and language presentation.Some researchers, such as Zhou & Zhou (2002，cited in Cheng, 2009), suggest that oneof the important functions of teacher talk is to induct and organize students to join in thecommunicative activities, and create the chances of information exchange and thinkingexpression. Spratt (2005，cited in Cheng, 2009) suggests the fiinction of teacher talk inclass as follows; direction, explanation, narration, inspiration，hints, correction,examination, new knowledge presentation and so on. According to Cheng (2009)，teacher talk can introduce the teaching contents and aims, lead into the new knowledge,explain the language knowledge, organize activities, provide language input, and keepclass rules. Student talk in class present their peer different ideas and give variousinspirations to teachers and their peer. At the same time，student talk is one of the waysthat they internalize the learnt knowledge in class. All functions discussed above arefrom the micro perspective. They are all related with the observable effects in class.From the perspective of promotion to class teaching and learning, classroom discoursehas the main four features: authenticity, interactivity, logicality and normalization.(Cheng，2009) Classroom discourse mainly embodies in the talks between teachers andstudents.
2.2 Definition of Discourse Analysis and Classroom Discourse
Discourse analysis is a general term for a number of approaches to analyzingwritten, vocal, or sign language use or any significant semiotic event. The objects ofdiscourse analysisdiscourse, writing, conversation, and communicative event~arevariously defined in terms of coherent sequences of sentences, propositions, speech, ortums-at-talk. (Brown & Yule, 1983) Contrary to much of traditional linguistics,discourse analysts not only study language use ‘beyond the sentence boundary', but alsoprefer to analyze ‘naturally occurring' language use，and not invented examples. Textlinguistics is related. The essential difference between discourse analysis and textlinguistics is that it aims at revealing socio-psychological characteristics of aperson/persons rather than text structure. Discourse analysis has been taken up in avariety of social science disciplines，including linguistics, education, sociology,anthropology, social work, cognitive psychology, social psychology, area studies,cultural studies, international relations, human geography, communication studies，andtranslation studies，each of which is subject to its own assumptions, dimensions ofanalysis, and methodologies.
Chapter Three Research Method .......... 34
3.1 Research Questions........ 34
3.2 Subjects........ 35
3A Data Collection and Analysis Procedure........ 38
Chapter Four Results and Discussion........ 40
4.1 Results and Discussion for Research Question One........ 40
4.1.1 Results for Research Question One ........42
4.1.2 Discussion for Research Question One........ 43
4.2 Results and Discussion for Research Question Two........ 45
4.3 Results and Discussion for Research Question Three........47
Chapter Five Conclusion ........50
5.1 Major Findings........ 50
5.3 Limitations and Prospects for Future Study........ 55
Chapter FourResults and Discussion
4.1 Results and Discussion for Research Question One
The first research question investigated the elements that influence the use ofeffective classroom discourse from the aspects of teaching belief，methods to deal withstudents' questions and errors, the selection of class activities, learning efficacyexpected by teachers and learning strategies. Furthermore, the five aspects are embodiedin different questions. Combined the interview questions for teachers and questionnairefor students, table 4.1.1 shows the approval percentage of each element in the total sum.According to the analysis of the result of interview to teachers，questionnaire forstudents and analysis of scaffolding skills cohesively, the first five factors are students'comprehension to knowledge, difficulty of activities, students' vocabulary, difficulty ofclass type and difficulty of learning contents. Both the interview questions for teachersand questionnaire for students contains the above five factors, though they are presentedin different questions. Combined the results of interview questions and questionnairetogether, the result is presented as follows:
From the analysis and discussion for each research question，the present thesisreaches the following major findings about the status quo of scaffolding used inclassroom discourse and findings about the classroom discourse in junior high school:
1. Most of the teachers' classroom discourse is largely determined by the difficultyof learning content, the difficulty of class activities，students' vocabulary and thestudent's reaction to their teaching.
2. At present, teachers' scaffolding is not effective enough in helping students'learning. Meanwhile，it does not widely applied in junior high school
3. Teachers have some scaffolding strategies in their teaching，though they are notaware of it, such as bridging, modeling，building schema and so on.
4. Students can provide their peers different opinions which are scaffolding as wellfrom the cognition level.
5. Teachers are aware of inducting students to leam language knowledge andconstruct the learning strategies, but they are not very clear about the appropriateinduction ways.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research Background
In modern information-based society, Multimedia-assisted Instruction (MAI) hasbeen recognized and greatly supported by many governments all over the world.Presently, the where MAI has well developed include U.S., Britain, France,Japan and Hong Kong, China. Compared with other countries, the MAI in China startsvery late but has achieved relatively rapid development and remarkableaccomplishments so far (Lin Zhihui, 2011). With the rapid development of informationtechnology with the multimedia technology and network technology as the cores, a deepreform has taken place in the field of education and instruction.At present, most researchers widely recognize the idea that MAI is conducive tostudents’ learning. In addition, many of researchers also advocate combining MAI andtraditional instruction. In a word, the development momentum for themultimedia-assisted English teaching in junior middle school in our country is good. HeKekang (2009) argues that the integration of education technology and curriculum is toeffectively combine the education technology and discipline teaching together for thepurpose of creating a new-type teaching means that can realize the principal position ofstudents when playing the leading role of teachers and can give full play to theenthusiasm and intuitiveness of students in order to change the traditionalteacher-centered classroom teaching structure, make the students be no longer passivelearners and cultivate their abilities of innovation and practice(He Kekang,2009:18-21).Therefore, we can see that MAI place an emphasis on students’ position of main part inclass, properly adopting the opinion that multimedia-assisted English teaching in juniormiddle school is helpful to change the traditional teacher-centered classroom teachingstructure.
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Research
Currently, it is very common and also in accordance with the developmentdirection of education reform and requirements of the new curriculum standards to useMAI system. What’s more, the researches on MAI are an important research directionof the academia and obtain a number of important research results. However, there arestill many problems embed in the current MAI, especially some on the multimediacourseware application. This paper tries to start from the application of multimediacourseware, mainly including the courseware sources, making and the problems duringthe process of using, so as to put forward some suggestions on improving the effectiveness of multimedia assisted English teaching.As for the significance of the research, this paper present four points to illustrate it. With the development of information-based society, the popularity andimprovement of citizens’ English levels and English communicative abilities havebecome the social requirements for education and with the background; the newcurriculum standard arises at the historic moment. The New English CurriculumStandard For Junior Middle School (2011)requires that teachers should make the bestuse of modern education technology, explore English teaching resources, broaden thestudents’ learning channels, perfect students’ learning ways and improve the teachingeffects.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Theoretical Studies
Scholars have presented all kinds of different definitions of multimedia, but no onewas accepted universally. Ma Junbo(2004)consider that Multi-media is a new-typeinformation processing system and combine the function of computer interactive controlwith audio-visual information communication. The information symbols includepictures, texts, videos, audios, animation and so on and it has more diverse ways ofpresentation, namely it can not only virtually perform some abstract concepts andprinciples with some words and animation, but also perform news, current affairs andother things in a way of sound and image. He Gaoda (2007) believes that multimedia isthe interactive system based on computers. Different media information likeaudio ,video, images, graphs ,data and texts can be manufactured at one time andlogically connected（He Gaoda 2007:9-18）. Multimedia courseware refers to a set of assisted instruction system made out byteachers or multimedia production personnel according to the content of the scriptdesign, which is suitable for teaching and learning and also contains a large amount ofmultimedia information (Sun Hanqun, 2001). Specifically speaking, it is the tool thatteachers use to assist their teaching and refers to various kinds of elaborate multimediaapplication software product that according to their own ideas, creating personnel firstclassifies and organizes all the information in general, then integrates some multimediamaterials such as words, graphics, images, sound, animation, videos and others in termsof time and space, and finally mixes them together and endows them with interactivecharacteristic.
2.2 Empirical studies
In recent years, the countries all over the world attach great importance to theresearch and implementation of computer assisted teaching and learning. MAI is widelyused throughout the world and while obtaining many profits, it is also faced with manyproblems due to improper use such as how the connection between the multimediaassisted instruction and students’ learning achievement is, blind use of MAI may lead toinefficient teaching and other problems. But there are also a lot of education researchers and practitioners believing that through good operation and coordination, the problemsexisting in MAI can be reduced to the lowest.Then, many scholars about the MAI emerge, among whom the famous Americanpsychologist Meyer has made outstanding contributions to the application research ofMAI and he published the paper Multimedia Learning: Whether We Put Forward theRight Questions in 1997, which caught much attention from the society. From then on,some research activities related to MAI by many educational experts, psychologists,computer technicians and other persons have been carried out from all aspects. Somescholars focus on the aspect that MAI can improve the students’ certain language skillssuch as listening (Brett, 1997) and writing (Jane & Cynthia, 1995.)
Chapter Three Research Methodology........ 18
3.1 The Objectives of the Study ........ 18
3.2 Research Questions ....... 18
3.3 Participants ............. 18
3.4 Instruments ............. 19
3.5 Data Collection .............. 20
Chapter Four Results and Discussion.......... 22
4.1 The Attitudes of Teachers and Students towards the Multimedia........ 22
4.2 The Status Quo of Teachers Making Multimedia Courseware..... 24
4.3 The Status Quo of Teachers Using Multimedia Courseware........ 31
Chapter Five Refection on Multimedia Courseware Applied to English....... 41
5.1 The Advantages of Multimedia Courseware Assisted English Teaching .......... 41
5.2 The Existing Problems and Suggestions of Multimedia ......... 44
Chapter Five Refection on Multimedia Courseware Applied to English Teaching in Junior Middle School
Teaching reflection is that in the classroom teaching practice, teachers reflect,make a diagnosis on and correct their own behavior and performance so as to improveteaching effectiveness. Wallance (1998) defines the teachers’ development process asa process that the constant circulation of teaching practice and reflection and points outthat the teachers’ development and growth is the inevitable result of the teachingresearch and reflection. Only when teachers learn to conduct regular reflections abouttheir teaching process, finding out, analyzing and solving problems, can they effectivelyparticipate in education and promote students’ and their own development. According tothe concept and basic steps of teaching reflection, a research reflection will be statedin this chapter from the advantages and existing problems of the application ofmultimedia courseware, for the purpose finding out the problems by analyzing the dataand proposing some suggestions according to the relevance theories and interviewrecords. Foreign language teaching and practice can prove that the quantity and quality ofthe language input plays an important role in foreign language teaching effects (Krashen,1981). The multimedia courseware based on the multimedia technology integrates voice,video, text, and images into one, so the multimedia teaching can enable students to get awide range of language input and carry out effective language output. Therefore, themultimedia courseware assisted instruction has its incomparable advantage in foreignlanguage teaching.
The purpose of the survey is to obtain the first-hand data on the present situation ofmultimedia courseware applied in English teaching of Junior middle school, firstly, theauthor analyze the present situation according to the questionnaires and interviews, thenfinding out the advantages and disadvantages, placing a great emphasis on the reflectionon the existing problems in the application of the multimedia courseware and exploringthe reasonable suggestions. This chapter will make a brief summary according to theinvestigation and the reflection. And all of the major findings are based on the researchquestions. Multimedia technologies provide a different perspective for English teachers’teaching and students’ English learning. And the multimedia courseware assistedteaching model has become an important model of English teaching in Junior middleschool and courseware has become an important tool in English teaching of juniormiddle school. English teachers have realized the importance of both multimediaassisted instruction and multimedia courseware. Besides, it can be seen through thequestionnaire that students have greater interest in multimedia courseware assistedteaching. As a whole, most of the teachers and students have a positive attitude towardsmultimedia courseware assisted teaching.
1 引 言
在国内外的现有文献中,对“城乡结合部”的界定方式不一，基于本文研究的问题和对象，对“城乡结合部”做简要界定。城乡结合部,英文通常为 rural-urban fringe,又称为城乡交错带、城乡过渡带等。国内外研究者从不同的视角来界定，目前尚未形成统一。结合本文研究问题中的两个关键词,“城乡结合部”和“中学英语”,考虑到这一地区中学的形成和生源的特殊性，以及社会、经济方面的影响，本文从地域，经济以及社会等方面来界定城乡结合部。城乡结合部是城市与乡村相结合的地带，位于城市的边缘地带和紧挨城市的农村之间，随着城市规模的的不断扩大和乡村城市化进程加快，由于大量兴建居住小区以及不断加大城镇户口，越来越多的城乡居民涌向这一地带，在这一区域形成了一个典型的地域实体。
Paulson 和 Bruder (1976)认为,学生应该先学习语言的基本知识，包括发音和形式，并将这些语言形式和社交环境有机的结合起来。也就是说，口语教学离不开真实的情境。Swain（1985）根据自己对研究项目中的儿童的观察，结合课堂口语教学，提出了输出假说。Swain 将自己提出的输出假设运用到外语口语教学中，该假说认为 ， 不 管 通 过 口 头 形 式 还 是 书 面 形 式 的 语 言 的 产 出 ， 习 得 都 能 发 生（Swain1993:159)。Swain（1993）指出，输入假设为学生提供了大量的说写机会。但只有说写是不行的，学习者要充分利用各种资源，更好发挥语言综合能力，修正输出，思考如何使输出被理解。Gower(1995)指出，课堂口语教学中，是/否问题对学习者来说比较容易回答，课堂上，可以让口语能力较差的学生回答这类问题来练口语。另外，提问教师应该给学生充足时间思考，利用不同策略，使学生得到可理解的输入。Brown 和 Yule (1983)指出，口语是受到语音影响的零碎的、简短的表达，而书面语是一系列具有条条框框的句法规则的句子组成。语言学家 L. G.Alexander(1998)认为，听先于说，说先于读，读先于写，说的重要性可见一斑。英语口语教学是对语言知识的输入和输出的能力的培养。通过听、读获取信息，在原有信息上获取新信息，形成新内容，最后输出语言，完成交际（Brown、Yule，2000）。杰里米•哈默（Jeremy Harmer，2000)认为，口语教学活动的目的不是讲授某个语言片段，而是语用能力进行讲授。他认为，口语活动能使学生真实地体会到用外语交流的感觉，还能使教师得到来自学生的信息反馈。口语活动趣味性要强。
3 理论基础 ...........7
3.1 口语教学法主要流派 .... 7
3.2 二语习得理论 ........ 8
4 问卷调查及其分析 .....10
4.1 问卷设计 .............. 10
4.2 数据统计及分析 .......... 10
4.3 存在的主要问题 .......... 16
5 相关的解决对策 .........20
5.1 建立有效的口语测试机制 ......... 20
5.2 提高教师专业素质 ...... 21
5.3 建立学生说的自信心 .......... 22
5.4 做好中小学英语口语教学衔接 .......... 23
5.5 加强学生基本功训练 .......... 23
5.6 开展有效的口语课堂活动 .......... 24
5.7 充分运用多媒体进行英语口语教学 .......... 24
随着经济不断地全球化，英语在人类生活的各个领域中占据了重要地位，英语的重要性不言而喻。中国作为最大的发展中国家，改革开放以来，我国对英语教学也越来越重视，英语教学也取得了明显的成效，但与时代发展差距仍然较大，因此，英语课程改革迫在眉睫。教育部 2011 年新颁发的《英语课程标准》，对英语教学提出了新的要求，要求英语教学不能一味地重视语法和词汇等书面知识，应该将培养学生语言交际能力作为英语教学的重点之一，从学生的兴趣出发，从学生的认知水平出发，发展学生的英语综合能力等等。不同地区英语教学情况存在差异，笔者所在的城市位于中国内陆西南部，英语教学情况并不十分乐观。特别是城乡结合部的英语教学存在着比较突出的问题，例如，对口语教学不够重视，教学内容无法满足学生整体接受水平等。出现以上问题的主要原因：一是城乡结合部地理位置的特殊性，二是学生生源差异性较大。笔者对位于城乡结合部的重庆市大路中学进行了调研，了解到大路中学初中口语教学存在的主要问题，并对这些问题一一进行分析，并结合克拉申的输入理论，Swain 的输出理论，以及交际法、任务教学法等教学理论，针对这些问题，主要从教师的专业素质，英语口语测试方法、教材的选择以及小学至中学英语口语教学的衔接等方面来进行思考、分析，提出了相应的解决英语口语教学中主要问题的对策。由于笔者学识疏浅，研究方法比较单一，研究样本比较小，对研究结果分析得还不够深入透彻，所以，本文存在一定的局限性。对城乡结合部的特点还把握的不够到位，对学生的心理特点也没有深入了解，问卷调查的设计还不够全面。希望后续的研究能够在这些方面多下些功夫。
十八届三中全会提出“推行初中学业水平考试和综合素质评价。推行普通高校基于统一高考和初中学业水平考试成绩的综合评价多元录取机制。”因为现行初中的评价制度大多以终结性评价为主，忽视学生在各个学习时期的学习状况和努力程度；缺乏对学生进行鼓励性的积极评价；违背新课程标准提倡的“注重考查学生综合运用语言的能力”；评价的钢性化明显，评价标准和评价方法的单一（刘岩，2005）。以单元测验、期中考试和期末考试为主的终结性评价可以在一定程度上反映学生的英语学习水平但因为考试所抽取的考卷样本有限；某些学生心理素质较差或者由于身体方面的客观原因导致发挥失常，这就造成了考试成绩的偶然性。所以仅凭终结性考试所反映出来的卷面分数不足以全面衡量学生的英语学习水平和学习状况。浙江省英语中考改革委员会提出：从 2015 年开始，浙江省各市区的英语中考，将以语法填空题这种新题型取代单项选择题。语法填空题的文本不再设置 ABCD选项，学生只能凭英语语感和对语篇的理解填空。由此看出中考英语改革更加侧重对学生英语语感和语篇能力的考察，而学生语感和语篇能力的培养离不开朗读，朗读的最大好处是可以练习发音、培养语感（陈颖，2012）。当下的初中英语教学中，学生缺乏科学的朗读教学指导和朗读训练，造成了学生“开口难，难开口”的现状，而强调流利度将有利于语言产出以获得更高的流利度（曾文雄等，2002）。
由上述初中英语的课程评价现状和中学的朗读实际情况可知，课程评价改革迫在眉睫。根据 2001 年《国家基础教育课程改革纲要》精神，义务教育要力争建构能够促进学生全面发展的评价体系，即形成性和终结性相结合的评价体系。终结性评价与新课程标准倡导的“以学生为中心”的理念相违背，而形成性评价改变了学生被动接受评价的局面。形成性评价提倡学生不仅是学习的主体而且是评价的主体。评价的主体地位并不是把评论的一切权利交给学生，而是帮助学生明确朗读和评价的意义，使学生参与评价的同时接受教育，学会评价。通过采用形成性评价，学生主动参与英语朗读学习，在朗读过程中采用多元评价方式，注重对学生日常的课堂朗读流利情况、朗读活动的参与度、小组成员的交流合作情况、学生课后朗读作业的完成情况、朗读测试所取得成绩以及在朗读过程中所表现出的情感态度、朗读策略等方面进行持续性量化、监控和记录，形成一个既重视结果又注重过程的评价体系。唯有形成性评价与终结性评价相结合才能达到对学生的学习过程和学习结果的整体性评价。教育评价的意义在于它不仅能够提供精准的数据信息，更在于人们对这些信息的解读和对后续教学行为的调整。事实证明，教师通过朗读课上观察和记录学生朗读流利性的进步和朗读困难，将信息及时反馈给学生，能引导学生积极参与到评价中来。学生参与评价自己的朗读情况并积极有效地调控自己的朗读过程，可以获得朗读成就感。在朗读教学中，通过自评、互评和教师评价等量表评价方式，学生及时调整朗读策略，增强英语学习的自信心；量表评价过程也是教师教学的积极反馈过程，教师及时发现学生的学习问题并调整教学设计和教学策略。
早在 20 世纪 30 年代，罗斯福“新政计划”使教育的社会效益问题日益凸显，工厂倒闭，大批青年涌向中学，而这一大批青年的需求与原来仅为进入大学而设置的中学课程之间产生了不可调和的矛盾。为符合社会对人才的需求，教学评价之父、大学教授泰勒被推举进行课程和评价研究。直至 1940 年在其著作《科学管理原则》中，他第一次提出教育评价的概念即评定理想的目标已达到的程度。他认为，评价的过程实际上就是设立一个明确的教学计划和教学课程，通过这一形式来实现初定的教学目标的过程（陈玉琨，1999）。20 世纪 50 年代，在泰勒理论的基础上，布鲁姆（B. S. Bloom，1981）对教育目标进行了明确的分类。1963 年，克龙巴赫发表《通过评价改进课程》，而克里斯芬 1967 年发表了《评价方法论》。在质疑先前的评价理论和方法的同时，他们也通过反复实验，提出更为系统科学的理论和方法。在实际教学工作中，除了达成预期制定的教学目标，还会附加生产出预期之外的教学效果，这些非预期的教学效果也必须给予评价；除此之外，评价者的注意力不能仅放在教育结果上，更应指向教育过程。在我们的日常语言教学中，评价既可以指评价活动过程，也可以指评价结果。(Bloom，1976)指出评价就是对一定的想法、方法和材料等做出价值的判断过程。它是一个运用标准对事实的准确性、时效性、经济性以及满意程度等方面进行评估的过程。而国际上著名形成性评价的专家 P. Black 和 D. William 认为：广义的评价包括教师和学生进行的所有能够收集学习信息的活动并用以诊断性地调节教与学（Black，William，1998）。国外也有人称其为课堂评估（classroom evaluation 或 classroom-basedevaluation）、课堂评价（classroom assessment）、还有人称为学习评价（assessment forlearning），但使用最多的还是形成性评价（formative assessment）（郭茜，杨志强，2003）。
国外最早期研究朗读和朗读流利性的研究者从朗读行为角度确定了阅读流畅性包括准确性和自动化。Meyer 和 Felto 将朗读流畅性定义为：朗读者在朗读书面材料时，能自动、准确解码、加工单词、词组和语块的能力。后来 Crookes G. &Schmidt R.表示各级各类学校应把发展英语作为第二语言的同学的朗读流利性列为今后的主要研究对象，因为就现实来说，我们对朗读以及朗读流利性的时间投入还不够，对朗读流利度的科学系统研究还有待加强。1979 年，Fillore 区分了本族人流利使用英语为母语的三种能力，这三种能力分类也适用以英语为第二语言的人的朗读流利性分类：即是在交际活动中，说话人用连贯话语填补空白时间的能力；在实践交际活动中，说话人自主驾驭话题（topic）的能力；创造性地使用语言的能力。1982 年，英国英语语言学博士 Skehan 根据个人的话语流利程度把朗读流利性分为三类：(1)话语流利者，即是大脑中的知识已经转化为自动话的典范；(2)话语中度流利者即是说话人过度运用人际、资源等策略，对实际的交际行为产生了某些影响；(3)话语不流利者, 即说话人在交际过程中，尝试更加复杂、精准的话语。流利读者能够做到停顿、断句朗读，而不流利读者只会逐字阅读。（Allington，1983）1984 年，Faerchetal 在 Skehan 已有的研究基础上，根据自己的实地研究调查，对三类流利性进行了详细的区分:发音流利性、词汇流利性、句法流利性。1987 年，Saiavaara 提出流利性包含语言的可接受性和言语的流畅连贯性。1999 年，我国学者张文忠在国内外专家的研究基础上，经过进一步分析性研究,提出英语作为第二语言，其朗读语流利性应包括: 朗读的流畅连续性, 朗读的连贯性和朗读时所使用的言语的可接受性。2002 年，Ray 的研究表明语块是影响朗读流利性的重要因素。语块是一种以组块形式储存在记忆中，使用时大脑自动生成，直接提取，无需任何的语法分析，因而是否是以语块形式提取、分析信息决定了个人的朗读流畅性。
3.1 多元智力理论的评价观 ............ 8
3.2 建构主义的评价观 ............. 8
4.1 研究设计 ............. 10
4.1.1 研究问题 ........ 10
4.1.2 研究对象 ........ 10
4.1.3 研究工具 ........ 10
4.2 研究过程 ............. 10
4.3 研究结果和数据分析 .............. 19
5.1 研究结论 ............. 25
5.2 研究建议 ............. 25
5.3 研究不足 ............. 26
本课题的研究对象是来自浙江省海盐县博才实验中学的八年级学生。八年级七班为实验班，共 37 人；八年级二班为对照班，共 39 人。两班的英语朗读水平相当，并且他们的英语老师为同一个人。对照班和实验班同学的上课内容和上课方式相同，只是对实验班的朗读评价方式做改变。英语朗读教学中，实验班将使用形成性评价，而对照班依旧遵循传统的终结性评价方法。
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Background of the Study
Almost everyone likes listening to or singing songs no matter how old he is orwhere he is from. It is an effective and direct way to express your emotion throughsongs. They are composed by different people from different countries in daily lifeand work. As crystallization of human wisdom, they reflect different culture andcustom of the various countries and nationalities in the world. Therefore, it is animportant way for us to know about the culture and custom of the other countries andnationalities.In order to make the foreign songs understood by people, the translation of foreignlyric becomes necessary because of the language barrier. According to QianRenkang(2002), the translation of foreign lyric in China can be traced back to the endof the Qing Dynasty for instance the song “Marching through Georgia” was translatedand introduced into China in 1908. After the May Fourth Movement, massive foreignculture and science are introduced to our country including the foreign songs. A lot offoreign song lyrics were translated into Chinese to satisfy the domestic needs at thattime. Those translated songs include school songs, revolutionary songs, classic songsand religion songs of the foreign counties. The methods used to translate the foreignsongs are various in those days without the guidance of any theory. With theestablishment of new China, the translation of foreign songs experiences a period ofunprecedented prosperity. Both the quantity and quality of the translated songs arebetter than before. The periodicals like Song and Broadcast Music Choice publishednumerous translated works of foreign songs from 1950s to 1960s.
1.2 Significance of the Study
In recent years, as the policy of reformation and opening, China has made greatprogress in cultural exchange with the world in many aspects. Thousands of Englishsongs are spread to China for instance the well-known English song: Yesterday OnceMore. And also, a lot of people like listening to English songs because of theirbeautiful melody and lyrics. As we all know, English songs are a part of the westernculture. Trough them, we are able to know the western music, life, culture and evenhistory. All these things are expressed and contained in the English lyric. The problemis that large part of Chinese people can’t understand the meaning of the originalEnglish lyric. Thus, the translation of the English lyric is important and necessary.Especially the youth in China, they are fond of listening to English songs but theydon’t know the exactly meaning the English songs. As they are the hope of ourcountry, they should know something of the western culture through the lyric not justenjoying the beautiful melody. Translation of the English lyric should help the readersconquer the language barrier and bridge the cultural gap.It has been a long history of the translation of English songs in China. Nowadays, many scholars spend their endeavor in researching the English song translation. Someof them just put forward a few methods about the translation without any theoryguidance. Some of them discuss the lyric of the English song translation under theframework of other translation theories. But in terms of Relevance Theory, almost noone has made research on the translation of the English lyric. Some may study thetranslation of other literary texts like the novel, poem etc. The English songtranslation is a branch of the translation. Because of its special features, it still doesn’thave a systematical research theory and methods.
Chapter Two Overview of English and Chinese Lyrics
2.1 Definition of Song and Song Lyric
Many people listen to songs almost everyday and various songs are played in thestreet. Some shops play songs in order to attract customers. People enjoy songs butfew of them know the definition of songs. Different scholars has differentunderstanding of the song, thus there are several kinds of versions of the definition ofthe song. The song is a short musical work which can generate a special aestheticreaction composed by the interdependence of music and words (Gove, 1976). Anotheris that the song is a kind of music which is expressed through the human voice and asthe carrier of the words. Any music which is able to be sung can be regarded as thesong. That is to say, it is a simple musical composition which is made up of lyric andmelody. (Randel, 2003). In the Encyclopedia Britannica (2000), it describes the songas a voice performed composition and a piece of music which is sung alongsidemusical instruments or without them.
2.2 Characteristics of English Lyric
The characteristics of English lyric will be discussed to make the translator beaware of the unique features of them to make the translation successful. As a particular kind of literature, song lyrics should possess several characteristicswhich are shared with most of them like the other forms of literature. It is very easy tosee that most English songs range from the three to six minutes. Comparing with afilm or soap opera, the time is very limited. But during this short and limited time, songs are supposed to express the whole and complete meaning and image to theaudience. The rhythm and song lyrics are blended together closely to achieve this goal.The melody can vividly and directly present the image and emotion to the audience.That’s to say, when the music starts, the audience is aroused by the melody first.However, the content of the English songs is in the lyrics. The English lyrics can tellthe story and express the true and intended meaning of the English songs. Unlike thefiction which is written as a book, the English lyrics usually have a few sentences. Tosome extent, the lyricists are able to be regarded as the poets. All the poetry is notlong and has concentrated words. Thus English lyrics are the same. Each line of themis short in form and generally doesn’t use complex sentence structure. For example inthe famous English song Yesterday Once More, there is the lyric: When I was young,I’d listen to the radio. It is a simple and narrative sentence just to tell the audience thestory long ago and it is very plain.
Chapter Three Theoretical Framework: Relevance Theory .......23
3.1 Overview of Relevance Theory ..........23
3.1.1 Definition of Relevance......23
3.1.2 Development of Relevance Theory .........24
3.2 Important Concepts of Relevant Theory....25
3.3 Feasibility of Relevance Theory in the E-C Translation of Lyric.....32
Chapter Four Analysis of the E-C Translation of English ........35
4.1 Factors Affecting the Translation of English Lyric ........35
4.2 Principles of English Lyric Translation .....41
4.3 Strategies for English Lyric Translation ....43
Chapter Five Conclusion ...........61
5.1 Major Findings........61
5.2 Research Limitations .....63
5.3 Suggestions for the Further Research........63
Chapter Four Analysis of the E-C Translation of English Lyricin the Light of Relevance Theory
4.1 Factors Affecting the Translation of English Lyric
Language is not only the carrier of information, but also the carrier of culture, soany kind of language carries certain cultural connotation which reflects the thinkingmode, psychology and the value of a nation. The most important goal of translation isto let the people who speak different languages understand and appreciate the cultureof each other. There is no doubt that translation activity plays a vital role in process ofcultural exchange. The E-C translation of English lyric is also a kind of culturalexchange activity. Translation not simply converts the words and sentences from onelanguage into another. What the translator ought to do is that the implied meaning ofEnglish lyrics should be expressed in Chinese which is a cultural activity of recreation.Because of differences in the custom, thinking mode, geographical environment,religious beliefs among different nations, how to properly deal with these culturaldifferences in the practice of translation is rather important. The famous translationtheorist, Nida, points out that being familiar with the different cultural background isvery essential, so the misunderstanding will be avoided in the translated text. Thus,several factors which affect the E-C translation of English lyrics are discussed inthe following part.
The thesis focuses on the study of translation of English lyrics into Chinese underthe guidance of Relevance Theory. Some major findings and research limitations arediscussed in this chapter. Suggestions for the further research will be provided in theend. Based on the Relevance Theory, Gutt puts forward the Relevance TranslationTheory which pays attention to the relationship among the author, the translator andthe target language reader. There are two ostensive-inferential processes in thetranslation process. That’s a breakthrough in the history of translation. It provides thenew theory to guide the translation. As for the English lyric, it is a kind of utterance.In its translation from English to Chinese, the communication process also can beinterpreted by the Relevance Theory. There are two ostensive-inferentialcommunication processes in the translation of the English lyric into Chinese. The roleof the translator is important in both processes. In the first process, the translator actsas the recipient and the author of the English lyric is the communicator. The translatormust try his best to understand the communicative intention of the author from theimplicatures and the explicatures of the original text in order to pass it to the targetlanguage reader. In the second process, the translator plays the role of thecommunicator and the target language reader is the recipient. What the translatorneeds to do in this process is to pass the communicative intention of the author to thereader. In the light of Relevance Theory, because of the different cognitiveenvironment between the author and the target reader, the translator is supposed toprovide enough contextual effect to make the intention of the author manifest to thetarget language reader.
Chapter One Introduction
1.1 Research background
Since the 1970s, the focus of studies has shifted from "how to teach" to "how tolearn". Growing attention of researchers was attracted by the differences betweenlearner's individual ways of learning which were regarded as a crucial aspect in theprocess of foreign language learning. The learners’ learning beliefs, motivations,strategies, attitudes and styles are considered as indispensable factors in carrying outthe effective language instruction. Among the differences between successful andunsuccessful language learners, it was found that the learners’ choices in the languagelearning process will be influenced by the language learning belief. In fact, languagelearning beliefs will affect the proficiency, learning behaviors and learning outcomesof learners (Huang & Tsai, 2003).Horwitz and Wenden are the pioneering researchers who did the initialresearches on language learning beliefs. Horwitz (1985) developed BALLI (“Beliefsabout Language Learning Inventory”) to evaluate these beliefs about languagelearning systematically including five categories: “ the nature of language learning,language learning aptitude, learning and communication strategies, the difficulty oflanguage learning, and motivation”(Horwitz 1985). The BALLI marked the start ofsystematic research on LLB. Horwitz (1988) also pointed out that both previousexperiences and cultural background of language learners are likely to shape andinfluence the learners’ LLB. Wenden (1986, 1987), another important contributor inthe field of LLB, carried out two major researches on LLB. She recognized twelveexplicit and prescriptive language learning beliefs in advanced level class and foundthat learners’ language learning beliefs were consistent with their language learningstrategies in the two researches.
1.2 Significance and purpose of the study
This study can supply the rationale for explaining some typical problems interms of teaching and learning. Learners' language learning beliefs have impact ontheir selection of learning attitude，learning strategies , learning motivation. Thedifferences in language learning beliefs result in varied outcome in learning. Teacherswho have knowledge of LLB can find out some appropriate ways to solve the toughproblems their students encounter in foreign language learning process, to enhancestudents’ learning effectiveness and proficiency and to foster their confidence. It canhelp teachers guide students to take the correct method of learning English, makestudents aware of the dangers of these ideas which are not conducive to languagelearning. Language learning beliefs are assumed to be particularly critical inautonomous approach to language learning, in that they are to some extent indicativeof the learner's readiness for autonomy in learning.（Cotterall，1995）The assessmentof LLB can help teachers foster students’ learning autonomy. Also, LLB mayinfluence the students’ affective states. Therefore, the knowledge of LLB maycontribute to“ a better understanding of student expectations of, commitment to,success in, and satisfaction with their language classes”(Horwitz, 1988). The findingsof the present study may provide a supplement to EFL teaching and learningresearches. In this sense, the study has valuable implications for the languagepedagogy. It could improve the foreign language teaching efficiency, and enrich thebelief research on EFL in Chinese context systematically.
Chapter Two Literature Review
2.1 Definition of language learning belief
Different scholars have different ways of defining LLB. As to beliefs, there arealso various definitions according to different theoretical orientations. In general,“beliefs are a central construct in every discipline which deals with human behaviorand learning”(cited in Pang Jing,2009). A large number of theoretical and empiricalresearches on beliefs are presented in the psychological literature. In cognitivepsychology, learning beliefs are regarded as a crucial part of meta-cognitiveknowledge (Wenden, 1998b). Flavell (1987) views beliefs as a component ofself-knowledge, including the individuals’ understanding about themselves, targetsand needs on language learning. “In social psychology, a prominent view of beliefs isthat they are understandings which arise from an individual's life history andeducational experiences ，and they are the basis for value judgments” (cited in Sakui& Gaies, 1999).There has been no consensus on the definitions of LLB so far. The followingtable lists some different terms and definitions of LLB. According to the terms anddefinitions from Table 2.1, two main observations can been made: First, the languagelearning belief refers to the belief the learner hold about the field of the foreignlanguage learning, including the nature of language and the process of languagelearning; Second, LLB interrelates with the action. Though researchers define beliefsfrom different perspective, there is no doubt that LLB will have an impact on thelanguage leaning behavior and the language achievements, which in turn have aninfluence on their language learning beliefs. All of the definitions reflect the typicalfeatures of beliefs, and the beliefs, consciously or unconsciously, direct learners’opinions and actions related to language learning with their judgment.
2.2 Characteristics of language learning beliefs
In addition to the definition, researchers also studied the characteristics of LLB.Wenden and Gaies summarized some characteristics of LLB respectively. Wenden(1991:35) identified four characteristics of LLB: stable, statable, fallible andinteractive. “Stable” indicates that learners’ beliefs are an everlasting part of learners’acquired knowledge system and stored in the long-term memory, so that they can beexamined. “Statable” implies that LLBs are available to be brought to consciousnessor talked, as they are a kind of meta-cognitive knowledge and they can be a result ofan intentional self-retrospection. “Fallible” refers to that the beliefs of languagelearning are not necessarily accurate and empirically supportable. The nature andapplication of LLB and meta-cognitive knowledge may be mistaken by learners. Thisdemands teachers to counter the learners’ beliefs that have a negative impact onlanguage learning. “Interactive” suggests that LLB can affect the outcome of alanguage learning activity, and the outcome also change the language learning beliefin return. For example, it will influence the choices of the strategies, which impliesthat “the relationship between beliefs and strategy use should be viewed as cyclicalrather than uni-directional” (Yang, 1999). Thus it is necessary to instruct learners tocast away the improper beliefs and develop insightful beliefs to improve the languagelearning. In addition, Gaies (1998) summarized three characteristics in relevance toLLB, that is, beliefs are subjective understanding, which means beliefs are subjectiveand do not reflect external reality completely; beliefs are relatively stable; beliefs areidiosyncratic, which vary from person to person and are unique to individual.Though the characteristics of learners' beliefs identified by some researchers weredemonstrated in some various ways, the main factors overlap. They all agreed thatLLBs are subjective and stable.
Chapter Three Research Methodology .........17
3.1 Research Questions.....17
3.2 Subjects .....17
3.3 Instrument .......18
3.3.1 Questionnaire ....18
3.3.2 English Proficiency Test .....19
3.4 Data Collection and Analysis........19
Chapter Four Results and Discussion .....21
4.1 Overview of language learning beliefs held by non-English majors........21
4.2 Differences in language learning belief between male …….32
4.3 Differences in learning beliefs between high-achievers ……...35
Chapter Five Conclusion and Implications ........42
5.1 Major findings of the study.....42
5.2 Pedagogical implications for English teaching.....43
5.3 Limitations and recommendations for future research .....46
Chapter Five Conclusion and Implications
5.1 Major findings of the study
This research investigated LLB of 243 non-English major students enrolled inScience and Technology College of Jiangxi Normal University. It attempted to enrichthe related research concerning the language learning belief by way of entailing theessential aspects of learner beliefs for this group of students. Based on the dataanalysis, several findings about English learning beliefs held by the students ofindependent college can be summarized as follows.Firstly, these students held relatively positive beliefs about self-management,agreed on the importance of learning strategies for English learning. The positivelanguage learning strategy beliefs held by these learners demonstrates that most of thestudents have employed a wide range of effective language learning strategies.However, they had a relatively weak sense of self-efficacy about learning English. Onthe whole, they had stronger instrumental motivation than integrative motivations. Inaddition, the findings revealed that they didn’t possess clear attitude towardsmother-tongue reliance beliefs which is harmful to the language learning. A largeproportion of students supported that English learning needs a long time. Theyattached much importance to a large number of memorization of vocabulary as well asgrammar.
The study has been undertaken to examine the language learning beliefs of anindependent college students. Nonetheless, the findings may well be challengedbecause of limitations on different aspects of the study.First, the sample size in this study is not large enough. Owing to limited time andefforts, the investigation only involved a small sample of subjects. Meanwhile, thechosen subjects were restricted to one independent college and one grade. The sampleis still not enough to produce a more convincing picture of students' beliefs. It wouldbe useful to ascertain whether these results are representative of other independentcolleges and grades. Accordingly, the future study should expand the samples andfocus on a large scale subjects from other different independent colleges and grades sothat more comprehensive results can be obtained.Secondly, the instrument used in the present research is only a questionnaire.Since learners' beliefs about language learning refers to complex mental activities,only quantitative data is not enough to investigate it and the information gained mightnot be comprehensive. LLB is also a system of meta-cognitive knowledge stored inthe long-term memory, and it cannot be fully covered by only a questionnaire. Besides,the questionnaire can only measure some relatively fixed beliefs. Therefore, futureresearch may combine both of the qualitative and quantitative instruments for wecould provide more accurate information on students’ language learning beliefs andlearn how the beliefs about language learning are formed. It could also increase thereliability and validity of the investigation. Furthermore, other data collection methodsuch as observations, diaries would provide more accurate, rich and comprehensiveinformation.
1.1 Research Background
Teacher leadership has been articulated by Alma Harris and co-authors as ‘theexercise of leadership by teachers regardless of position or designation’ (Frost andHarris, 2003: 482) with a ‘focus upon improving learning’ (Harris and Muijs, 2003: 40)based upon a type of leadership that stems from ‘professional collaboration,development and growth’ (p. 40). Teacher leadership involves the leadership of otherteachers through coaching, mentoring, leading working groups, the leadership ofdevelopmental tasks that are central to improving learning and teaching, and theleadership of pedagogy through the development and modeling of effective forms ofteaching. Darling-Hammond et al. (1995)have emphasized that teacher leaders areopen to new ways of doing things and are modelers of learning with a view toimproving students’ educational experience. Berry and Ginsburg (1990)haveidentified the following three components of the role of what they have termed ‘leadteachers’: 1) mentoring and coaching other teachers; 2) professional development andreview of school practice; and 3) school-level decision making. Teacher leadershiprepresents an enormous potential for the educational system. While the actual system isoften criticized as being too focused on academics and developing selfishness of boththe children and the teachers, the latter focusing only on their work hours and on privatetuition.Transformational leadership is a combination of leadership qualities includingcharisma, individualized consideration, and intellectual stimulation (Bass, 1985).Transformational leaders motivate their followers through inspirational leadership(charisma), work wit employees on an individual level to meet their developmentalneeds (individualized consideration), and stimulate employees to take new approachesand expend more effort when problem solving (intellectual stimulation) (Seltzer & Bass,1990). Transformational leadership is unique compared to other leadership approachesinsofar as it focuses on: aligning followers’ self-interest with those of the group,elevating followers’ concerns for achievement and self actualization, and fosteringautonomy and challenging work (Bass, 1999). In business settings, transformationalleadership has had positive relationships with follower job satisfaction, satisfaction withthe leader, follower motivation, perceived leader effectiveness, follower empowerment,job satisfaction, and affective commitment (Castro, Perinan, & Bueno, 2008).
1.2 Purpose and Significance of the Thesis
The purpose of this research aims to investigate the current situation of teachers’transformational leadership in domestic English classroom and further explore theinfluence of teachers’transformational leadership on students’English achievement.Recently, student perceptions of their instructors’ transformational leadershipqualities have been studied in university settings in western countries. These studieshave reported positive relationships with transformational leadership and students’extraeffort, perceived instructor effectiveness, student satisfaction (Pounder, 2008), and withstudents’ trust in, and respect for, their instructors (Harvey, Royal, & Stout, 2003).Moreover, transformational leadership has been found to be positively associated withcognitive learning, affective learning, student motivation, student communicationsatisfaction, student participation, and perceived instructor credibility (Bolkan &Goodboy, 2009).With transformational leadership in classroom, an opportunity presents itself forteachers to stand up and accompany students in the various spheres of education andbuild, from grass root level, gradually more responsible citizens who in turn willtransmit this improved culture to the next generation. But there is no research on theclassroom transformational teacher leadership at home. Domestic scholars have focusedon the definition and role of the transformational leadership in workplace.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Teacher Leadership
The teacher leadership notion has developed over time and Silva et al. (2000) haveargued that this development comprises three stages or ‘waves’. The first wave confinedteacher leadership within the formal organizational hierarchy and merely placed theconcept close to the teaching function. Therefore, in this wave, the department head wasthe archetypical teacher leader. This was a control model with teacher leaders managingteachers who were viewed as mere implementers of the formers’ decisions (Frymier,1987). The second wave of teacher leadership placed more emphasis on theinstructional dimension of the teaching function but still vested teacher leadership informally created organizational positions such as team leader and curriculum developer.Despite moving the concept out of the realm of the conventional organizationalhierarchy, the second wave separated out leadership from the teaching function and stillemphasized control with curriculum developers and instructional designers creatingprepackaged materials for classroom teachers to implement. This approach has beendescribed as the ‘remote controlling of teachers’(Darling-Hammond, 1998).The third wave and arguably the current view of teacher leadership integrate thenotions of teaching and leadership. It is a process rather than a positional concept andrecognizes that teachers, in the process of carrying out their duties, should be given theopportunity to express their leadership capabilities. This conceptualization of teacherleadership is grounded on professionalism and collegiality and is a label reserved forthose teachers who improve a school’s educational climate by engaging colleagues invarious activities designed to enhance the educational process. Wasley (1991), in Silvaet al. (2000), for instance, views teacher leaders as those who ‘help redesign schools,mentor their colleagues, engage in problem solving at the school level, and provideprofessional growth activities for colleagues’(p. 5).
2.2 Transformational Leadership
The concept of transformational leadership first emerged with the work of Burns(1978: 4) who stated that such a leader focuses on change, therefore transforming otherswithin the organization, and ‘looks for potential motives in followers and seeks tosatisfy higher needs, and engages the full person of the follower’. Bass (1985: 467) laterclaimed that transformative leaders:... convert followers to disciples; they develop followers into leaders. Theyelevate the concerns of followers on Maslow’s need hierarchy from needs for safetyand security to needs for achievement and self actualization, increase theirawareness and consciousness of what is really important, and move them to gobeyond their own self-interest for the good of the larger entities to which theybelong. The transforming leader provides followers with a cause around which theycan rally.According to Bass (1985), the components of transformational leadership are anidealized influence, meaning that leaders behave as a role model and are highlyrespected; inspirational motivation is exhibited in ways that motivate followers andenthuse them, such as: communicating high expectations; providing intellectual stimulation whereby creativity and innovations are stronglyreinforced;
3.1 Research Questions.....16
3.2 Research Subjects.......16
3.3 Research Instruments...........17
3.4 Research Data collection......18
3.4.1 Research Data collection of Questionnaire One ......18
3.4.2 Research Data collection of Questionnaire Two......18
4. Results and Discussion ..... 20
4.1 Results and Discussion of Questionnaire One.........20
4.1.1 Results of Questionnaire One........20
4.1.2 Discussion of Questionnaire One...........23
4.2 Results and Discussion of Questionnaire Two.........26
5.1 Summary of the Study..........33
5.2 Pedagogical Implications.....34
5.3 Limitations of the Present Study and Suggestions for Further Studies........35
4 Results and Discussion
4.1 Results and Discussion of Questionnaire One
According to questionnaire one, participants provided a total of 588 responses,with 119 examples for idealized influence, 124 for inspirational motivation, 131 forindividual consideration, and 214 for intellectual stimulation.After the analysis of the responses from the students, the teachers’ behaviordescription for idealized influence could be mainly concluded into four aspects. Theywere teachers’ expression ability, responsibility, attitude and teaching style. Among allthe 119 examples for idealized influence, the percentages of these four aspects wereshown in the following table: In general, from the data analysis of this survey, it could be concluded that studentsperceived that teachers with idealized influence usually had the following characteristics.First, the teachers had high expression ability with smooth and clear languageexpression. Their languages were well organized and with strong logic so as to completethe teaching task extremely well. Second, the teachers had strong sense of responsibility.They took students seriously and were punctual. They stressed the office hours that theynever be late or leave school early. Third, the idealized influence teachers were amiableand easy of approach. They were always willing to meet students outside of the office.Forth, the idealized influence teachers had a fine sense of humor. They made good useof their talent and unique personality to help students progress in their study and shapestudents knowledge and personality.
The current study focused on remedying the oversight by creating quantitative andqualitative measures of teachers’ classroom transformational leadership in the domesticcollege classroom. Results suggested that the teachers’ classroom transformationalleadership had a stable factor structure, high internal reliability, convergent andconcurrent validity. The findings from this small scale investigation demonstrated theEnglish teachers in Hubei University of Technology who were identified as seekingchange in their practice typically were not only aware of the most appropriate styles ofleadership, but were also able to show evidence of success in many instances ofbecoming transformational leaders.This research supported the overall contention that English teachers’transformational leadership in classroom had a positive influence students’ Englishachievement. It is noteworthy that this model accounted for a considerable amount ofvariance. These findings were consistent with Frymier and Houser’s (2000) results, aswell as Mottet, Frymier, and Beebe’s (2006) proposition that students have bothrhetorical and relational needs. Thus, it appears instructors should be attentive to theirtransformational leadership in the classroom.This study had value for those who trained teachers. Many teacher trainingprograms focused on procedural issues (e.g., Buerkel-Rothfuss & Gray, 1992);however, our results suggested that it might be extremely helpful for new teachers tounderstand the importance of the transformational leadership in the classroom or waysto enhance relational skills.
1.1 Background of the Study
In some ways, English is a language of prepositions. What is more, the prepositions arevery difficult to learn exactly and use properly. In the language of English, polysemy,multi-function and high frequency characterize the propositions. Because of thesecharacteristics, the foreign learners regard the English prepositions as the most difficult partof the English learning. From our own experiences in learning and teaching English, the mostcommon mistake that Chinese EFL learners often make refers to the wrong use ofprepositions up to the present moment. For instance, learners usually make sentences like thefollowing ones: 1) She was lying in the bed. 2) Put it down on the table. 3) They arrived lateat the airport. 4) They attended the dinner in(at) the chairman’s invitation. 5) On(In)attempting to save the child from the drowning, she nearly lost her life own life. 6) Sales areup at(on) last year. The uses of in, on and at in the first three sentences are error-less, whilethe uses of the English prepositions in the last three sentences are not in line with the usualpractice. Seemingly, non-native speakers of English can readily grasp some easier uses ofprepositions but consider that the other uses are more difficult for them.Though many linguists have put forward the linguistic interpretations and solutions toresolve these problems in English preposition learning, they are not able to clear up all thedoubtful points and answer all the questions about the proper use of the English prepositions.As the cognitive linguistics came into being since 1970s, it has drew a lot of attention in thelinguistic field. The cognitive linguistics has played an extremely important role. It alsoopened the possibility of new perspectives in studying many linguistic phenomena, includingphonology, semantics and syntax. Thanks to the comprehensive theories, the semantics ofEnglish prepositions can be analyzed from a different angle.
1.2 Significance of the Study
Several undergraduate students and postgraduate students, who had various ofexperiences of English teaching, have found that a large amount of Chinese students run intodifficulties with learning the distinct meanings of English prepositions. Some scholars did aresearch to study what kind of words would be used wrongly by Chinese EFL learners, andthe test definitely showed that the prepositions came out on top. Many students consider theEnglish prepositions to be the relatively difficult words among all the vocabulary and there isa high possibility that they might make errors in the use of prepositions.How is it that Chinese EFL learners have so many difficulties in learning and using theEnglish prepositions? Without doubt, several potential factors may influence and even restrictthe learning of English prepositions. The research attempts to discover some of the factors andsome powerful explanations to the wrong use of English prepositions will be offered bystudying different semantic senses of in, on and at in the principled polysemy network. Theresults of the study may well provide some effective suggestions for the English prepositionslearning and teaching.
2. Literature Review and Theoretical Framework
2.1 Literature Review
On the basis of the previous studies, the present study can be carried out more smoothly.Therefore, the literature review is absolutely necessary. This part consists of the early studiesof the English grammatical system, the views on preposition semantics and the cognitivelinguistic studies on second language acquisition of English prepositions. Most of the studies, which are mainly in the grammatical field, are centered on thepositions in the sentence and functions of the prepositions. From this point of view, Englishprepositions serve as functional or grammatical words.The representatives of this view, such as Harris(1951) and Quirk(1986), regard theprepositions as structural or functional words in their writings. They expressed their ideas thatprepositions whose membership is fixed and limited are functional, grammatical andclosed-class words. They are also known as the ones which hardly change through time.Besides, Fillmore(1968, 1969) showed his opinion in the framework of Case Grammar, whichis a type of generative grammar developed in the late 1960s. He claimed that the mainfunction of the preposition is to show its case relations specified by the case frame of a verb.For example, in is to indicate the location, towards is to show the direction, on is to expressthe time, etc. In addition, there is some similar opinion in functional linguistics. For instance,Halliday(1994:142) put forward the idea that the function of prepositions bears a similarity toverbs in English sentences.
2.2 Theoretical Framework
The research is produced within the framework of cognitive linguistics. CL is the studyof the mind through language and the study of language as a cognitive function. It is aboutstudies on the relationship between language and cognition processing in the human brain.As is well-known, there are three important points of view in the field of cognitivelinguistics, namely the experiential one, the prominence one and the attentional one. The firstview is not on the basis of the theoretical consideration, but a more practical method wasadopted. The prominence view assumes that the information selection, which the speakerwould like to express, depends on the different degrees of prominence that is carried by thefactors concerned in the context. The attentional one claims that the actual expression canmirror the focus of one’s attention(Ungerer F.And Schmid H.J., 1996: F38).Besides, Croft and Cruse(2004: 1) came up with three main hypotheses advocated byCL. 1) Language is not an autonomous cognitive faculty. 2) Grammar is conceptualization. 3)Knowledge of language emerges from language use. The three hypotheses disagree with thepioneering cognitive linguistic conceptions. The first one takes a stand against the stancewidely known within the field of generative grammar that there is a unique and autonomouscognitive faculty in our mind. The second hypothesis disobeyed the truth-conditionalsemantics, where a semantic metalanguage is estimated in the light of truth and falsity relatedto the world. The last one of the cognitive linguistic approach refers to that knowledge oflanguage emerges from language use. It takes the stand against simplified tendencies ingenerative grammar as well as truth-conditional semantics. Nevertheless, the third hypothesisis regarded to have some similarities to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, in which the languageand cognition interact on each other and both root in the experiences and environments of thespeakers.
3. Research Methodology....23
3.1 Research Questions.......23
3.2 Research Subjects.........23
3.3 Instruments and Materials....24
3.4 Research Procedures.....33
4. Results and Discussion..........35
4.1 Results and discussion of CTPS.........35
4.2 Results and Discussion of SCT..........49
4.3 Possible Reasons for the Difficulty with PrepositionAcquisition......54
5.1 Major Findings.......59
5.2 Pedagogical Implications.....60
5.3 Limitations of the Study.......61
5.4 Suggestions for the Future Study.......62
4. Results and Discussion
4.1 Results and discussion of CTPS
The CTPS was aimed at answering the questions: 1) What are the primary senses of in,on and at for the Chinese EFL learners in the principled polysemy networks? 2) Whatmethods do the Chinese EFL learners use to classify the distinct senses of in, on and at in theprincipled polysemy networks? 3) Are the semantic classifications of the the threeprepositions from the different-level learners the same? The results of CTPS for in, on and atof the different-level groups will be presented below respectively. In this part, question 1 is designed to work out. As is shown in Table 4.1, the means ofrating scores on different senses of in by all the subjects are listed in the descending order.The proto-sense of in would be represented by the one which ranks at the top of Table 4.1,while the ones rank at the bottom would be considered as the peripheral senses. Naturally, therest ones between the primary sense and the peripheral sense are the intermediate senses. Inaddition, the semantic senses ought to be classified into different groups as the results ofhomogeneous subsets test by SPSS which are displayed in Table 4.2.
In this part, firstly the major findings will be represented, and three pedagogicalimplications will be talked about, and then some limitations of the study will be pointed out,finally several suggestions for the future study will be given. The study has attempted to work out what are the primary senses of in, on and at for theChinese EFL learners in the principled polysemy networks and what methods the ChineseEFL learners use to classify the different senses of in, on and at in the principled polysemynetworks. The results indicate that in the principled polysemy networks of in for Chinese EFLlearners, the primary sense is [at a point]; the primary sense of on is [at or near a point]; theprimary sense of at is [at a point]. As for the classification of the distinct senses in theprincipled polysemy network of in by Chinese EFL learners is that: 1) [at a point] is theprimary sense, 2) [while doing]is the peripheral sense, 3) the remaining members are theintermediate ones; regarding the classification of the distinct senses in the principledpolysemy network of on by Chinese EFL learners is that: 1) [at or near a point] is the primarysense, 2) [compared with] and [affected by] are the peripheral senses, 3) the rest ones are theintermediate senses; in reference to the classification of the distinct senses in the principledpolysemy network of at is that: 1) [at a point] is the primary sense, 2) [because of] and [inresponse to] are the peripheral senses, 3) the rest of the semantic senses are the intermediateones.