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            来源: www.zsalud.com 作者:lgg 发布时间:2017-02-14 论文字数:38786字
            论文编号: sb2017021318520416245 论文语言:中文 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
            Chapter 1 Introduction 
            1.1  Research background and meaning of the subject 
            Infrastructure  plays  great  role  in  modern  economy  developing  process.  Without providing  better  infrastructural  conditions  to  companies  there  is  no  possibility  to increase economic level of country in general. Infrastructure is necessary asset for all of nations. In  case  of  globalization  all  world  became  a  global  village  with  different  links between countries. Without access to global market the countries developing process is impossible.  Therefore  cross  border  infrastructure  takes  the  main  place  in  extension relationships  between  parties  of  global  village.  Good  cross  border  infrastructure  is critical for the long term economic development of a country. Key infrastructure assets create additional economic benefits by supporting urbanization and industrial growth, providing better access to adjoining countries and stronger trade links between them and, as a result, mutual development . During bachelor studying we made a careful research of cross border infrastructure between  Zabaikalskiy  Kray  (Russian  Federation)  and  Hulunbeier  district  of  Inner Mongolia  Autonomous Region  (People‘s Republic of  China). Research  was based  on comparative analyses  of  four  main  check  points:  Zabaikalsk-Manzhouli (railway and road check point),  Stary Curuhaituiskiyi-Heishantou road  check  point, Olochi-Shiwei road check point.  
            1.2  Theoretical framework 
            The main purpose of this literature review was to explore the literature related to the  infrastructure  investment‘s  sphere.  Part  of  the  purpose  of  this  paper  was  to  gain answers to the research questions posed in the introduction. In order to meet this goal we made analyses of related literature and provide clear picture of the research question.  Most of infrastructure projects are implemented by private-public partnership; this project  is  not  an  exception.  In  that  case  we  should  evaluate  not  only  economic feasibility  of  project  but  also  take  into  consideration  other  indirect  effects.  Kolomak (2011) suppose the  final  decision about investment  plan is difficult  to  make, because there is many kinds of regional and intersectional effects. Transport infrastructure has got carefully analyses in those cases, including not only feasibility analyses, but also impacts  of  projects  which  involve  transportation.  This  kind  of  researches  have  been published  by  Gutierrez  J.and  Garcia  Palomares  J.(2008),  Lopez  and  Gomez  (2008), Moreno  (2003)  Henckel  and  Mc Kibbin  (2010).  All  of  these  researches  based  on indicators  which  effect  economic  growth  in  regional  scale.  They  show  us  positive consequences  of  building  public infrastructure under the  different  conditions. On the other hand, as Monzon shows (2008), the impacts of infrastructure investment are not undertake only by one region, where infrastructure is applied, but also has influence on their neighbor areas by spatial effect, which was  described by P. Moran. Spillovers of transport  infrastructure  are  clearly  understanding  because  of  transport  infrastructure network.  In  fact,  the  benefits  from  improvement  of  infrastructure  in  one  region  are distributed  over  by  network  to  other  regions,  in  our  case  to  both  countries  border regions and its neighbors. 
            Chapter 2 Role of infrastructure investment in modern economy 
            2.1 Economic aspects of infrastructure investment in national development
            There  are  many  publications  which  analyze  the  infrastructure  and  investment separately  or  together  and  this  paper  is  not  an  exception.  In  order  to  provide  clear understanding of current problem with infrastructure investment, firstly, we need to deal with concept of infrastructure. The first thing which that needs to said is that concept ― Infrastructure is really difficult  to  define,  because  of  rather  wide  meaning  of  this  term.  Traditionally infrastructure  have  been  considered  as  complex  of  different  fields,  companies  and organizations, their  main role  is  to  create  conditions  for  effective  manufacturing and goods  turnover,  and  at  the  same  time  for  improving  life  standard  of  people. Infrastructure includes roads, transport, communications, water and energy supply and so on. There are three types of national economic infrastructure: Production infrastructure; ?  Social infrastructure; Market infrastructure. Production infrastructure is complex of national economic units; the main purpose of  their  activity  is  to  provide  efficient  performance  of  manufacturing  process. Production  infrastructure  has  some  specific  features:  from  the  one  side,  it  guides  to maintain manufacture process, from another side; it provides reproductive performance  of human recourses. 
            2.2 Cross border infrastructure and regional economic growth: interdependence and interference 
            Transport  plays  very  important  role  in  the  economy  and  generates  many multiple  communications  inside  the  system,  generates  new  processes.  Many  experts have taken steps to create models, which correctly reproduce the impact of transport to the  economy  and  on  the  economic  system  in  general.  The  infrastructure  investment should be considering together with many factors, area of country or region, the level of its development and the development of the economy in general, ecology and others.  There are many studies which concern of the role of transport in country economy, they  are  usually  distinguished  the  following  aspects.  First,  the  development  of  the transport system allows justifying the accessibility of various regions of the country and its resources, productive capacity. Not only to justify but also to plan economic activity of  the  region.  Secondly,  the  development  of  the  transport  system  allows  making conclusions on the spatial development of the country, jobs, tourist facilities, location of trade  points.  Third,  the  state  should  affect  the  development  of  the  transport  system through  the  implementation  of  investment  in  infrastructure,  development  of  public transport, traffic management. Transport infrastructure investments are always perceived as an incentive demand for  economic  growth  and  as  one  of  the  form  of  contribution  to  the  economic development of the regions, urban and rural settlements. Investments lead to reduce the transport component in the final price of goods transported between the rural and centre areas, it also plays an important role in reducing economic disparities between regions, increase its the competitive status in terms of accessing to new markets, labor migration, reduce the cost of cargo passing within the framework of external and internal logistics systems. All these points lead to increasing the productivity of region, creation of new competitive advantages. 
            Chapter 3 Current situation of cross border infrastructure in China and Russia.... 33 
            3.1  Analyses of border infrastructural strategy of Russian Federation.......... 33 
            3.2  One belt, one road: the global infrastructural project ..... 41 
            3.3  Level of infrastructure of Tongjiang-Nizhneleninskoye cross border check point............ 51 
            Chapter 4 Estimation of direct effect and spillover analyses of Tongjiang Railway Bridge .... 57 
            4.1  Tongjiang bridge: project description ............ 57 
            4.2  Evaluating primary effects of Sino-Russian railway  bridge construction project on regional development ........... 62
            4.3  Assessment of spillover effect of Sino-Russian railway bridge construction project......... 69 
            Chapter 4 Estimation direct effect and spillover analyses of Tongjiang Railway Bridge 
            4.1  Tongjiang bridge: project description 
            In October 2008 the governments of the Russian Federation and People's Republic of China signed an agreement of the joint construction of a railway bridge across the Amur river  (Heilongjiang)  on the Russian-Chinese  border  near the Nizhneleninskoye city  in  the  Jewish  Autonomous  region  (Russian  Federation)  and  Tongjiang  city  of Heilongjiang province (People's Republic of China). The authorities responsible for the construction of a border bridge are: ? Russian side is the government of the Jewish Autonomous region,  ? China – the People's government of the city of Tongjiang and the Harbin railway administration. There  are  only  three  railways  cross  border  check  points  on  the  China-Russian border  (4  thousand  kilometers):  Zabaikalsk  –  Manzhouli  in  Zabaykalsky  region, Grodekovo – Suifenhe and Makhalino – Hunchun. The Tongjiang railway bridge will allow to increase the efficiency of goods flows. From the Russian side to design the bridge was proposed by Russian construction company  "Institute  Giprostroymost".  The  Chinese  side  on  the  design  of  the  bridge assigned to the Third design Institute of the Tianjin city (China). The design and construction of the bridge can be attributed to innovative project, regardless  of  the  level  of  applied  technical  solutions  and  implemented  inventions. Innovation is not always invention. This is a set of measures aimed at improving the people life standard. The design of the bridge over the border river Amur is associated with innovation: the  project  will improve  life  quality  of  many  people living  on  both sides  of  the  border,  provide  new  opportunities  for  further  development.  In  the documentation there is an innovative technical solution – the unique bridge required a unique approach in construction sphere. 
            In order to conclude our work we want to provide main objectives of each part of research,  which  are  presented.  Transport  system  is  very  important  factor  in  workers concentration, which leads to making efficient centre of productivity. Concentrations of economic activities  lead to  higher  productivity  of  the local territory.  And one of the results  can  be  better  investment  climate,  because  transport  is  potential  factor  for attracting private investment and creating jobs. Infrastructure  projects are one  of the  most risky  ways  of investing,  especially  in cross border infrastructure projects. Risks can be concerned with lack of jurisdiction and higher requirements for coordination. There are also many components such as changes in legal, policy and economic environment, currency risk and others. Russia and China still  have  many  institutional  problems  of  public  private  partnership,  not  sufficient elaboration  of  legislation  system,  lack  of  PPP  realization  experience,  unfavourable investment climate, especially on those infrastructure objects which are located rather far from country centre. In the last part of second chapter we have suggested some ideas in order to improve the conditions to attract private sector in financing. 
            (1) During research process we have discovered that public private partnership will be successful in the project of cross border Railway Bridge. The primary effect includes indexes,  which  explains  aggregate  social-economical  influence.  We  were  not  able  to estimate financial feasibility for private investors, but for government part, the project can be defined as feasible. Social effect is positive, the project will create new jobs, it will  influence  on  the  region‘s  development  in  general.  As  for  budget  efficiency,  the governmental  income  of  the  custom  tariffs  of  the  exporting  and  importing  goods  is significant in comparison to present period. Higher budget efficiency will influence on the development of the country in its turn. The time and transportation costs savings are also one of the main positive effect of bridge construction.
            (2) We should mention the spatial spillover effect of the project. Data refer to the 7 regions: four regions of Russia and three regions of China. Value added as variables are obtained from "Annual statistic report of Russian region‘s economy development" and from Heilongjiang, Jilin provinces and Inner Mongolia statistical bureau. All variables are expressed during time period of 2010-2015. According to the Moran Index, we can see the negative spatial correlation between three regions of Russia and three regions of China.  The  dependence  in  case  of  international  trade  between  regions  is  significant, according to the topic of our research we can make conclusion that the realization of Railway  bridge  construction  and  increasing  turnover  of  Birobidjan  region  and Heilongjiang province will lead to decreasing in some way turnover of its neighboring regions, which will suffer from international trade competition. The one region will not get  influence  –  Blagoveshensk  region,  due  to  its  location  and  its  international  trade ability. 
            The reference (omitted)